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The Info List - Trifolium





subg. Chronosemium subg. Trifolium

sect. Glycyrrhizum sect. Involucrarium sect. Lupinaster sect. Paramesus sect. Trichocephalum sect. Trifoliastrum sect. Trifolium sect. Vesicastrum

Synonyms

Amoria C. Presl[2] Bobrovia A. P. Khokhr.[2] Chrysaspis Desv.[2] Lupinaster
Lupinaster
Fabr.[2] Ursia Vassilcz.[2] Xerosphaera Soják[2]

Clover
Clover
or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes on mountains in the tropics. They are small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants. Clover
Clover
can be evergreen. The leaves are trifoliate (rarely quatrefoiled (Four-leaf clover), cinquefoil, or septfoil), with stipules adnate to the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of small red, purple, white, or yellow flowers; the small, few-seeded pods are enclosed in the calyx. Other closely related genera often called clovers include Melilotus
Melilotus
(sweet clover) and Medicago
Medicago
(alfalfa or Calvary clover).

Contents

1 Cultivation 2 Symbolism 3 Phylogeny 4 Selected species 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Cultivation[edit] Several species of clover are extensively cultivated as fodder plants. The most widely cultivated clovers are white clover, Trifolium repens, and red clover, Trifolium pratense. Clover, either sown alone or in mixture with ryegrass, has for a long time formed a staple crop for silaging, for several reasons: it grows freely, shooting up again after repeated mowings; it produces an abundant crop; it is palatable to and nutritious for livestock; it fixes nitrogen, reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers; it grows in a great range of soils and climates; and it is appropriate for either pasturage or green composting. In many areas, particularly on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of a combination of insect pests, diseases and nutrient balance; this is known as "clover sickness". When crop rotations are managed so that clover does not recur at intervals shorter than eight years, it grows with much of its pristine vigor. Clover
Clover
sickness in more recent times may also be linked to pollinator decline; clovers are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees, which have declined as a result of agricultural intensification.[3] Honeybees can also pollinate clover, and beekeepers are often in heavy demand from farmers with clover pastures. Farmers reap the benefits of increased reseeding that occurs with increased bee activity, which means that future clover yields remain abundant. Beekeepers benefit from the clover bloom, as clover is one of the main nectar sources for honeybees.

Colorful flowers of clovers, beside Zarivar Lake, in Iran

White clover

Trifolium repens, white or Dutch clover, is a perennial abundant in meadows and good pastures. The flowers are white or pinkish, becoming brown and deflexed as the corolla fades. Trifolium hybridum, alsike or Swedish clover, is a perennial which was introduced early in the 19th century and has now become naturalized in Britain. The flowers are white or rosy, and resemble those of Trifolium repens. Trifolium medium, meadow or zigzag clover, a perennial with straggling flexuous stems and rose-purple flowers, has potential for interbreeding with T. pratense to produce perennial crop plants.[4] Other species are: Trifolium arvense, hare's-foot trefoil; found in fields and dry pastures, a soft hairy plant with minute white or pale pink flowers and feathery sepals; Trifolium fragiferum, strawberry clover, with globose, rose-purple heads and swollen calyxes; Trifolium campestre, hop trefoil, on dry pastures and roadsides, the heads of pale yellow flowers suggesting miniature hops; and the somewhat similar Trifolium dubium, common in pastures and roadsides, with smaller heads and small yellow flowers turning dark brown. Symbolism[edit] Shamrock, the traditional Irish symbol, which according to legend was coined by Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
for the Holy Trinity, is commonly associated with clover, although alternatively sometimes with the various species within the Oxalis
Oxalis
genus, which are also trifoliate.[5] Clovers occasionally have four leaflets, instead of the usual three. These four-leaf clovers, like other rarities, are considered lucky. Clovers can also have five, six, or more leaflets, but these are rarer. The record for most leaflets is 56, set on 10 May 2009.[6] This beat the "21-leaf clover",[7] a record set in June 2008 by the same discoverer, who had also held the prior Guinness World Record
Guinness World Record
of 18.[8] A common idiom is "to be (or to live) in clover", meaning to live a carefree life of ease, comfort, or prosperity. The cloverleaf interchange is named for the resemblance to the leaflets of a (four-leaf) clover when viewed from the air.[9]

Four-leaf white clover (Trifolium repens)

Five-leaf red clover (Trifolium pratense)

Phylogeny[edit] The first extensive classification of Trifolium was done by Zohary and Heller in 1984. They divided the genus into eight sections: Lotoidea, Paramesus, Mistyllus, Vesicaria, Chronosemium, Trifolium, Trichoecephalum, and Involucrarium, with Lotoidea placed most basally.[10] Within this classification system, Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
falls within section Lotoidea, the largest and least heterogeneous section. Lotoidea contains species from America, Africa, and Eurasia, considered a clade because of their inflorescence shape, floral structure, and legume that protrudes from the calyx. However, these traits are not unique to the section, and are shared with many other species in other sections. Zohary and Heller argued that the presence of these traits in other sections proved the basal position of Lotoidea, because they were ancestral. Aside from considering this section basal, they did no propose relationships between other sections. Since then, molecular data has both questioned and confirmed the proposed phylogeny from Zohary and Heller. A genus-wide molecular study has since proposed a new classification system, made up of two subgenera, Chronosemium and Trifolium.[11] This recent reclassification further divides subgenus Trifolium into eight sections. The molecular data supports the monophyletic nature of three sections proposed by Zohary and Heller (Tripholium, Paramesus, and Trichoecepalum), but not of Lotoidea (members of this section have since been reclassified into five other sections). Other molecular studies, although smaller, support the need to reorganize Lotoidea.[12][13] Selected species[edit] The genus Trifolium currently has 245 recognized species:[1]

Trifolium acaule A. Rich. Trifolium affine C. Presl Trifolium africanum Ser. Trifolium aintabense Boiss. & Hausskn. Trifolium albopurpureum
Trifolium albopurpureum
Torr. & A. Gray – rancheria clover Trifolium alexandrinum
Trifolium alexandrinum
L. – Egyptian clover, berseem clover Trifolium alpestre L. Trifolium alpinum
Trifolium alpinum
L. – alpine clover Trifolium amabile Kunth Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb. Trifolium amoenum
Trifolium amoenum
Greene – showy Indian clover Trifolium andersonii A. Gray – Anderson's clover or fiveleaf clover Trifolium andinum
Trifolium andinum
Nutt. – Intermountain clover Trifolium andricum Lassen Trifolium angulatum Waldst. & Kit. Trifolium angustifolium
Trifolium angustifolium
L. Trifolium apertum Bobrov Trifolium argutum Banks & Sol. Trifolium arvense
Trifolium arvense
L. – hare's-foot clover Trifolium attenuatum Greene Trifolium aureum
Trifolium aureum
Pollich – large hop trefoil Trifolium baccarinii Chiov. Trifolium badium Schreb. Trifolium barbeyi Gibelli & Belli Trifolium barbigerum Torr. – bearded clover Trifolium barnebyi (Isely) Dorn & Lichvar Trifolium batmanicum Katzn. Trifolium beckwithii W. H. Brewer ex S. Watson – Beckwith's clover Trifolium bejariense Moric. Trifolium berytheum Boiss. & Blanche Trifolium bifidum A. Gray – notchleaf clover Trifolium bilineatum Fresen. Trifolium billardierei Spreng. Trifolium bivonae Guss. Trifolium blancheanum Boiss. Trifolium bocconei Savi Trifolium boissieri Guss. ex Soy.-Will. & Godr. Trifolium bolanderi A. Gray Trifolium brandegeei S. Watson Trifolium breweri S. Watson – forest clover Trifolium brutium Ten. Trifolium buckwestiorum
Trifolium buckwestiorum
Isely – Santa Cruz clover Trifolium bullatum Boiss. & Hausskn. Trifolium burchellianum Ser. Trifolium calcaricum J. L. Collins & Wieboldt Trifolium calocephalum Fresen. Trifolium campestre
Trifolium campestre
Schreb. – hop trefoil Trifolium canescens Willd. Trifolium carolinianum Michx. Trifolium caucasicum Tausch Trifolium caudatum Boiss. Trifolium cernuum Brot. Trifolium cheranganiense J. B. Gillett Trifolium cherleri L. Trifolium chilaloense Thulin Trifolium chilense Hook. & Arn. Trifolium chlorotrichum Boiss. & Balansa Trifolium ciliolatum
Trifolium ciliolatum
Benth. – foothill clover Trifolium cinctum DC. Trifolium clusii Godr. & Gren. Trifolium clypeatum L. Trifolium congestum Guss. Trifolium constantinopolitanum Ser. Trifolium cryptopodium Steud. ex A. Rich. Trifolium cyathiferum
Trifolium cyathiferum
Lindl. – cup clover Trifolium dalmaticum Vis. Trifolium dasyphyllum Torr. & A. Gray Trifolium dasyurum C. Presl Trifolium davisii M. Hossain Trifolium decorum Chiov. Trifolium depauperatum
Trifolium depauperatum
Desv. – cowbag clover, balloon sack clover, or poverty clover Trifolium dichotomum Hook. & Arn. Trifolium dichroanthoides Rech. f. Trifolium dichroanthum Boiss. Trifolium diffusum Ehrh. Trifolium dolopium Heldr. & Hausskn. ex Gibelli & Belli Trifolium douglasii House Trifolium dubium
Trifolium dubium
Sibth. – lesser hop trefoil Trifolium echinatum M. Bieb. Trifolium elgonense J. B. Gillett Trifolium eriocephalum Nutt. – woollyhead clover Trifolium eriosphaerum Boiss. Trifolium erubescens Fenzl Trifolium euxinum Zohary Trifolium eximium Stephan ex Ser. Trifolium fragiferum
Trifolium fragiferum
L. – strawberry clover Trifolium friscanum
Trifolium friscanum
(S.L. Welsh) S.L. Welsh Trifolium fucatum Lindl. – bull clover or sour clover Trifolium gemellum Pourr. ex Willd. Trifolium gillettianum Jacq.-Fél. Trifolium glanduliferum Boiss. Trifolium globosum L. Trifolium glomeratum
Trifolium glomeratum
L. – clustered clover or bush clover Trifolium gordejevii (Kom.) Z. Wei Trifolium gracilentum Torr. & A. Gray – pinpoint clover Trifolium grandiflorum Schreb. Trifolium gymnocarpon
Trifolium gymnocarpon
Nutt. – hollyleaf clover Trifolium haussknechtii Boiss. Trifolium haydenii Porter Trifolium heldreichianum (Gibelli & Belli) Hausskn. Trifolium hirtum
Trifolium hirtum
All. – rose clover Trifolium howellii
Trifolium howellii
S. Watson – canyon clover or Howell's clover Trifolium hybridum
Trifolium hybridum
L. – Alsike clover Trifolium incarnatum
Trifolium incarnatum
L. – crimson clover Trifolium israeliticum Zohary & Katzn. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot. Trifolium jokerstii
Trifolium jokerstii
Vincent & Rand. Morgan Trifolium juliani Batt. Trifolium kingii S. Watson Trifolium lanceolatum (J. B. Gillett) J. B. Gillett Trifolium lappaceum L. Trifolium latifolium (Hook.) Greene Trifolium latinum Sebast. Trifolium leibergii
Trifolium leibergii
A. Nelson & J. F. Macbr. – Leiberg's clover Trifolium lemmonii S. Watson – Lemmon's clover Trifolium leucanthum M. Bieb. Trifolium ligusticum Balb. ex Loisel. Trifolium longidentatum Nábelek Trifolium longipes
Trifolium longipes
Nutt. – longstalk clover Trifolium lucanicum Gasp. ex Guss. Trifolium lugardii Bullock Trifolium lupinaster L. Trifolium macilentum Greene Trifolium macraei
Trifolium macraei
Hook. & Arn. – Chilean clover, double-head clover, or MacRae's clover Trifolium macrocephalum
Trifolium macrocephalum
(Pursh) Poir. – largehead clover Trifolium masaiense J. B. Gillett Trifolium mattirolianum Chiov. Trifolium mazanderanicum Rech. f. Trifolium medium
Trifolium medium
L. – zigzag clover Trifolium meduseum Blanche ex Boiss. Trifolium meironense Zohary & Lerner Trifolium michelianum Savi. Trifolium micranthum Viv. Trifolium microcephalum
Trifolium microcephalum
Pursh – smallhead clover Trifolium microdon
Trifolium microdon
Hook. & Arn. – thimble clover Trifolium miegeanum Maire Trifolium monanthum A. Gray – mountain carpet clover Trifolium montanum
Trifolium montanum
L. Trifolium mucronatum Willd. ex Spreng. Trifolium multinerve A. Rich. Trifolium mutabile Port. Trifolium nanum
Trifolium nanum
Torr. Trifolium neurophyllum Greene Trifolium nigrescens
Trifolium nigrescens
Viv. Trifolium noricum Wulfen Trifolium obscurum Savi Trifolium obtusiflorum
Trifolium obtusiflorum
Hook. & Arn. – clammy clover Trifolium ochroleucum Huds. Trifolium oliganthum
Trifolium oliganthum
Steud. – fewflower clover Trifolium ornithopodioides L. Trifolium owyheense Gilkey Trifolium pachycalyx Zohary Trifolium palaestinum Boiss. Trifolium pallescens Schreb. Trifolium pallidum Waldst. & Kit. Trifolium pannonicum
Trifolium pannonicum
Jacq. – Hungarian clover Trifolium parnassi Boiss. & Spruner Trifolium parryi A. Gray Trifolium patens Schreb. Trifolium patulum Tausch Trifolium pauciflorum d'Urv. Trifolium petitianum A. Rich. Trifolium philistaeum Zohary Trifolium phitosianum N. Böhling et al. Trifolium phleoides Pourr. ex Willd. Trifolium physanthum Hook. & Arn. Trifolium physodes Steven ex M. Bieb. Trifolium pichisermollii J. B. Gillett Trifolium pignantii
Trifolium pignantii
Brongn. & Bory Trifolium pilczii Adamović Trifolium pilulare Boiss. Trifolium pinetorum Greene Trifolium plebeium Boiss. Trifolium plumosum Douglas Trifolium polymorphum Poir. Trifolium polyodon Greene Trifolium polyphyllum C. A. Mey. Trifolium polystachyum Fresen. Trifolium praetermissum Greuter et al. Trifolium pratense
Trifolium pratense
L. – red clover[14] Trifolium prophetarum M. Hossain Trifolium pseudostriatum Baker f. Trifolium purpureum Loisel. Trifolium purseglovei J. B. Gillett Trifolium quartinianum A. Rich. Trifolium radicosum Boiss. & Hohen. Trifolium reflexum
Trifolium reflexum
L. – buffalo clover Trifolium repens
Trifolium repens
L. – shamrock (white clover) Trifolium resupinatum L. – Persian clover, shaftal Trifolium retusum L. Trifolium riograndense Burkart Trifolium roussaeanum Boiss. Trifolium rubens L. Trifolium rueppellianum Fresen. Trifolium salmoneum Mouterde Trifolium saxatile All. Trifolium scabrum L. Trifolium schimperi A. Rich. Trifolium scutatum Boiss. Trifolium sebastianii Savi Trifolium semipilosum Fresen. Trifolium setiferum Boiss. Trifolium simense Fresen. Trifolium sintenisii Freyn Trifolium siskiyouense J. M. Gillett Trifolium somalense Taub. Trifolium spadiceum L. Trifolium spananthum Thulin Trifolium spumosum L. Trifolium squamosum (or maritimum) L. – sea clover Trifolium squarrosum L. Trifolium stellatum L. Trifolium steudneri Schweinf. Trifolium stipulaceum Thunb. Trifolium stoloniferum
Trifolium stoloniferum
Muhl. ex A. Eaton – running buffalo clover Trifolium stolzii Harms Trifolium striatum
Trifolium striatum
L. – knotted clover Trifolium strictum L. Trifolium subterraneum
Trifolium subterraneum
L. – subterranean clover Trifolium suffocatum L. Trifolium sylvaticum Gérard ex Loisel. Trifolium tembense Fresen. Trifolium thalii Vill. Trifolium thompsonii
Trifolium thompsonii
C. V. Morton – Thompson's clover Trifolium tomentosum L. Trifolium triaristatum Bertero ex Colla Trifolium trichocalyx
Trifolium trichocalyx
A. Heller – Monterey clover Trifolium trichocephalum M. Bieb. Trifolium trichopterum Pančić Trifolium tumens Steven ex M. Bieb. Trifolium ukingense Harms Trifolium uniflorum L. Trifolium usambarense Taub. Trifolium variegatum
Trifolium variegatum
Nutt. – whitetip clover Trifolium vavilovii Eig Trifolium velebiticum Degen Trifolium velenovskyi Vandas Trifolium vernum Phil. Trifolium vesiculosum Savi Trifolium vestitum D. Heller & Zohary Trifolium virginicum Small Trifolium wentzelianum Harms Trifolium wettsteinii Dörfl. & Hayek Trifolium wigginsii J. M. Gillett Trifolium willdenovii
Trifolium willdenovii
Spreng. − tomcat clover Trifolium wormskioldii
Trifolium wormskioldii
Lehm. – cow clover

See also[edit]

Clover
Clover
honey Cloverleaf quasar Green manure

References[edit]

^ a b " Species
Species
Nomenclature in GRIN". Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2010-08-04.  ^ a b c d e f " Genus
Genus
Nomenclature in GRIN". Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ Bumbles make beeline for gardens, study suggests Retrieved 27 November 2010. ^ Isobe, S.; Sawai, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Gau, M.; Uchiyama, K. (2002). "Breeding potential of the backcross progenies of a hybrid between Trifolium medium
Trifolium medium
× T. pratense to T. pratense". Canadian Journal of Plant
Plant
Science. 82 (2): 395–399. doi:10.4141/P01-034.  ^ " Shamrock
Shamrock
(Oxalis)". Fine Gardening. Retrieved February 28, 2017.  ^ "Most Leaves
Leaves
on a Clover". Guinness World Records. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-23.  ^ Clover
Clover
Sets Record. Neatorama. Retrieved on 2008-12-07 from http://www.neatorama.com/2008/06/11/21-leaf-clover-sets-record 21-leaf. Archived July 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Most leaves on a clover". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2016.  ^ Pollard, Michael (1986). Travel by Road and Rail. Independence, Ohio: Schoolhouse Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780808610403.  ^ 1898-1983., Zohary, Michael, (1984). The genus Trifolium. Heller, D. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. ISBN 965208056X. OCLC 11057949.  ^ Ellison, Nick W.; Liston, Aaron; Steiner, Jeffrey J.; Williams, Warren M.; Taylor, Norman L. "Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium—Leguminosae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 39 (3): 688–705. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.004.  ^ Vižintin, Liliana; Javornik, Branka; Bohanec, Borut. "Genetic characterization of selected Trifolium species as revealed by nuclear DNA content and ITS rDNA region analysis". Plant
Plant
Science. 170 (4): 859–866. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.12.007.  ^ Watson, L. E.; Sayed-Ahmed, H.; Badr, A. (2000-09-01). "Molecular phylogeny of Old WorldTrifolium (Fabaceae), based on plastid and nuclear markers". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 224 (3-4): 153–171. doi:10.1007/BF00986340. ISSN 0378-2697.  ^ "Detox and Cleansing". Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Clover". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 561. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trifolium.

Quattrofolium Edibility of clover: Edible parts and visual identification of wild clover. Nitrogen fixation

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q101538 APDB: 195616 EoL: 27877 EPPO: 1TRFG FloraBase: 21625 FoC: 133620 GBIF: 2973363 GRIN: 12357 iNaturalist: 51876 IPNI: 23722-1 ITIS: 26204 NCBI: 3898 PLANTS: TRIFO Tropicos: 40018244 VASCAN: 1782 WoRMS: 425888

Authority control

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