The Info List - Tripitaka

--- Advertisement ---

Tripiṭaka, also referred to as Tipiṭaka, is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.[1][2] The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism
is often referred to as Pali
Canon in English. Mahayana Buddhism
also reveres the Tripitaka as authoritative but, unlike Theravadins, it also reveres various derivative literature and commentaries that were composed much later.[1][3] The Tripitakas were composed between about 500 BCE to about the start of the common era, likely written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE.[3] The Dipavamsa
states that during the reign of Valagamba of Anuradhapura
Valagamba of Anuradhapura
(29–17 BCE) the monks who had previously remembered the Tipitaka and its commentary orally now wrote them down in books, because of the threat posed by famine and war. The Mahavamsa also refers briefly to the writing down of the canon and the commentaries at this time. Each Buddhist sub-tradition had its own Tripitaka for its monasteries, written by its sangha, each set consisting of 32 books, in three parts or baskets of teachings: (1) the basket of expected discipline from monks ( Vinaya
Piṭaka), (2) basket of discourse (Sūtra Piṭaka, Nikayas), and (3) basket of special doctrine ( Abhidharma
Piṭaka).[1][3][4] The structure, the code of conduct and moral virtues in the Vinaya
basket particularly, have similarities to some of the surviving Dharmasutra
texts of Hinduism.[5] Much of the surviving Tripitaka literature is in Pali, with some in Sanskrit
as well as other local Asian languages.[4]


1 Etymology 2 Chronology 3 The three categories

3.1 Vinaya 3.2 Sutta 3.3 Abhidhamma

4 In Indian Buddhist schools

4.1 Mahāsāṃghika 4.2 Caitika 4.3 Bahuśrutīya 4.4 Prajñaptivāda 4.5 Sārvāstivāda 4.6 Mūlasārvāstivāda 4.7 Dharmaguptaka 4.8 Mahīśāsaka 4.9 Kāśyapīya

5 In the Theravada
school 6 In Mahāyāna
schools 7 As a title 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Tripiṭaka, also called Tipiṭaka (Pali), means Three Baskets. and pitaka (पिटक) or pita (पिट) meaning "basket or box made from bamboo or wood" and "collection of writings", according to Monier-Williams.[6] These terms are also spelled without diacritics as Tripitaka and Tipitaka in scholarly literature.[1] Chronology[edit] The dating of the Tripitakas is unclear. Max Muller
Max Muller
states that the texts were likely composed in the third century BCE, but transmitted orally from generation to generation just like the Vedas and the early Upanishads.[7] The first version, suggests Muller, was very likely reduced to writing in the 1st century BCE (nearly 500 years after the time of Buddha).[7] According to the Tibetan historian Bu-ston, states Warder, around or before 1st century CE, there were eighteen schools of Buddhism
and their Tripitakas were written down by then.[8] However, except for one version that has survived in full, and others of which parts have survived, all of these texts are lost to history or yet to be found.[8] The tripitaka was compiled into writing for the first time during the reign of King Walagambahu of Sri Lanka (1st century BCE). It's written in the Sri Lankan history that more than 1000 monks who were already Arahath state (totally awakened)represented in writing. The place where they carried out was in Aluvihare Matale Sri Lanka.[8] These texts were written down in four related Indo-European languages of South Asia: Sanskrit, Pali, Paisaci and Prakrit, sometime between 1st century BCE and 7th century CE.[8] Some of these were translated in East Asian languages such as Chinese, Tibetan and Mongolian by ancient visiting scholars, which though vast are incomplete.[9] Wu and Chia state that emerging evidence, though uncertain, suggests that the earliest written Buddhist Tripitaka texts may have arrived in China from India by the 1st century BCE.[10] The three categories[edit]

The woodblock of Tripitaka Koreana
Tripitaka Koreana
in Haeinsa, Hapcheon, South Korea.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Tripitaka comprises the three main categories of texts that is the Buddhist canon. The three parts of the Pāli canon are not as contemporary as the traditional Buddhist account seems to suggest: the Sūtra Piṭaka is older than the Vinaya
Piṭaka, and the Abhidharma Piṭaka represents scholastic developments originated at least two centuries after the other two parts of the canon. The Vinaya
Piṭaka appears to have grown gradually as a commentary and justification of the monastic code (Prātimokṣa), which presupposes a transition from a community of wandering mendicants (the Sūtra Piṭaka period ) to a more sedentary monastic community (the Vinaya
Piṭaka period). Even within the Sūtra Piṭaka it is possible to detect older and later texts. Vinaya[edit] Main article: Vinaya Rules and regulations of monastic life that range from dress code and dietary rules to prohibitions of certain personal conducts. Sutta[edit]

Part of a series on



Timeline Gautama Buddha

Councils Later Buddhists

Dharma Concepts

Four Noble Truths

Five Aggregates Impermanence

Suffering Non-self

Dependent Origination

Middle Way Emptiness Karma

Rebirth Saṃsāra Cosmology

Buddhist texts

Buddhavacana Tripiṭaka Mahayana
Sutras Pāli Canon Tibetan canon Chinese canon


Three Jewels

Buddhist Paths to liberation

Morality Perfections Meditation Philosophical reasoning

Mindfulness Wisdom


Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism



Four Stages Arhat

Buddha Bodhisattva


Theravāda Pāli Mahāyāna

Hinayana Chinese Vajrayāna

Tibetan Navayana Newar

by country

India China Thailand Japan Myanmar Sri Lanka Laos Cambodia Korea Taiwan Tibet Bhutan Mongolia Russia

Outline Buddhism

v t e

Main articles: Mahayana
sutra and Sutta Pitaka The Buddha
delivered all his sermons in local language[clarification needed] of northern India. These sermons were collected during 1st assembly just after the Parinibbana of the Buddha. Later these teachings were translated into Sanskrit. Abhidhamma[edit] Main article: Abhidharma Philosophical and psychological discourse and interpretation of Buddhist doctrine. In Indian Buddhist schools[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Each of the Early Buddhist Schools
Early Buddhist Schools
likely had their own recensions of the Tripiṭaka. According to some sources, there were some Indian schools of Buddhism
that had five or seven piṭakas.[11] Mahāsāṃghika[edit] The Mahāsāṃghika
was translated by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 416 CE, and is preserved in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1425). The 6th century CE Indian monk Paramārtha wrote that 200 years after the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha, much of the Mahāsāṃghika
school moved north of Rājagṛha, and were divided over whether the Mahāyāna
sūtras should be incorporated formally into their Tripiṭaka. According to this account, they split into three groups based upon the relative manner and degree to which they accepted the authority of these Mahāyāna
texts.[12] Paramārtha states that the Kukkuṭika sect did not accept the Mahāyāna
sūtras as buddhavacana ("words of the Buddha"), while the Lokottaravāda
sect and the Ekavyāvahārika
sect did accept the Mahāyāna
sūtras as buddhavacana.[13] Also in the 6th century CE, Avalokitavrata writes of the Mahāsāṃghikas using a "Great Āgama Piṭaka," which is then associated with Mahāyāna
sūtras such as the Prajñāparamitā and the Daśabhūmika Sūtra.[14] According to some sources, abhidharma was not accepted as canonical by the Mahāsāṃghika
school.[15] The Theravādin Dīpavaṃsa, for example, records that the Mahāsāṃghikas had no abhidharma.[16] However, other sources indicate that there were such collections of abhidharma, and the Chinese pilgrims Faxian
and Xuanzang
both mention Mahāsāṃghika
abhidharma. On the basis of textual evidence as well as inscriptions at Nāgārjunakoṇḍā, Joseph Walser concludes that at least some Mahāsāṃghika
sects probably had an abhidharma collection, and that it likely contained five or six books.[17] Caitika[edit] The Caitikas included a number of sub-sects including the Pūrvaśailas, Aparaśailas, Siddhārthikas, and Rājagirikas. In the 6th century CE, Avalokitavrata writes that Mahāyāna
sūtras such as the Prajñāparamitā and others are chanted by the Aparaśailas and the Pūrvaśailas.[14] Also in the 6th century CE, Bhāvaviveka speaks of the Siddhārthikas using a Vidyādhāra Piṭaka, and the Pūrvaśailas and Aparaśailas both using a Bodhisattva
Piṭaka, implying collections of Mahāyāna
texts within these Caitika schools.[14] Bahuśrutīya[edit] The Bahuśrutīya school is said to have included a Bodhisattva Piṭaka in their canon. The Satyasiddhi Śāstra, also called the Tattvasiddhi Śāstra, is an extant abhidharma from the Bahuśrutīya school. This abhidharma was translated into Chinese in sixteen fascicles (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1646).[18] Its authorship is attributed to Harivarman, a third-century monk from central India. Paramārtha cites this Bahuśrutīya abhidharma as containing a combination of Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna
doctrines, and Joseph Walser agrees that this assessment is correct.[19] Prajñaptivāda[edit] The Prajñaptivādins held that the Buddha's teachings in the various piṭakas were nominal (Skt. prajñapti), conventional (Skt. saṃvṛti), and causal (Skt. hetuphala).[20] Therefore, all teachings were viewed by the Prajñaptivādins as being of provisional importance, since they cannot contain the ultimate truth.[21] It has been observed that this view of the Buddha's teachings is very close to the fully developed position of the Mahāyāna
sūtras.[20] [21] Sārvāstivāda[edit] Scholars at present have "a nearly complete collection of sūtras from the Sarvāstivāda school"[22] thanks to a recent discovery in Afghanistan of roughly two-thirds of Dīrgha Āgama in Sanskrit. The Madhyama Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka
26) was translated by Gautama Saṃghadeva, and is available in Chinese. The Saṃyukta Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka
99) was translated by Guṇabhadra, also available in Chinese translation. The Sarvāstivāda is therefore the only early school besides the Theravada
for which we have a roughly complete Sūtra Piṭaka. The Sārvāstivāda Vinaya
Piṭaka is also extant in Chinese translation, as are the seven books of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma
Piṭaka. There is also the encyclopedic Abhidharma
Mahāvibhāṣa Śāstra (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1545), which was held as canonical by the Vaibhāṣika Sarvāstivādins of northwest India. Mūlasārvāstivāda[edit] Portions of the Mūlasārvāstivāda Tripiṭaka
survive in Tibetan translation and Nepalese manuscripts.[23] The relationship of the Mūlasārvāstivāda school to Sarvāstivāda school is indeterminate; their vinayas certainly differed but it is not clear that their Sūtra Piṭaka did. The Gilgit manuscripts may contain Āgamas from the Mūlasārvāstivāda school in Sanskrit.[24] The Mūlasārvāstivāda Vinaya
Piṭaka survives in Tibetan translation and also in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1442). The Gilgit manuscripts also contain vinaya texts from the Mūlasārvāstivāda school in Sanskrit.[24] Dharmaguptaka[edit] See also: Gandhāran Buddhist texts A complete version of the Dīrgha Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1) of the Dharmaguptaka
school was translated into Chinese by Buddhayaśas and Zhu Fonian (竺佛念) in the Later Qin
Later Qin
dynasty, dated to 413 CE. It contains 30 sūtras in contrast to the 34 suttas of the Theravadin Dīgha Nikāya. A. K. Warder also associates the extant Ekottara Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka
125) with the Dharmaguptaka
school, due to the number of rules for monastics, which corresponds to the Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya.[25] The Dharmaguptaka
is also extant in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1428), and Buddhist monastics in East Asia
East Asia
adhere to the Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya. The Dharmaguptaka
is said to have contained a total of five piṭakas.[19] These included a Bodhisattva
Piṭaka and a Mantra Piṭaka (Ch. 咒藏), also sometimes called a Dhāraṇī Piṭaka.[26] According to the 5th century Dharmaguptaka
monk Buddhayaśas, the translator of the Dharmaguptaka
into Chinese, the Dharmaguptaka
school had assimilated the Mahāyāna
Tripiṭaka (Ch. 大乘三藏).[27] Mahīśāsaka[edit] The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya
is preserved in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka
1421), translated by Buddhajīva and Zhu Daosheng
Zhu Daosheng
in 424 CE. Kāśyapīya[edit] Small portions of the Tipiṭaka of the Kāśyapīya school survive in Chinese translation. An incomplete Chinese translation of the Saṃyukta Āgama of the Kāśyapīya school by an unknown translator circa the Three Qin (三秦) period (352-431 CE) survives.[28] In the Theravada
school[edit] The complete Tripiṭaka
set of the Theravāda
school is written and preserved in Pali
in the Pali
Canon. Buddhists of the Theravāda school use the Pali
variant Tipitaka to refer what is commonly known in English as the Pali
Canon.[29] In Mahāyāna
schools[edit] The term Tripiṭaka
had tended to become synonymous with Buddhist scriptures, and thus continued to be used for the Chinese and Tibetan collections, although their general divisions do not match a strict division into three piṭakas.[30] In the Chinese tradition, the texts are classified in a variety of ways,[31] most of which have in fact four or even more piṭakas or other divisions.[citation needed] As a title[edit] The Chinese form of Tripiṭaka, "sānzàng" (三藏), was sometimes used as an honorary title for a Buddhist monk who has mastered the teachings of the Tripiṭaka. In Chinese culture this is notable in the case of the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, whose pilgrimage to India to study and bring Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
back to China was portrayed in the novel Journey to the West
Journey to the West
as "Tang Sanzang" (Tang Dynasty Tripiṭaka Master). Due to the popularity of the novel, the term "sānzàng" is often erroneously understood as a name of the monk Xuanzang. One such screen version of this is the popular 1979 Monkey (TV series).[citation needed] The modern Indian scholar Rahul Sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan
is sometimes referred to as Tripitakacharya in reflection of his familiarity with the Tripiṭaka.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Āgama (Buddhism) Early Buddhist Texts Buddhist texts Pali
canon Tripitaka Koreana Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka


^ a b c d Tipitaka Encyclopædia Britannica (2015) ^ "Buddhist Books and Texts: Canon and Canonization." Lewis Lancaster, Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd edition, pg 1252 ^ a b c Barbara Crandall (2012). Gender and Religion, 2nd Edition: The Dark Side of Scripture. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 56–58. ISBN 978-1-4411-4871-1.  ^ a b Richard F. Gombrich (2006). Theravada
Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-134-21718-2.  ^ Oskar von Hinuber (1995), Buddhist Law according to the Theravada Vinaya: A Survey of Theory and Practice, Journal of International Association of Buddhist Studies, volume 18, number 1, pages 7-46 ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams; Ernst Leumann; Carl Cappeller (2002). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special
Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 625. ISBN 978-81-208-3105-6.  ^ a b Friedrich Max Müller (1899). The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. Longmans, Green. pp. 19–29.  ^ a b c d A. K. Warder (2000). Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-81-208-1741-8.  ^ A. K. Warder (2000). Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-208-1741-8.  ^ Jiang Wu; Lucille Chia (2015). Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Columbia University Press. pp. 111–123. ISBN 978-0-231-54019-3.  ^ Skilling, Peter (1992), The Raksa Literature of the Sravakayana, Journal of the Pali
Text Society, volume XVI, page 114 ^ Walser 2005, p. 51. ^ Sree Padma. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism
in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. 2008. p. 68. ^ a b c Walser 2005, p. 53. ^ "Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. ^ Walser 2005, p. 213. ^ Walser 2005, p. 212-213. ^ The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalog (K 966)  ^ a b Walser 2005, p. 52. ^ a b Dutt 1998, p. 118. ^ a b Harris 1991, p. 98. ^ Bhikkhu
Sujato: The Pali
Nikāyas and Chinese Āgamas ^ Preservation of Sanskrit
Buddhist Manuscripts In the Kathmandu ^ a b Memory Of The World Register: Gilgit manuscripts[permanent dead link] ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 6 ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 52 ^ Walser 2005, p. 52-53. ^ A Dictionary of Buddhism, by Damien Keown, Oxford University Press: 2004 ^ Matthew Meghaprasara (2013). New Guide To The Tipitaka: A Complete Guide To The Pali
Buddhist Canon. A Sangha
of Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-926892-68-9.  ^ Mizuno, Essentials of Buddhism, 1972, English version pub Kosei, Tokyo, 1996 ^ Nanjio, Catalogue of the Chinese Translations of the Buddhist Tripitaka, Clarendon, Oxford, 1883

Further reading[edit]

Walser, Joseph (2005), Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna
and Early Indian Culture, Columbia Univ Pr, ISBN 978-0231131643  Dutt, Nalinaksha (1998), Buddhist Sects in India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0428-7  Harris, Ian Charles (1991), The Continuity of Madhyamaka
and Yogacara in Indian Mahayana
Buddhism, Brill Academic Pub, ISBN 9789004094482 

External links[edit] Pali

Access to Insight has many suttas translated into English Sutta Central Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels (Multiple Languages) Tipitaka Network List of Pali
Canon Suttas translated into English (ongoing) The Pali
Tipitaka Project (texts in 7 Asian languages) The Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project Pali
Canons has a searchable database of the Pali
texts The Vietnamese Nikaaya (continuing, text in Vitenamese) Search in English translations of the Tipitaka New Guide to the Tipitaka has summaries of the entire Tipitaka in English

Myanmar Version of Buddhist Canon (6th revision):

Buddhist Bible Myanmar Version (without original Pali

Chinese Buddhist Canon:

Buddhist Text Translation Society: Sutra
Texts BuddhaNet's eBook Library (English PDFs) WWW Database of Chinese Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
(English index of some East Asian Tripitakas) CBETA: Full Chinese language
Chinese language
canon and extended canon (includes downloads)

Tibetan tradition:

Kangyur & Tengyur Projects (Tibetan texts) Kangyur & Tengyur Translating Projects (Tibetan texts)

Tripitaka collections:

Extensive list of online tripitakas

Sri Lankan Version of Tipitaka

Jayanthi Edition of Tipitaka in Sinhala (Sri Lankan version) Tipitaka in Sinhala (Sri Lankan version)

v t e


Glossary Index Outline


Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta

Places where the Buddha
stayed Buddha
in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine


Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence


Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness


Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya


Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi


Five Precepts Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā


Four Right Exertions


Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat


Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi


Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon


Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda
and Mahāyāna


Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East


Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela


Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism


Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions



Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture



Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism


Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara


Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya


Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy


Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas


Buddhists Suttas Temples