Tubing (material)
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A pipe is a tubular section or hollow
cylinder A cylinder (from ) has traditionally been a Solid geometry, three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. In elementary geometry, it is considered a Prism (geometry), prism with a circle as its base. A cylinder ...
, usually but not necessarily of
circular Circular may refer to: * The shape of a circle * Circular (album), ''Circular'' (album), a 2006 album by Spanish singer Vega * Circular letter (disambiguation) ** Flyer (pamphlet), a form of advertisement * Circular reasoning, a type of logical fa ...
cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow —
liquids A liquid is a nearly Compressibility, incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of State of matter#Four fundamental states, the four fund ...
and
gases Gas is one of the four fundamental state of matter, states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma (physics), plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), chemical element, elemental molec ...
(
fluids In physics, a fluid is a liquid, gas, or other material that continuously Deformation (physics), deforms (''flows'') under an applied shear stress, or external force. They have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, are Matter, substances wh ...
), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for
structural A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as ...
applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. In common usage the words ''pipe'' and '' tube'' are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards. While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States. Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a '' hose'' (or hosepipe) is usually portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations. For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are also constructed with the use of tube fittings.


Uses

*
Plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses piping, pipes, valves, piping and plumbing fitting, plumbing fixtures, Storage tank, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. HVAC, Heating and coo ...
*
Tap water Tap water (also known as faucet water, running water, or municipal water) is water supplied through a Tap (valve), tap, a water dispenser valve. In many countries, tap water usually has the quality of drinking water. Tap water is commonly used fo ...
*
Irrigation Irrigation (also referred to as watering) is the practice of applying controlled amounts of water to land to help grow Crop, crops, Landscape plant, landscape plants, and Lawn, lawns. Irrigation has been a key aspect of agriculture for over 5,00 ...
* Pipelines transporting gas or liquid over long distances *
Compressed air Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air is an important medium for transfer of energy in industrial processes, and is used for power tools such as air hammer (fabrication), air hammers ...
systems * Casing for concrete pilings used in construction projects * High-temperature or high-pressure manufacturing processes * The petroleum industry: ** Oil well casing ** Oil refinery equipment * Delivery of fluids, either gaseous or liquid, in a process plant from one point to another point in the process * Delivery of bulk solids, in a food or process plant from one point to another point in the process * The construction of high pressure storage vessels (note that large
pressure vessel A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Construction methods and materials may be chosen to suit the pressure application, and will depend on the size o ...
s are constructed from plate, not pipe owing to their wall thickness and size). Additionally, pipes are used for many purposes that do not involve conveying fluid.
Handrail A handrail is a rail that is designed to be grasped by the hand so as to provide safety or support. In Great Britain, Britain, handrails are referred to as banisters. Handrails are usually used to provide support for body or to hold clothings i ...
s, scaffolding, and support structures are often constructed from structural pipe, especially in an industrial environment.


History

The first known use of pipes was in
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeast Africa situated in the Nile Valley. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100Anno Domini, BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the ...
. The
Pyramid of Sahure The pyramid of Sahure () is a Egyptian pyramids, pyramid complex built in the late 26th to 25th century BC for the Ancient Egypt, Egyptian pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Fifth Dynasty. It introduced a period of pyramid building by ...
, completed around the 25th century BC, included a temple with an elaborate drainage system including more than of copper piping.


Manufacture

There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. Centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process.
Ductile iron pipe Ductile Ductility is a List of materials properties, mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to Drawing (manufacturing), drawing (e.g. into wire). In materials science, ductility is defined by the degree to which ...
s are generally manufactured in such a fashion. ''Seamless'' (SMLS) pipe is formed by drawing a solid
billet A billet is a living-quarters to which a soldier is assigned to sleep. Historically, a billet was a private dwelling that was required to accept the soldier. Soldiers are generally billeted in barracks or garrisons when not on combat duty, alth ...
over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell in a process called rotary piercing. As the manufacturing process does not include any welding, seamless pipes are perceived to be stronger and more reliable. Historically, seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, and was often more available than welded pipe. Advances since the 1970s in materials, process control, and non-destructive testing, allow correctly specified welded pipe to replace seamless in many applications. Welded pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam (usually by
Electric resistance welding Electric resistance welding (ERW) is a welding process where metal parts in contact are permanently joined by heating them with an electric current, melting the metal at the joint. Electric resistance welding is widely used, for example, in manufa ...
("ERW"), or Electric Fusion Welding ("EFW")). The weld flash can be removed from both inner and outer surfaces using a scarfing blade. The weld zone can also be heat-treated to make the seam less visible. Welded pipe often has tighter dimensional tolerances than the seamless type, and can be cheaper to manufacture. There are a number of processes that may be used to produce ERW pipes. Each of these processes leads to coalescence or merging of steel components into pipes. Electric current is passed through the surfaces that have to be welded together; as the components being welded together resist the electric current, heat is generated which forms the weld. Pools of molten metal are formed where the two surfaces are connected as a strong electric current is passed through the metal; these pools of molten metal form the weld that binds the two abutted components. ERW pipes are manufactured from the longitudinal welding of steel. The welding process for ERW pipes is continuous, as opposed to welding of distinct sections at intervals. ERW process uses steel coil as feedstock. The High Frequency Induction Technology (HFI) welding process is used for manufacturing ERW pipes. In this process, the current to weld the pipe is applied by means of an
induction coil An induction coil or "spark coil" (archaism, archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Rühmkorff) is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses from a low-voltage direct current (DC) supply ...
around the tube. HFI is generally considered to be technically superior to “ordinary” ERW when manufacturing pipes for critical applications, such as for usage in the energy sector, in addition to other uses in line pipe applications, as well as for casing and tubing. Large-diameter pipe ( or greater) may be ERW, EFW or Submerged Arc Welded ("SAW") pipe. There are two technologies that can be used to manufacture steel pipes of sizes larger than the steel pipes that can be produced by seamless and ERW processes. The two types of pipes produced through these technologies are longitudinal-submerged arc-welded (LSAW) and spiral-submerged arc-welded (SSAW) pipes. LSAW are made by bending and welding wide steel plates and most commonly used in oil and gas industry applications. Due to their high cost, LSAW pipes are seldom used in lower value non-energy applications such as water pipelines. SSAW pipes are produced by spiral (helicoidal) welding of steel coil and have a cost advantage over LSAW pipes, as the process uses coils rather than steel plates. As such, in applications where spiral-weld is acceptable, SSAW pipes may be preferred over LSAW pipes. Both LSAW pipes and SSAW pipes compete against ERW pipes and seamless pipes in the diameter ranges of 16”-24”. Tubing for flow, either metal or plastic, is generally
extruded Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross section (geometry), cross-sectional profile by pushing material through a Die (manufacturing), die of the desired cross-section. Its two main advantages over other manufacturing pro ...
.


Materials

Pipe is made out of many types of material including
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials made by shaping and then firing an inorganic, nonmetallic material, such as clay, at a high temperature. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, ...
,
glass Glass is a non-Crystallinity, crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent, amorphous solid that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most ...
,
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the Languages of the Unit ...
, many
metal A metal (from ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electrical resistivity and conductivity, e ...
s,
concrete Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse construction aggregate, aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after wa ...
and
plastic Plastics are a wide range of synthetic polymers, synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient. Their Plasticity (physics), plasticity makes it possible for plastics to be Injection moulding, moulded, Extrusion, e ...
. In the past, wood and
lead Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, denser than most common materials. Lead is Mohs scale of mineral hardness#Intermediate ...
(
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
''plumbum'', from which comes the word '
plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses piping, pipes, valves, piping and plumbing fitting, plumbing fixtures, Storage tank, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. HVAC, Heating and coo ...
') were commonly used. Typically metallic piping is made of steel or iron, such as unfinished, black (lacquer) steel,
carbon steel Carbon steel is a steel Steel is an alloy made up of iron with added carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Many other elements may be present or ...
,
stainless steel Stainless steel is an alloy of iron that is resistant to rusting and corrosion. It contains at least 11% chromium and may contain elements such as carbon, other nonmetals and metals to obtain other desired properties. Stainless steel's corros ...
, galvanized steel,
brass Brass is an alloy An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Unlike chemical compounds with metallic bases, an alloy will retain all the properties of a metal in the resulting material, such as electrical ...
, and
ductile iron Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis. While most varieties of cast iron are ...
. Iron based piping is subject to corrosion if used within a highly oxygenated water stream.
Aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) encompasses the Variety (linguistics), varieties of English language, English native to Canada. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, 2016 cens ...
pipe or tubing may be utilized where iron is incompatible with the service fluid or where weight is a concern; aluminum is also used for heat transfer tubing such as in refrigerant systems.
Copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...
tubing is popular for domestic water (potable)
plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses piping, pipes, valves, piping and plumbing fitting, plumbing fixtures, Storage tank, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. HVAC, Heating and coo ...
systems; copper may be used where heat transfer is desirable (i.e. radiators or heat exchangers).
Inconel Inconel is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys. Inconel alloys are oxidation-corrosion resistance, corrosion-resistant materials well suited for service in extreme env ...
, chrome moly, and
titanium Titanium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resista ...
steel alloys are used in high temperature and pressure piping in process and power facilities. When specifying alloys for new processes, the known issues of creep and sensitization effect must be taken into account. Lead piping is still found in old domestic and other
water distribution system A water distribution system is a part of water supply network with components that carry potable water from a Water treatment, centralized treatment plant or wells to consumers to satisfy residential, commercial, industrial and fire fighting requir ...
s, but is no longer permitted for new potable water piping installations due to its
toxicity Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacteria, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect ...
. Many
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission ...
s now require that lead piping in residential or institutional installations be replaced with non-toxic piping or that the tubes' interiors be treated with
phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid (orthophosphoric acid, monophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a colorless, odorless phosphorus-containing solid, and inorganic compound with the chemical formula . It is commonly encountered as an 85% aqueous solution, w ...
. According to a senior researcher and lead expert with the Canadian Environmental Law Association, "...there is no safe level of lead or human exposure. In 1991 the US EPA issued the Lead and Copper Rule, a federal regulation which limits the concentration of lead and copper allowed in public drinking water, as well as the permissible amount of pipe corrosion occurring due to the water itself. In the US it's estimated that 6.5 million lead service lines (pipes that connect water mains to home plumbing) installed before the 1930s are still in use. Plastic tubing is widely used for its light weight, chemical resistance, non-corrosive properties, and ease of making connections. Plastic materials include
polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride (alternatively: poly(vinyl chloride), colloquial: polyvinyl, or simply vinyl; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic polymer of plastic (after polyethylene and polypropylene). About 40 millio ...
(PVC),Rahman (2004), pp. 56–61.
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is a thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. CPVC is significantly more flexible than PVC, and can also withstand higher temperatures. Uses include hot and cold water deliv ...
(CPVC), fibre reinforced plastic (FRP),AWWA M45 Fiberglass Pipe Design 1.1 reinforced polymer mortar (RPMP),
polypropylene Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications. It is produced via chain-growth polymerization from the monomer Propene, propylene. Polypropylene belongs to the group of polyolefi ...
(PP),
polyethylene Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the most commonly produced plastic. It is a polymer, primarily used for packaging (plastic bags, plastic films, geomembranes and containers including bott ...
(PE), cross-linked high-density polyethylene (PEX), polybutylene (PB), and
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)''x''·(C4H6)''y''·(C3H3N)''z'' is a common thermoplastic polymer. Its glass transition temperature is approximately . ABS is Amorphous solid, amorphous and therefore has no true m ...
(ABS), for example. In many countries, PVC pipes account for most pipe materials used in buried municipal applications for drinking water distribution and wastewater mains. Market researchers are forecasting total global revenues of more than US$80 billion in 2019. In Europe, market value will amount to approx. €12.7 billion in 2020 Pipe may be made from
concrete Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse construction aggregate, aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after wa ...
or
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials made by shaping and then firing an inorganic, nonmetallic material, such as clay, at a high temperature. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, ...
, usually for low-pressure applications such as gravity flow or drainage. Pipes for sewage are still predominantly made from concrete or vitrified clay.
Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC) and ferroconcrete, is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement having ...
can be used for large-diameter concrete pipes. This pipe material can be used in many types of construction, and is often used in the gravity-flow transport of storm water. Usually such pipe will have a receiving bell or a stepped fitting, with various sealing methods applied at installation.


Traceability and positive material identification (PMI)

When the
alloys An alloy is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically bonded. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retai ...
for piping are forged, metallurgical tests are performed to determine material composition by % of each
chemical element A chemical element is a species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei, including the pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of that species. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elements canno ...
in the piping, and the results are recorded in a Material Test Report (MTR). These tests can be used to prove that the alloy conforms to various specifications (e.g. 316 SS). The tests are stamped by the mill's QA/QC department and can be used to trace the material back to the mill by future users, such as piping and fitting manufacturers. Maintaining the
traceability Traceability is the capability to trace something. In some cases, it is interpreted as the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification. Other common definitions include the capab ...
between the alloy material and associated MTR is an important quality assurance issue. QA often requires the heat number to be written on the pipe. Precautions must also be taken to prevent the introduction of counterfeit materials. As a backup to etching/labeling of the material identification on the pipe, positive material identification (PMI) is performed using a handheld device; the device scans the pipe material using an emitted electromagnetic wave ( x-ray fluorescence/XRF) and receives a reply that is spectrographically analyzed.


Sizes

Pipe sizes can be confusing because the terminology may relate to historical dimensions. For example, a half-inch iron pipe does not have any dimension that is a half inch. Initially, a half inch pipe did have an inner diameter of —but it also had thick walls. As technology improved, thinner walls became possible, but the outside diameter stayed the same so it could mate with existing older pipe, increasing the inner diameter beyond half an inch. The history of copper pipe is similar. In the 1930s, the pipe was designated by its internal diameter and a wall thickness. Consequently, a copper pipe had a outside diameter. The outside diameter was the important dimension for mating with fittings. The wall thickness on modern copper is usually thinner than , so the internal diameter is only "nominal" rather than a controlling dimension. Newer pipe technologies sometimes adopted a sizing system as its own. PVC pipe uses the
Nominal Pipe Size Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for ...
. Pipe sizes are specified by a number of national and international standards, including API 5L,
ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of Standardization, voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United S ...
/
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing ...
B36.10M and B36.19M in the US, BS 1600 and BS EN 10255 in the United Kingdom and Europe. There are two common methods for designating pipe outside diameter (OD). The North American method is called NPS ("
Nominal Pipe Size Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for ...
") and is based on inches (also frequently referred to as NB ("Nominal Bore")). The European version is called DN ("Diametre Nominal" / "Nominal Diameter") and is based on millimetres. Designating the outside diameter allows pipes of the same size to be fit together no matter what the wall thickness. *For pipe sizes less than NPS 14 inch (DN 350), both methods give a nominal value for the OD that is rounded off and is not the same as the actual OD. For example, NPS 2 inch and DN 50 are the same pipe, but the actual OD is . The only way to obtain the actual OD is to look it up in a reference table. *For pipe sizes of NPS 14 inch (DN 350) and greater the NPS size is the actual diameter in inches and the DN size is equal to NPS times 25 (not 25.4) rounded to a convenient multiple of 50. For example, NPS 14 has an OD of , and is equivalent to DN 350. Since the outside diameter is fixed for a given pipe size, the inside diameter will vary depending on the wall thickness of the pipe. For example, 2" Schedule 80 pipe has thicker walls and therefore a smaller inside diameter than 2" Schedule 40 pipe. Steel pipe has been produced for about 150 years. The pipe sizes that are in use today in PVC and galvanized were originally designed years ago for steel pipe. The number system, like Sch 40, 80, 160, were set long ago and seem a little odd. For example, Sch 20 pipe is even thinner than Sch 40, but same OD. And while these pipes are based on old steel pipe sizes, there is other pipe, like cpvc for heated water, that uses pipe sizes, inside and out, based on old copper pipe size standards instead of steel. Many different standards exist for pipe sizes, and their prevalence varies depending on industry and geographical area. The pipe size designation generally includes two numbers; one that indicates the outside (OD) or nominal diameter, and the other that indicates the wall thickness. In the early twentieth century, American pipe was sized by inside diameter. This practice was abandoned to improve compatibility with pipe fittings that must usually fit the OD of the pipe, but it has had a lasting impact on modern standards around the world. In North America and the UK, pressure piping is usually specified by
Nominal Pipe Size Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for ...
(NPS) and schedule (SCH). Pipe sizes are documented by a number of standards, including API 5L,
ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of Standardization, voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United S ...
/
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing ...
B36.10M (Table 1) in the US, and BS 1600 and BS 1387 in the United Kingdom. Typically the pipe wall thickness is the controlled variable, and the Inside Diameter (I.D.) is allowed to vary. The pipe wall thickness has a variance of approximately 12.5 percent. In the rest of Europe pressure piping uses the same pipe IDs and wall thicknesses as
Nominal Pipe Size Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for ...
, but labels them with a metric Diameter Nominal (DN) instead of the imperial NPS. For NPS larger than 14, the DN is equal to the NPS multiplied by 25. (Not 25.4) This is documented by EN 10255 (formerly DIN 2448 and BS 1387) and ISO 65:1981, and it is often called DIN or ISO pipe. Japan has its own set of standard pipe sizes, often called JIS pipe. The Iron pipe size (IPS) is an older system still used by some manufacturers and legacy drawings and equipment. The IPS number is the same as the NPS number, but the schedules were limited to Standard Wall (STD), Extra Strong (XS), and Double Extra Strong (XXS). STD is identical to SCH 40 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 10, inclusive, and indicates .375" wall thickness for NPS 12 and larger. XS is identical to SCH 80 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 8, inclusive, and indicates .500" wall thickness for NPS 8 and larger. Different definitions exist for XXS, however it is never the same as SCH 160. XXS is in fact thicker than SCH 160 for NPS 1/8" to 6" inclusive, whereas SCH 160 is thicker than XXS for NPS 8" and larger. Another old system is the Ductile Iron Pipe Size (DIPS), which generally has larger ODs than IPS. Copper plumbing tube for residential plumbing follows an entirely different size system in America, often called Copper Tube Size (CTS); see domestic water system. Its nominal size is neither the inside nor outside diameter. Plastic tubing, such as PVC and CPVC, for plumbing applications also has different sizing standards. Agricultural applications use PIP sizes, which stands for Plastic Irrigation Pipe. PIP comes in pressure ratings of , , , , and and is generally available in diameters of .


Standards

The manufacture and installation of pressure piping is tightly regulated by the
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing ...
"B31" code series such as B31.1 or B31.3 which have their basis in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). This code has the force of law in Canada and the US. Europe and the rest of the world has an equivalent system of codes. Pressure piping is generally pipe that must carry pressures greater than 10 to 25 atmospheres, although definitions vary. To ensure safe operation of the system, the manufacture, storage, welding, testing, etc. of pressure piping must meet stringent quality standards. Manufacturing standards for pipes commonly require a test of chemical composition and a series of mechanical strength tests for each heat of pipe. A heat of pipe is all forged from the same cast ingot, and therefore had the same chemical composition. Mechanical tests may be associated to a lot of pipe, which would be all from the same heat and have been through the same heat treatment processes. The manufacturer performs these tests and reports the composition in a mill traceability report and the mechanical tests in a material test report, both of which are referred to by the acronym MTR. Material with these associated test reports is called traceable. For critical applications, third party verification of these tests may be required; in this case an independent lab will produce a certified material test report(CMTR), and the material will be called certified. Some widely used pipe standards or piping classes are: * The API range - now ISO 3183. E.g.: API 5L Grade B - now ISO L245 where the number indicates yield strength in MPa *
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing ...
SA106 Grade B (Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temperature service) *
ASTM ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical International standard, standards for a wide range of material ...
A312 (Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe) *
ASTM ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical International standard, standards for a wide range of material ...
C76 (Concrete Pipe) * ASTM D3033/3034 (PVC Pipe) * ASTM D2239 (Polyethylene Pipe) * ISO 14692 (Petroleum and natural gas industries. Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping. Qualification and manufacture) * ASTM A36 (Carbon steel pipe for structural or low pressure use) * ASTM A795 (Steel pipe specifically for fire sprinkler systems) API 5L was changed in the second half of 2008 to edition 44 from edition 43 to make it identical to ISO 3183. It is important to note that the change has created the requirement that sour service, ERW pipe, pass a hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) test per NACE TM0284 in order to be used for sour service. * ACPA merican Concrete Pipe Association* AWWA merican Water Works Association* AWWA M45


Installation

Pipe installation is often more expensive than the material and a variety of specialized tools, techniques, and parts have been developed to assist this. Pipe is usually delivered to a customer or jobsite as either "sticks" or lengths of pipe (typically , called single random length) or they are prefabricated with elbows, tees and valves into a prefabricated pipe spool pipe spool is a piece of pre-assembled pipe and fittings, usually prepared in a shop so that installation on the construction site can be more efficient. Typically, pipe smaller than are not pre-fabricated. The pipe spools are usually tagged with a
bar code A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, Machine-readable data, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths, spacings and sizes of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly refe ...
and the ends are capped (plastic) for protection. The pipe and pipe spools are delivered to a warehouse on a large commercial/industrial job and they may be held indoors or in a gridded laydown yard. The pipe or pipe spool is retrieved, staged, rigged, and then lifted into place. On large process jobs the lift is made using cranes and hoist and other material lifts. They are typically temporarily supported in the steel structure using beam clamps, straps, and small hoists until the pipe supports are attached or otherwise secured. An example of a tool used for installation for a small plumbing pipe (threaded ends) is the
pipe wrench A pipe wrench is any of several types of wrench that are designed to turn threaded pipe and Piping and plumbing fitting, pipe fittings for assembly (tightening) or disassembly (loosening). The Stillson wrench, or Stillson-pattern wrench, is the ...
. Small pipe is typically not heavy and can be lifted into place by the installation craft laborer. However, during a plant outage or shutdown, the small (small bore) pipe may also be pre-fabricated to expedite installation during the outage. After the pipe is installed it will be tested for leaks. Before testing it may need to be cleaned by blowing air or steam or flushing with a liquid.


Pipe supports

Pipes are usually either supported from below or hung from above (but may also be supported from the side), using devices called pipe supports. Supports may be as simple as a pipe "shoe" which is akin to a half of an I-beam welded to the bottom of the pipe; they may be "hung" using a clevis, or with trapeze type of devices called pipe hangers. Pipe supports of any kind may incorporate springs, snubbers, dampers, or combinations of these devices to compensate for
thermal expansion Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature, usually not including phase transitions. Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic ...
, or to provide vibration isolation, shock control, or reduced vibration excitation of the pipe due to
earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object ...
motion. Some dampers are simply fluid dashpots, but other dampers may be active hydraulic devices that have sophisticated systems that act to dampen peak displacements due to externally imposed vibrations or mechanical shocks. The undesired motions may be process derived (such as in a fluidized bed reactor) or from a natural phenomenon such as an earthquake (design basis event or DBE). Pipe hanger assembles are usually attached with pipe clamps. Possible exposure to high temperatures and heavy loads should be included when specifying which clamps are needed.


Joining

Pipes are commonly joined by
welding Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion. Welding is distinct from lower temperature techniques such as b ...
, using threaded pipe and fittings; sealing the connection with a pipe thread compound,
Polytetrafluoroethylene Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. It is one of the best-known and widely applied Per-_and_polyfluoroalkyl_substances, PFAS. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-b ...
(PTFE)
Thread seal tape Thread seal tape (also known as PTFE tape, Teflon tape, or plumber's tape) is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film tape commonly used in plumbing for sealing pipe threads. The tape is sold cut to specific widths and wound on a spool, making i ...
,
oakum Oakum is a preparation of tarred fibre used to seal gaps. Its main traditional applications were in shipbuilding, for caulking or packing the joints of timbers in wooden vessels and the Deck (ship), deck planking of iron and steel ships; in plu ...
, or PTFE string, or by using a mechanical coupling. Process piping is usually joined by welding using a TIG or MIG process. The most common process pipe joint is the butt weld. The ends of pipe to be welded must have a certain weld preparation called an End Weld Prep (EWP) which is typically at an angle of 37.5 degrees to accommodate the filler weld metal. The most common pipe thread in North America is the
National Pipe Thread American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread standards for short, are United States national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and Piping and plumbing fitting, pipe fittings. They in ...
(NPT) or the Dryseal (NPTF) version. Other pipe threads include the
British standard pipe thread British Standard Pipe (BSP) is a set of technical standards for screw threads that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing piping, pipes and fittings by mating an external (Gender of connectors and fasteners, male) thread ...
(BSPT), the
garden hose thread A garden hose, hosepipe, or simply hose is a Hose (tubing), flexible tube used to convey water. There are a number of common attachments available for the end of the hose, such as sprayers and Irrigation sprinkler, sprinklers (which are used to ...
(GHT), and the fire hose coupling (NST). Copper pipes are typically joined by
soldering Soldering (; ) is a process in which two or more items are joined by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Unlike welding, soldering does not involv ...
,
brazing Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, with the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing differs from we ...
, compression fittings, flaring, or crimping. Plastic pipes may be joined by solvent welding, heat fusion, or elastomeric sealing. If frequent disconnection will be required, gasketed pipe flanges or union fittings provide better reliability than threads. Some thin-walled pipes of ductile material, such as the smaller copper or flexible plastic water pipes found in homes for ice makers and humidifiers, for example, may be joined with
compression fitting A compression fitting is a Piping and plumbing fitting, fitting used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubing (material), tubes or thin-walled pipe (material), pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar ...
s. ' typically uses a "push-on" gasket style of pipe that compresses a gasket into a space formed between the two adjoining pieces. Push-on joints are available on most types of pipe. A pipe joint lubricant must be used in the assembly of the pipe. Under buried conditions, gasket-joint pipes allow for lateral movement due to soil shifting as well as expansion/contraction due to temperature differentials.Rahman (2007), pp. 12–17. Plastic MDPE and
HDPE High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a thermoplastic polymer produced from the monomer ethylene. It is sometimes called "alkathene" or "polythene" when used for HDPE pipes. With a high strength-to-density ratio, ...
gas and water pipes are also often joined with Electrofusion fittings. Large above ground pipe typically uses a flanged joint, which is generally available in ductile iron pipe and some others. It is a gasket style where the flanges of the adjoining pipes are bolted together, compressing the gasket into a space between the pipe. Mechanical grooved couplings or Victaulic joints are also frequently used for frequent disassembly and assembly. Developed in the 1920s, these mechanical grooved couplings can operate up to working pressures and available in materials to match the pipe grade. Another type of mechanical coupling is a flareless tube fitting (Major brands include Swagelok, Ham-Let, Parker); this type of compression fitting is typically used on small tubing under in diameter. When pipes join in chambers where other components are needed for the management of the network (such as valves or gauges), dismantling joints are generally used, in order to make mounting/dismounting easier.


Fittings and valves

Fittings are also used to split or join a number of pipes together, and for other purposes. A broad variety of standardized pipe fittings are available; they are generally broken down into either a tee, an elbow, a branch, a reducer/enlarger, or a wye. Valves control fluid flow and regulate pressure. The
piping and plumbing fittings A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe (fluid conveyance), pipe or tube (fluid conveyance), tube, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow. ...
and
valve A valve is a device or Heart valve, natural object that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technical ...
s articles discuss them further.


Cleaning

The inside of pipes can be cleaned with a
tube cleaning process Tube cleaning describes the activity of, or device for, the Washing, cleaning and Maintenance, repair and operations, maintenance of Fouling, fouled Cylinder (geometry), tubes. The need for cleaning arises because the Wiktionary:medium, medium th ...
, if they are contaminated with
debris Debris (, ) is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded waste, garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, or, as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier, etc. Depending on context, ''debris'' can ref ...
or
fouling Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces. The fouling materials can consist of either living organisms (biofouling) or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic). Fouling is usually distinguished from other surf ...
. This depends on the process that the pipe will be used for and the cleanliness needed for the process. In some cases the pipes are cleaned using a displacement device formally known as a Pipeline Inspection Gauge or "pig"; alternately the pipes or tubes may be chemically flushed using specialized solutions that are pumped through. In some cases, where care has been taken in the manufacture, storage, and installation of pipe and tubing, the lines are blown clean with compressed air or nitrogen.


Other uses

Pipe is widely used in the fabrication of handrails, guardrails, and railings.


Applications


Steel pipe

Steel Steel is an alloy made up of iron with added carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that ...
pipe (or black iron pipe) was once the most popular choice for supply of water and flammable gases. Steel pipe is still used in many homes and businesses to convey
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas or simply gas) is a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes. Low levels of trace gases like carbon di ...
or
propane Propane () is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula . It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as ...
fuel, and is a popular choice in fire sprinkler systems due to its high heat resistance. In commercial buildings, steel pipe is used to convey heating or cooling water to
heat exchangers A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between a source and a working fluid For fluid power, a working fluid is a gas or liquid that primarily transfers force, motion, or mechanical energy. In hydraulics, water or hydraulic fluid t ...
, air handlers,
variable air volume Variable air volume (VAV) is a type of heating, ventilating, and/or air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Unlike constant air volume (CAV) systems, which supply a constant airflow at a variable temperature, VAV systems vary the airflow at a constant or v ...
(VAV) devices, or other
HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the use of various technologies to control the temperature, humidity, and purity of the air in an enclosed space. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HV ...
equipment. Steel pipe is sometimes joined using threaded connections, where tapered threads (see
National Pipe Thread American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread standards for short, are United States national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and Piping and plumbing fitting, pipe fittings. They in ...
) are cut into the end of the tubing segment, sealant is applied in the form of thread sealing compound or
thread seal tape Thread seal tape (also known as PTFE tape, Teflon tape, or plumber's tape) is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film tape commonly used in plumbing for sealing pipe threads. The tape is sold cut to specific widths and wound on a spool, making i ...
(also known as
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. It is one of the best-known and widely applied Per-_and_polyfluoroalkyl_substances, PFAS. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-b ...
or
Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. It is one of the best-known and widely applied Per-_and_polyfluoroalkyl_substances, PFAS. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-b ...
tape), and it is then threaded into a corresponding threaded fitting using two
pipe wrench A pipe wrench is any of several types of wrench that are designed to turn threaded pipe and Piping and plumbing fitting, pipe fittings for assembly (tightening) or disassembly (loosening). The Stillson wrench, or Stillson-pattern wrench, is the ...
es. Beyond domestic or light commercial settings, steel pipe is often joined by
welding Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion. Welding is distinct from lower temperature techniques such as b ...
, or by use of mechanical couplings made by companies such as Victaulic or Anvil International (formerly Grinnell) that hold the pipe joint together via a groove pressed or cut (a rarely used older practice), into the ends of the pipes. Other variations of steel pipe include various stainless steel and chrome alloys. In high-pressure situations these are usually joined by TIG welding. In Canada, with respect to natural gas (NG) and propane (LP gas), black iron pipe (BIP) is commonly used to connect an appliance to the supply. It must however be marked (either painted yellow or yellow banding attached at certain intervals) and certain restrictions apply to which nominal pipe size (NPS) can be put through walls and buildings. With propane in particular, BIP can be run from an exterior tank (or cylinder) provided it is well protected from the weather, and an
anode An anode is an electrode of a polarized electrical device through which conventional current enters the device. This contrasts with a cathode, an electrode of the device through which conventional current leaves the device. A common mnemonic is ...
-type of protection from
corrosion Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable oxide. It is the gradual deterioration of materials (usually a metal) by chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosio ...
is in place when the pipe is to be installed underground.


Copper pipe

Copper tubing is most often used for supply of hot and cold water, and as refrigerant line in HVAC systems. There are two basic types of copper tubing, soft copper and rigid copper. Copper tubing is joined using flare connection, compression connection, or solder. Copper offers a high level of resistance to corrosion, but is becoming very costly.


Soft copper

Soft (or ductile) copper tubing can be bent easily to travel around obstacles in the path of the tubing. While the work hardening of the drawing process used to size the tubing makes the copper hard/rigid, it is carefully annealed to make it soft again; it is therefore more expensive to produce than non-annealed, rigid copper tubing. It can be joined by any of the three methods used for rigid copper, and it is the only type of copper tubing suitable for flare connections. Soft copper is the most popular choice for refrigerant lines in ''split-system'' air conditioners and heat pumps.


Flare connections

Flare connections require that the end of a tubing section be spread outward in a bell shape using a flare tool. A flare nut then compresses this bell-shaped end onto a male fitting. Flare connections are a labor-intensive method of making connections, but are quite reliable over the course of many years.


Rigid copper

Rigid copper is a popular choice for water lines. It is joined using a sweat, compression or crimped/pressed connection. Rigid copper, rigid due to the work hardening of the drawing process, cannot be bent and must use ''elbow fittings'' to go around corners or around obstacles. If heated and allowed to slowly cool, called annealing, then rigid copper will become soft and can be bent/formed without cracking.


= Soldered connections

= Solder fittings are smooth, and easily slip onto the end of a tubing section. Both the male and female ends of the pipe or pipe connectors are cleaned thoroughly then coated with flux to make sure there is no surface oxide and to ensure that the solder will bond properly with the base metal. The joint is then heated using a
torch A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, which is ignited and used as a light source. Torches have been used throughout history, and are still used in processions, symbolic and religious events, and in juggling entertainment. In ...
, and solder is melted into the connection. When the solder cools, it forms a very strong bond which can last for decades. Solder-connected rigid copper is the most popular choice for water supply lines in modern buildings. In situations where many connections must be made at once (such as plumbing of a new building), solder offers much quicker and much less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings. The term sweating is sometimes used to describe the process of soldering pipes.


= Compression connections

= Compression fittings use a soft metal or thermoplastic ring (the compression ring or "ferrule") which is squeezed onto the pipe and into the fitting by a compression nut. The soft metal conforms to the surface of the tubing and the fitting, and creates a seal. Compression connections do not typically have the long life that sweat connections offer, but are advantageous in many cases because they are easy to make using basic tools. A disadvantage in compression connections is that they take longer to make than sweat, and sometimes require retightening over time to stop leaks.


= Crimped or pressed connections

= Crimped or pressed connections use special copper fittings which are permanently attached to rigid copper tubing with a powered crimper. The special fittings, manufactured with sealant already inside, slide over the tubing to be connected. Thousands of pounds-force per square inch of pressure are used to deform the fitting and compress the sealant against the inner copper tubing, creating a watertight seal. Advantages of this method are: *A correctly crimped connection should last as long as the tubing. *It takes less time to complete than other methods. *It is cleaner in both appearance and the materials used to make the connection. *No open flame is used during the connection process. Disadvantages are: *The fittings used are harder to find and cost significantly more than sweat type fittings. *The fittings are not re-usable. If a design change is required or if a joint is found to be defective or improperly crimped, the already installed fittings must be cut out and discarded. In addition, the cutting required to remove the fitting often will leave insufficient tubing to install the new fitting, So couplers and additional tubing will need to be installed on either side of the replacement fitting. Whereas with a soldered fitting, a defective joint can just be re-soldered, or heated and turned if a minor change is required, or heated and removed without requiring any of the tubing to be cut away. This also allows more expensive fittings like valves to be re-used if they are otherwise in good to new condition, something not possible if the fitting is crimped on. *The cost of the tooling is very expensive. , a basic toolkit required to sweat solder all the copper pipes of a typical single family residence, including fuel and solder, can be purchased for approximately $200. By contrast, the minimum cost of a basic powered crimping tool starts at around $1800, and can be as high as $4000 for the better brands with a complete set of crimping dies.


Aluminium pipe

Aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element A chemical element is a species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei, including the pure Chemical substance, substan ...
is sometimes used due to its low cost, resistance to corrosion and solvents, and its ductility. Aluminium tube is more desirable than steel for the conveyance of flammable solvents, since it cannot create sparks when manipulated. Aluminium tubing can be connected by flare or compression fittings, or it can be welded by the TIG or heliarc processes.


Glass pipe

Tempered
glass Glass is a non-Crystallinity, crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent, amorphous solid that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most ...
pipes are used for specialized applications, such as
corrosive A corrosive substance is one that will damage or destroy other substances with which it comes into contact by means of a chemical reaction. Etymology The word ''corrosive'' is derived from the Latin verb ''corrodere'', which means ''to gnaw'', ...
liquids, medical or laboratory wastes, or
pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to medical diagnosis, diagnose, cure, treat, or preventive medicine, prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an imp ...
manufacturing. Connections are generally made using specialized gasket or O-ring fittings.


Plastic pipe

Plastic pipes used in manufacturing. Plastic pipe fittings include PVC pipe fittings, PP / PPH pipe fitting mould, PE pipe and ABS pipe fitting.


See also

*
British standard pipe thread British Standard Pipe (BSP) is a set of technical standards for screw threads that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing piping, pipes and fittings by mating an external (Gender of connectors and fasteners, male) thread ...
*
Cast iron pipe Cast iron pipe is Pipe (fluid conveyance), pipe made predominantly from gray cast iron. It was historically used as a pressure pipe for transmission of water, gas and sewage, and as a water drainage pipe during the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th cen ...
*
Copper tubing Copper tubing is most often used for heating systems and as a refrigerant line in HVAC systems. Copper tubing is slowly being replaced by Cross-linked polyethylene, PEX tubing in hot and cold water applications. There are two basic types of copper ...
* Double-walled pipe *
Ductile iron pipe Ductile Ductility is a List of materials properties, mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to Drawing (manufacturing), drawing (e.g. into wire). In materials science, ductility is defined by the degree to which ...
* Galvanized pipe *
Garden hose A garden hose, hosepipe, or simply hose is a Hose (tubing), flexible tube used to convey water. There are a number of common attachments available for the end of the hose, such as sprayers and Irrigation sprinkler, sprinklers (which are used to ...
*
HDPE pipe HDPE pipe is a type of flexible plastic pipe used for fluid and gas transfer and is often used to replace ageing concrete or steel mains pipelines. Made from the thermoplastic HDPE (high-density polyethylene), its high level of impermeability a ...
*
Hollow structural section A hollow structural section (HSS) is a type of metal profile (engineering), profile with a hollow cross section (geometry), cross section. The term is used predominantly in the United States, or other countries which follow US construction or e ...
* Hose * Hydraulic pipes * List of equations in fluid mechanics * MS Pipe, MS Tube *
National pipe thread American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread standards for short, are United States national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and Piping and plumbing fitting, pipe fittings. They in ...
*
Nominal Pipe Size Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for ...
* Panzergewinde * Pipe and tube bender *
Pipeline transport Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of Pipe (fluid conveyance), pipes—a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of slightly less than ...
* Pipe support *
Piping Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluid In physics, a fluid is a liquid, gas, or other material that continuously Deformation (physics), deforms (''flows'') under an applied shear stress, or external force. They ...
*
Piping and plumbing fittings A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe (fluid conveyance), pipe or tube (fluid conveyance), tube, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow. ...
* Plastic pressure pipe systems * Plastic pipework *
Plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses piping, pipes, valves, piping and plumbing fitting, plumbing fixtures, Storage tank, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. HVAC, Heating and coo ...
*
Reinforced thermoplastic pipe Reinforced thermoplastic pipe (RTP) is a type of Pipe (fluid conveyance), pipe reinforced using a high strength synthetic fibre such as glass, aramid or carbon. It was initially developed in the early 1990s by Wavin Repox, Akzo Nobel and by Tubes d ...
s * Trap (plumbing) * Tube * Tube beading * Victaulic *
Water pipe Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses piping, pipes, valves, piping and plumbing fitting, plumbing fixtures, Storage tank, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. HVAC, Heating and coo ...


References


Bibliography


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Pipe (Fluid Conveyance) Irrigation Piping Plumbing