Trieste (/triːˈɛst/; Italian pronunciation: [triˈɛste]
listen (help·info); Slovene: Trst) is a city and a seaport
in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow
strip of Italian territory lying between the
Adriatic Sea and
Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It
is also located near
Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi)
Trieste is located at the head of the
Gulf of Trieste
Gulf of Trieste and throughout
history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of
Latin, Slavic, and Germanic cultures. In 2009, it had a population of
about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region
Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The metropolitan population of
410,000, with the city comprising about 240,000 inhabitants.
Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the
belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy
was one of the
Great Powers of
Trieste was its most
important seaport. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean
Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire (after Vienna, Budapest, and Prague). In the fin de siècle
period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub
for literature and music.
Trieste underwent an economic revival during
the 1930s, and
Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between
the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War.
Trieste province is one of the richest in Italy, and it is a
great centre for shipping (through the Port of Trieste), shipbuilding
and financial services.
Trieste is the most important port of Italy
and it will be the 2020 European Capital of Science - ESOF.
1 Names and etymology
3 City districts
4.1 Ancient history
4.2 Late Antiquity
4.3 Middle Ages
4.4 Early modern period
4.5 19th century
4.6 20th century
4.7 World War I, annexation to
Italy and the Fascist era
World War II
World War II and aftermath
4.9 Zone A of the
Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste (1947–54)
9 Main sights
9.1.1 Castello Miramare (Miramare Castle)
9.1.2 Castel San Giusto (Castle of San Giusto)
9.2 Places of worship
9.3 Archaeological remains
9.3.1 Roman theatre
11.1 Maritime transport
11.2 Rail transport
11.3 Air transport
11.4 Local transport
Trieste Public Transportation Statistics
12 Notable people
13 International relations
13.1 Sister cities and twin towns
14 See also
17 External links
Names and etymology
See also: Names of
Trieste in different languages
The original pre-Roman name of the city, Tergeste, with the -est-
suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a
hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market" (whence Slovenian, Serbian and
Croatian trg, tržnica, and the Scandinavian borrowing torg).
Roman authors also transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names
of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest,
Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek:
Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech: Terst.
Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in
northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on
the Gulf of Trieste.
Satellite view of Trieste
Built mostly on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban
territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down
abruptly from the
Karst Plateau towards the sea. The karst landforms
close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres (1,503 feet) above
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan
Peninsula, and the Mitteleuropa.
The territory of
Trieste is composed of several different climate
zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation. The
average temperatures are 5.4 °C (42 °F) in January and
23.3 °C (74 °F) in July. The climatic setting of the
city is humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to Köppen climate
classification). On average, humidity levels are pleasantly low
(~65%), while only two months (January & February) receive
slightly less than 60 mm (2 in) of precipitation.
Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed
rainfall above 1,000 mm (39 in) in total; it is noteworthy
that no true summer drought occurs.
Snow occurs on average 0 – 2
days per year. Temperatures are very mild - lows below zero are
somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C (86 °F) aren't as
common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are lower than in
Mediterranean zone (~ 5 - 11 °C) with quite high minima
(~2 - 8 °C). Two basic weather patterns interchange - sunny,
sometimes windy but often very cold days frequently connected to an
occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days with
temperatures about 6 to 11 °C (43 to 52 °F). Summer is
very warm with maxima about 28 °C (82 °F) and lows above
20 °C (68 °F), with the hot nights being influenced by the
warm sea water. The absolute maximum of the last fifty years is
37.2 °C (99 °F) in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is
− 14.6 °C (6 °F) in 1956.
Trieste area is divided into 8a-10a zones according to USDA
Villa Opicina (320 to 420 MSL) with 8a in upper
suburban area down to 10a in especially shielded and windproof valleys
close to the Adriatic sea.
The climate can be severely affected by the Bora, a very dry and
usually cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for
several days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h (87 mph),
thus sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare, data
Source #2: Rivista Ligure "La neve sulle coste del
Seven sections of Trieste
Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts:
Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello (Kontovel) ·
Prosecco (Prosek) · Santa Croce (Križ)
Altipiano Est: Banne (Bani) · Basovizza (Bazovica) · Gropada
(Gropada) · Opicina (Opčine) · Padriciano (Padriče) · Trebiciano
Barcola (Slovene: Barkovlje) · Cologna (Slovene: Kolonja) ·
Conconello (Ferlugi) · Gretta (Slovene: Greta) · Grignano
(Grljan) · Guardiella (Slovene: Verdelj) · Miramare · Roiano
(Slovene: Rojan) · Scorcola (Škorklja)
Barriera Nuova ·
Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova
· Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi ·
Sant'Andrea · Cavana
Barriera Vecchia (Stara Mitnica) · San Giacomo (Sveti Jakob) · Santa
Maria Maddalena Superiore (Sveta Marija Magdalena Zgornja)
Cattinara (Katinara) · Chiadino (Slovene: Kadinj) · San Luigi ·
Guardiella (Verdelj) · Longera (Slovene: Lonjer) · San Giovanni
Rozzol (Slovene: Rocol) · Melara
Chiarbola (Slovene: Čarbola) · Coloncovez (Kolonkovec) · Santa
Maria Maddalena Inferiore (Slovene: Spodnja Sveta Marija Magdalena)
- Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore (Slovene: Zgornja Sveta
Marija Magdalena) · Servola (Škedenj) · Poggi Paese · Poggi
Sant'Anna (Sveta Ana)· Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San Sergio
The iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, which is between the
large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many
narrow and crooked streets.
History of Trieste and Timeline of Trieste
Remains of a Roman arch in Trieste's Old City
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site.
Originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in
the 10th-9th c. BC and seem to have given the town its name, Tergeste,
since terg* is a Venetic word meaning market (q.v.
ancient name was Opitergium). Still later, the town was later captured
by the Carni, a tribe of the Eastern Alps, before becoming part of the
Roman republic in 177 BC during the Istrian War.
Between 52 and 46 BC, it was granted the status of Roman colony under
Julius Caesar, who recorded its name as Tergeste in Commentarii de
Bello Gallico (51 BC), his work which recounts events of the Gallic
In imperial times the border of Roman
Italy moved from the Timavo
river to Formione (today Risano). Roman Tergeste flourished due to its
position on the road from Aquileia, the main Roman city in the area,
to Istria, and as a port, some ruins of which are still visible.
Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33–32 BC,
Trajan built a theatre in the 2nd century. At the same time, the
citizens of the town were enrolled in the tribe Pupinia. In 27 BC,
Trieste was incorporated in Regio X of Augustan Italia.
In the early Christian era
Trieste continued to flourish. Between AD
138 and 161, its territory was enlarged and nearby
Carni and Catali
were granted Roman citizenship by the Roman Senate and Emperor
Antoninus Pius at the pleading of a leading Tergestine citizen, the
quaestor urbanus, Fabius Severus.
The city was witness to the
Battle of the Frigidus
Battle of the Frigidus in Vipava valley in
AD 397, in which Theodosius defeated Eugene. Despite the deposition of
Romulus Augustulus at
Ravenna in 476 and the ascension to power of
Odoacer in Italy,
Trieste was retained for a time by the Roman Emperor
seated at Constantinople, and thus, became a Byzantine military
outpost. In 539, the Byzantines annexed it to the Exarchate of Ravenna
and despite Trieste's being briefly taken by the
Lombards in 567 in
the course of their invasion of northern Italy, held it until the time
of the coming of the Franks.
Trieste submitted to
Charlemagne who placed it under the
authority of their count-bishop who in turn was under the Duke of
Friùli. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of
Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th
During the 13th and 14th centuries,
Trieste became a maritime trade
rival to the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it in
1283–87, before coming under the patronage of the Patriarchate of
Aquileia. After committing a perceived offence against Venice, the
Venetian State declared war against
Trieste in July 1368 and by
November had occupied the city.
Venice intended to keep the city and
began rebuilding its defenses, but was forced to leave in 1372. By the
Turin in 1381,
Venice renounced its claim to
Trieste and the
leading citizens of
Trieste petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke
of Austria, to make
Trieste part of his domains. The agreement of
voluntary submission (dedizione) was signed at the castle of
30 September 1382.
The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs, but
was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both at the expense of
Venice and Ragusa (Dubrovnik). In 1463, a number of Istrian
Venice to attack Trieste.
Trieste was saved
from utter ruin by the intervention of
Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II who had previously
been bishop of Trieste. However,
Venice limited Trieste's territory to
three miles (4.8 kilometres) outside the city.
Trieste would be
assaulted again in 1468-1469 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. His
sack of the city is remembered as the "Destruction of Trieste."
Trieste was fortunate to be spared another sack in 1470 by the
Ottomans who burned the village of Prosecco, only about 5.3 miles (8.5
kilometres) from Trieste, while on their way to attack Friuli.
Trieste in the 17th century, in a contemporary image by the Carniolan
historian Johann Weikhard von Valvasor
Early modern period
Following an unsuccessful
Habsburg invasion of
Venice in the prelude
to the 1508–16 War of the League of Cambrai, the Venetians occupied
Trieste again in 1508, and were allowed to keep the city under the
terms of the peace treaty. However, the
Habsburg Empire recovered
Trieste a little over one year later, when the conflict resumed. By
the 18th century
Trieste became an important port and commercial hub
for the Austrians. In 1719, it was granted status as a free port
Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free
port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of
Austria, marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city.
In the following decades,
Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of
the French Empire during the
Napoleonic Wars on several occasions, in
1797, 1805 and 1809. From 1809 to 1813,
Trieste was annexed into
Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing
its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return
of the city to the
Austrian Empire in 1813. Following the Napoleonic
Trieste continued to prosper as the
Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City of
Trieste (German: Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest), a status that
granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
The city's role as Austria's main trading port and shipbuilding centre
was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line
Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the
Piazza Grande and Sanità (today's Piazza Unità d'Italia). By 1913
Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of
236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism
Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was
Trieste becoming capital of the
Austrian Littoral crown
land (German: Österreichisches Küstenland).
The Stock Exchange Square in 1854
Stock market in
In the later part of the 19th century,
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII considered moving
his residence to
Salzburg because of what he considered a
hostile anti-Catholic climate in
Italy following the 1870 Capture of
Rome by the newly established Kingdom of Italy. However, the Austrian
monarch, Franz Josef I, rejected the idea. The modern
Austro-Hungarian Navy used
Trieste as a base and for shipbuilding. The
construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the
Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a
valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.
A view of
Trieste in 1885
In 1882 an Irredentist activist, Guglielmo Oberdan, attempted to
assassinate Emperor Franz Joseph, who was visiting Trieste. Oberdan
was caught, convicted, and executed. He was regarded as a martyr by
radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Franz Joseph, who reigned another
thirty-five years, never visited
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Trieste was a bustling
cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and philosophers such as James
Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Zofka Kveder, Dragotin Kette, Ivan
Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba. The city was the major port
on the Austrian Riviera, and perhaps the only real enclave of
Mitteleuropa (i.e. Central Europe) south of the Alps. Viennese
architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of
Trieste to this
World War I, annexation to
Italy and the Fascist era
Battles of the Isonzo
Battles of the Isonzo and Julian March
Italy, in return for entering
World War I
World War I on the side of the Allied
Powers, had been promised substantial territorial gains, which
included the former
Austrian Littoral and western Inner Carniola.
Italy therefore annexed the city of
Trieste at the end of the war, in
accordance with the provisions of the 1915 Treaty of London and the
Italian-Yugoslav 1920 Treaty of Rapallo. While only a few hundred
Italians remained in the newly established South Slavic [i] state, a
population of half a million Slavs, including the annexed
Slovenes, were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of total
Slovene population at the time and were subjected to forced
Trieste had a large Italian majority, but it had more
ethnic Slovene inhabitants than even Slovenia's capital of Ljubljana
at the end of 19th century.
The Italian lower middle class—who felt most threatened by the
city's Slovene middle class—sought to make
Trieste a città
italianissima, committing a series of attacks led by Black Shirts
against Slovene-owned shops, libraries, and lawyers' offices, and even
Trieste National Hall, a central building to the Slovene
community. By the mid-1930s several thousand Slovenes, especially
members of the middle class and the intelligentsia from Trieste,
emigrated to the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia or to South America. Among the
notable Slovene émigrés from
Trieste were the author Vladimir
Bartol, the legal theorist
Boris Furlan and the Argentine architect
Viktor Sulčič. The political leadership of the around 70,000
émigrés from the
Julian March in
Yugoslavia was mostly composed of
Trieste Slovenes: Lavo Čermelj,
Josip Vilfan and Ivan Marija Čok. In
1926, claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original
Italian form, the Italian government announced the
German, Slovene and Croatian surnames. In the Province of
Trieste alone, 3.000 surnames were modified and 60.000 people had
their surnames amended to an Italian-sounding form. The
psychological trauma, experienced by more than 150,000 people, led to
a massive emigration of German and Slavic families from Trieste.
Despite the exodus of the Slovene and German speakers, the city's
population increased because of the migration of Italians from other
parts of Italy. Several thousand ethnic Italians from
Trieste from the newly-created Yugoslavia.
In the late 1920s, resistance began with the Slovene militant
anti-fascist organization TIGR, which carried out several bomb attacks
in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials of Slovene activists
were held in
Trieste by the fascist
Special Tribunal for the Security
of the State. During the 1920s and 1930s, several monumental buildings
were built in the Fascist architectural style, including the
University of Trieste
University of Trieste and the almost 70 m
(229.66 ft) tall Victory Lighthouse (Faro della Vittoria), which
became a city landmark. The economy improved in the late 1930s, and
several large infrastructure projects were carried out.
The Fascist government encouraged some of the artistic and
intellectual subcultures that emerged in the 1920s, and the city
became home to an important avant-garde movement in visual arts,
centered around the futurist
Tullio Crali and the constructivist
Avgust Černigoj. In the same period,
Trieste consolidated its role as
one of the centres of modern Italian literature, with authors such as
Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich, and Salvatore Satta.
Intellectuals frequented the historic Caffè San Marco, still open
today. Some non-Italian intellectuals remained in the city, such as
the Austrian author Julius Kugy, the Slovene writer and poet Stanko
Vuk, the lawyer and human rights activist
Josip Ferfolja and the
anti-fascist clergyman Jakob Ukmar.
The promulgation of the anti-Jewish racial laws in 1938 was a severe
blow to the city's Jewish community, at the time the third largest in
Italy. The fascist anti-semitic campaign resulted in a series of
attacks on Jewish property and individuals, culminating in July 1942
Synagogue of Trieste
Synagogue of Trieste was raided and devastated by the Fascist
Squads and the mob.
World War II
World War II and aftermath
Yugoslav Army entering
Trieste (the caption reads "Tito's Army
With the annexation of the Province of
Italy and the
subsequent deportation of 25,000 Slovenes, which equaled 7.5% of the
total population of the Province, the operation, one of the most
drastic in Europe, filled up Rab concentration camp, Gonars
concentration camp, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova,
Italian concentration camps where altogether 9,000 Slovenes
World War II
World War II came close to Trieste. Following the trisection
of Slovenia, starting from the winter of 1941, the first Slovene
Partisans appeared in
Trieste province, although the resistance
movement did not become active in the city itself until late 1943.
Italian armistice in September 1943, the city was occupied
Trieste became nominally part of the newly
constituted Italian Social Republic, but it was de facto ruled by
Germany, who created the
Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out
of former Italian north-eastern regions, with
Trieste as the
administrative centre. The new administrative entity was headed by
Friedrich Rainer. Under German occupation, the only concentration camp
with a crematorium on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste,
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba on 4 April 1944. About 5,000 South Slavs,
Italian anti-Fascists and Jews died at the Risiera, while thousands
more were imprisoned before being transferred to other concentration
The city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and
suffered from Allied bombings. The city's Jewish community was
deported to extermination camps, where most of them died.
On 30 April 1945, the Slovenian and Italian anti-Fascist OF
Osvobodilna fronta and National Liberation Committee (Comitato di
Liberazione Nazionale, or CLN) of Marzari and Savio Fonda, made up of
approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the Nazi
occupiers. On 1 May Allied members of the Yugoslav Partisans' 8th
Dalmatian Corps took over most of the city, except for the courts and
the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to
surrender to anyone other than New Zealanders. (The Yugoslavs had a
reputation for shooting German and Italian prisoners.)[citation
2nd New Zealand Division under General Freyberg continued
to advance towards
Trieste along Route 14 around the northern coast of
the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city the following day (see
official histories The Italian Campaign and Through the Venetian
Line). The German forces surrendered on the evening of May 2, but
were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.
The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until 12 June, a period
known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of
During this period, hundreds of local Italians and anti-Communist
Slovenes were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and many of them
were never seen again. Some were interned in Yugoslav
concentration camps (in particular at Borovnica, Slovenia), while
others were simply murdered and thrown into potholes ("foibe") on the
After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito and the
Field Marshal Harold Alexander, the Yugoslav forces withdrew
from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S. military
Julian March was divided between Anglo-American
and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947 when the
Paris Peace Treaty
Paris Peace Treaty established the Free Territory of Trieste.
Zone A of the
Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste (1947–54)
Main article: Free Territory of Trieste
Trieste was declared an independent city state under the
protection of the
United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The
territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line
established in 1945.
From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military
Government, composed of the American "
Trieste United States Troops"
(TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore, the commanding
general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British
Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir Terence Airey,
who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors.
Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of
Trieste, except for four small villages south of
Muggia (see below),
which were given to
Yugoslavia after the dissolution (see London
Memorandum of 1954) of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B, which was
under the administration of Miloš Stamatović, then colonel of the
Yugoslav People's Army, was composed of the north-westernmost portion
of the Istrian peninsula, between the river Mirna and the Debeli Rtič
In 1954, in accordance with the Memorandum of London, the vast
majority of Zone A - including the city of
Trieste - joined Italy,
while Zone B and four villages from Zone A (Plavje, Spodnje Škofije,
Hrvatini, and Elerji) became a part of Yugoslavia, being divided
Slovenia and Croatia. The final border line with Yugoslavia
and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas was settled
bilaterally in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo. This line now
constitutes the border between
Italy and Slovenia.
Trieste City Hall.
This is a list of the mayors of
Trieste since 1949:
5 December 1993
24 June 2001
24 June 2001
30 May 2011
30 May 2011
20 June 2016
20 June 2016
During the Austro-Hungarian era,
Trieste became a leading European
city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth-largest and
most important centre in the empire, after Vienna,
Prague. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into a decline after the
city's annexation to
Italy at the end of World War I. But Fascist
Italy promoted a huge development of
Trieste in the 1930s, with new
manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries
(like the famous "Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini (CANT)").
Allied bombings during
World War II
World War II destroyed the industrial section
of the city (mainly the shipyards). As a consequence,
Trieste was a
mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s,
Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival.
The city is part of the Corridor 5 project to establish closer
transport connections between Western and Eastern Europe, via
countries such as Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary,
Ukraine and Bosnia.
Port of Trieste
Port of Trieste is a trade hub with a significant commercial
shipping business, busy container and oil terminals, and steel works.
The oil terminal feeds the
Transalpine Pipeline which covers 40% of
Germany's energy requirements (100% of the states of Bavaria and
Baden-Württemberg), 90% of
Austria and more than 30% of the Czech
Republic's. The sea highway connecting the ports of
Istanbul is one of the busiest RO/RO [roll on roll-off] routes in the
Mediterranean.The port is also Italy's and the Mediterranean's (and
one of Europe's) greatest coffee ports, supplying more than 40% of
The thriving coffee industry in
Trieste began under Austria-Hungary,
with the Austro-Hungarian government even awarding tax-free status to
the city in order to encourage more commerce. Some remnants of
Austria-Hungary's coffee-driven economic ambition remain, such as the
Trieste coffee company. As a result, present-day Trieste
boasts many cafes, and is still known to this day as "the coffee
capital of Italy". Companies active in the coffee sector have given
birth to the
Coffee Cluster as their main umbrella
organization, but also as an economic actor in its own right.
Fortune Global 500 companies have their global or national
headquarters in the city, respectively:
Assicurazioni Generali (BIT:
Allianz (BIT: ALV). Other megacompanies based in
Fincantieri (BIT: FCT), one of the world's leading shipbuilding
companies and the Italian operations of Wärtsilä. Prominent
Trieste include: AcegasApsAmga (Hera Group),
Banca Generali SpA (BIT: BGN), Genertel,
Genertellife, HERA Trading, Illy, Italia Marittima, Modiano, Nuovo
Arsenale Cartubi Srl,
Jindal Steel and Power
Jindal Steel and Power Italia SpA; Pacorini SpA,
Siderurgica Triestina (Arvedi Group), TBS Group (BIT: TBS), Telit
(AIM: TCM), and polling and marketing company SWG. Supported by a
dynamic banking institution, the Zadružna Kraška Banka (ZKB), the
local Slovene community contributes vigorously to the
Source: ISTAT 2001
Under 18 years old
Over 65 years old
As of July 2013[update], there were 204,849 people residing in
Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, of
whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female.
Trieste had lost roughly
⅓ of its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the
historical industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic
drop in fertility rates and fast population aging. Minors (children
aged 18 and younger) totalled 13.78% of the population compared to
pensioners who number 27.9%. This compares with the Italian average of
18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners).
The average age of
Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian
average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population
Trieste declined by 3.5%, while
Italy as a whole grew by 3.85%.
However, in the last two years the city has shown signs of stabilizing
thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste
is only 7.63 per 1,000, one of the lowest in eastern Italy, while the
Italian average is 9.45 births.
Since the annexation to
Italy after World War I, there has been a
steady decline in the Trieste's demographic weight compared to other
cities. In 1911,
Trieste was the 4th largest city in the
Austro-Hungarian Empire (3rd largest in the Austrian part of the
Monarchy). In 1921,
Trieste was the 8th largest city in the
country, in 1961 the 12th largest, in 1981 the 14th
largest, while in 2011 it dropped to the 15th place.
The particular Friulian dialect, called Tergestino, spoken until the
beginning of the 19th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine
dialect of Venetian (a language deriving directly from Vulgar Latin)
and other languages, including standard Italian, Slovene, and German.
While Triestine and Italian were spoken by the largest part of the
population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and
Slovene was predominantly spoken in the surrounding villages. From the
last decades of the 19th century, the number of speakers of Slovene
grew steadily, reaching 25% of the overall population of Trieste
municipality in 1911 (30% of the Austro-Hungarian citizens in
According to the 1911 census, the proportion of Slovene speakers
amounted to 12.6% in the city centre (15.9% counting only Austrian
citizens), 47.6% in the suburbs (53% counting only Austrian citizens),
and 90.5% in the surroundings. They were the largest ethnic group
in 9 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods of Trieste, and represented a
majority in 7 of them. The Italian speakers, on the other hand,
made up 60.1% of the population in the city center, 38.1% in the
suburbs, and 6.0% in the surroundings. They were the largest
linguistic group in 10 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods, and represented
the majority in 7 of them (including all 6 in the city centre). Of the
11 villages included within the city limits, the Slovene speakers had
an overwhelming majority in 10, and the German speakers in one
German speakers amounted to 5% of the city's population, with the
highest proportions in the city centre. A small proportion of
Trieste's population spoke Serbian (about 1.3% in 1911), and the city
also had several other smaller ethnic communities, including Czechs,
Istro-Romanians, Serbs, and Greeks, who mostly assimilated either into
the Italian or the Slovene-speaking communities.
Today, the dominant local dialect of
Trieste is Triestine ("Triestin",
pronounced [triɛsˈtin]), influenced by a form of Venetian. This
dialect and the official
Italian language are spoken in the city,
while Slovene is spoken in some of the immediate suburbs. There
are also small numbers of Serbian, Croatian, German, and Hungarian
2012 largest resident foreign-born groups
Country of birth
Bosnia and Herzegovina
At the end of 2012, ISTAT estimated that there were 16,279
foreign-born residents in Trieste, representing 7.7% of the total city
population. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes, but there
is also a large immigrant group from
Balkan nations (particularly
Albania and Romania): 4.95%, Asia: 0.52%, and
sub-saharan Africa: 0.2%. Serbian community consists of both
autochthonous and immigrant groups.
Trieste is predominantly
Roman Catholic, but also has large numbers of Orthodox Christians,
mainly Serbs, due to the city's large migrant population from Eastern
Europe and its
Balkan influence.
Piazza Unità d'Italia
Piazza Unità d'Italia
Piazza Unità d'Italia by night
From left to right: Victory Lighthouse, a part of the harbour, a
street of the Old City
Lonely Planet listed the city of
Trieste as the world's most
underrated travel destination.
The Miramare Castle.
Trieste Cathedral dedicated to Saint Justus
Serbian Orthodox Saint Spyridon Church, mid 19th century
The old city stock exchange
The Ponterosso Square
Castello Miramare (Miramare Castle)
The Castello Miramare, or Miramare Castle, on the waterfront 8
kilometres (5 miles) from Trieste, was built between 1856 and 1860
from a project by
Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The
Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees,
chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a
remarkable collection. Features of particular
attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans
and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe ("Castelletto"), a
bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross
made from the remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which
Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef, set sail to become Emperor
Much later, the castle was also the home of Prince Amedeo, Duke of
Aosta, the last commander of Italian forces in East Africa during the
Second World War. During the period of the application of the
Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free Territory of
Trieste, as established in the Treaty of Peace with
10/02/1947), the castle served as headquarters for the United States
Army's TRUST force.
Castel San Giusto (Castle of San Giusto)
The Castel San Giusto, or Castle of San Giusto, was designed on the
remains of previous castles on the site, and took almost two centuries
to build. The stages of the development of the Castle's defensive
structures are marked by the central part built under Frederick III
(1470-1), the round Venetian bastion (1508-9), the Hoyos-Lalio bastion
and the Pomis, or "Bastione fiorito" dated 1630.
Places of worship
The St. Justus Cathedral. Symbol of Italian
Trieste during the
Risorgimento. Named after the city's Patron, St Justus. This church
dates back to 1320: its interiors are decorated by beautiful Byzantine
The Serbian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and St Spyridon
(1869). The building adopts the Greek-cross plan with five cupolas in
the Byzantine tradition.
The Anglican Chiesa di Cristo (Christ Church) (1829)
The Waldensian and Helvetian Evangelical Basilica of St Silvester
The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (1682)
The Augustan Evangelical-Lutheran Church (1874)
The Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò dei Greci (1787). This church
by the architect
Matteo Pertsch (1818), with bell towers on both sides
of the façade, follows the Austrian late baroque style. The interiors
are full of golden ornaments.
Synagogue of Trieste
Synagogue of Trieste (1912). This synagogue is the second-largest
Temple of Monte Grisa
Temple of Monte Grisa (1960)
Arch of Riccardo (33 BC). It is a Roman gate built in the Roman
walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of
the old town. It's called Arco di Riccardo ("Richard's Arch"), where
Riccardo is a corruption of "Cardus", the Roman street which crossed
it. Folk etymology created a local legend, which says that it was
crossed by King Richard I of
England on the way back from the
Basilica Forense (2nd century)
Roman Age Temples" : one dedicated to Athena, one to Zeus, both
on the S.Giusto hill.
The ruins of the temple dedicated to Zeus are next to the Forum, those
of Athena's temple are under the basilica, visitors can see its
The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the
sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill,
and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the
steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood.
The statues that adorned the theatre, brought to light in the 1930s,
are now preserved at the town museum. Three inscriptions from the
Trajanic period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone
closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected
during the second half of the 1st century.
In the entire Province of Trieste, there are 10 speleological groups
out of 24 in the whole
Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The Trieste
plateau (Altopiano Triestino), called Kras or the
Carso and covering
an area of about 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) within
Italy has approximately 1,500 caves of various sizes (like that of
Basovizza, now a monument to the Foibe massacres).
Among the most famous are the Grotta Gigante, the largest tourist cave
in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St Peter's
in Rome, and the Cave of Trebiciano, 350 metres (1,150 ft) deep,
at the bottom of which flows the
Timavo River. This river dives
Škocjan Caves in
Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list and
only a few kilometres from Trieste) and flows about 30 kilometres
(19 mi) before emerging about 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) from the
sea in a series of springs near Duino, reputed by the Romans to be an
entrance to Hades ("the world of the dead").
The Austrian Quarter - Half of the city was built under
Austro-Hungarian dominion, so there is present a very large number of
avenues and palaces that resemble Vienna. The most present
architecture styles are Neoclassical, Art Nouveau, Eclectic, Liberty
Città Vecchia (Old City) -
Trieste boasts an extensive old city:
there are many narrow and crooked streets with typical medieval
houses. Nearly the entire area is closed to traffic.
Piazza Unità d'Italia, Trieste's central majestic square surrounded
by 19th century architecture, and the largest seafront square in
Val Rosandra, a national park on the border between the Province of
Trieste and Slovenia.
Caffè San Marco, historical cafè in the centre of the city. Cafès
play an important role in the Triestine economy, as
a thriving coffee industry under Austria-Hungary, and is still known
to this day as "the coffee capital of Italy".
Caffe degli Specchi opened 1839 is one of the most famous cafés in
Trieste has a lively cultural scene with various theatres. Among these
are the Opera Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, Politeama Rossetti, the
Teatro La Contrada, the
Slovene theatre in Trieste (Slovensko stalno
gledališče, since 1902), Teatro Miela, and a several smaller ones.
There are also numerous museums. Among these are:
Diego de Henriquez war museum
Revoltella Museum modern art gallery
Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste
Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste (natural history museum)
containing fossils of early man.
Civico Orto Botanico di Trieste, a municipal botanical garden
Orto Botanico dell'Università di Trieste, the University of Trieste's
Two important national monuments:
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba (
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba Museum)', a National
monument commemorating the holocaust. It was the only Nazi
concentration camp with crematorium in Italy.
The Foiba di Basovizza, a National monument. It is a reminder of the
killings of Italians (and other ethnic groups) by Yugoslav partisans
after World War II, the last episode of an interethnic violence begun
in the 19th century, with the rise of nationalism, and heavily
intensified by the Fascist government.
The Slovenska gospodarsko-kulturna zveza - Unione Economica-Culturale
Slovena is the umbrella organization bringing together cultural and
economic associations belonging to the Slovene minority.
La Gazzetta Giuliana
Radio Punto Zero
The University of Trieste, founded in 1924, is a medium-size
state-supported institution with 12 faculties, and boasts a wide and
almost complete range of courses. It currently has about 23,000
students enrolled and 1,000 professors.
Trieste also hosts the Scuola
Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), a leading graduate
and postgraduate teaching and research institution in the study of
mathematics, theoretical physics, and neuroscience, and the MIB School
of Management Trieste, one of Italy's top-five business schools.
There are three international schools offering primary and secondary
education programs in English in the greater metropolitan area: the
International School of Trieste, the European School of Trieste, and
the United World College of the Adriatic. Liceo scientifico statale
France Prešeren", and Liceo Anton Martin Slomšek  offer
public secondary education in the Slovene language.
The city also hosts numerous national and international scientific
research institutions. Among these: AREA Science Park, which comprises
ELETTRA, a synchrotron particle accelerator with free-electron laser
capabilities for research and industrial applications; the
International Centre for Theoretical Physics, which operates under a
tripartite agreement among the Italian Government, UNESCO, and
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); the
Observatory; the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica
Sperimentale (OGS), which carries out research on oceans and
geophysics; the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and
United Nations centre of excellence for research and
training in genetic engineering and biotechnology for the benefit of
developing countries; ICS-UNIDO, a UNIDO research centre in the areas
of renewable energies, biofuels, medicinal plants, food safety and
sustainable development; the
Carso Center for Advanced Research in
Space Optics; and the secretariats of The World Academy of Sciences
(TWAS) and of the InterAcademy Panel: The Global Network of Science
The local calcio (football) club in
Trieste is Triestina, one of the
oldest clubs in Italy. Notably, Triestina was runner-up in the
1947/1948 season of the Italian first division (Serie A), losing the
championship to Torino.
Trieste is notable for having had two football clubs participating in
the championships of two different nations at the same time during the
period of the Free Territory of Trieste, due to the schism within the
city and region created by the post-war demarcation. Triestina played
in the Italian first division (Serie A). Although it faced relegation
after the first season after the Second World War, the
the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of
the city in the Italian league, while
Yugoslavia had its eye on the
city. In the championship of next season the club played its best
season with a 3rd-place finish. Meanwhile,
Yugoslavia bought A.S.D.
Ponziana, a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori
Ponziana Trst, played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years.
Triestina went bankrupt in the 1990s, but after being re-founded
regained a position in the Italian second division (Serie B) in 2002.
Ponziana was renamed as "Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912" and currently
Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione, which is 7th level
of the Italian league.
Trieste also boasts a famous basketball team, Pallacanestro Trieste,
which reached its zenith in the 1990s when, with large financial
backing from sponsors Stefanel, it was able to sign players such as
Fernando Gentile and Gregor Fučka, all stars of
Many sailing clubs have roots in the city which contribute to
Trieste's strong tradition in that sport. The Barcolana regatta, which
had its first edition in 1969, is the world's largest sailing race by
number of participants.
Local sporting facilities include the Stadio Nereo Rocco, a
UEFA-certified stadium with seating capacity of 32,500; the
Palatrieste, an indoor sporting arena sitting 8,000 people, and
Piscina Bruno Bianchi, a large olympic size swimming pool.
Trieste has been portrayed on screen a number of times, with films
often shot on location in the area. In 1942 the early neorealist Alfa
Tau! was filmed partly in the city.
Cinematic interest in
Trieste peaked during the height of the "Free
Territory" era between 1947 and 1954 with international films such as
Sleeping Car to Trieste
Sleeping Car to Trieste and
Diplomatic Courier portraying it as a
hotbed of espionage. These films, and the later The Yellow Rolls-Royce
(1964) conveyed an impression of the city as a cosmopolitan place of
conflict between Great Powers, a portrayal which resembled that of
Casablanca (1943). Italian filmmakers, by contrast, portrayed Trieste
as unquestionably Italian in a series of patriotic films including
Trieste mia! and Ombre su Trieste.
The city hosted in 1963 the first International Festival of Science
Fiction Film (Festival internazionale del film di fantascienza), which
ran until 1982. Under the name Science Plus Fiction (now Trieste
Science+Fiction Festival), the festival was brought back in
The Porto Vecchio, also showing
Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale railway station
A car of the Opicina Tramway
See also: Port of Trieste
Trieste's maritime location and its former long term status as part of
the Austrian and, between 1867–1918, Austro-Hungarian empires made
Port of Trieste
Port of Trieste the major commercial port for much of the
landlocked areas of central Europe. In the 19th century, a new port
district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city
There is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal,
steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city
centre. After many years of stagnation, a change in the leadership
placed the port on a steady growth path, recording a 40% increase in
shipping traffic as of 2007[update].
Trieste Centrale railway station
Railways came early to Trieste, due to the importance of its port and
the need to transport people and goods inland. The first railroad line
Trieste was the Südbahn, launched by the Austrian government
in 1857. This railway stretches for 1,400 km (870 mi) to
Lviv, Ukraine, via Ljubljana, Slovenia; Sopron, Hungary; Vienna,
Austria; and Kraków, Poland, crossing the backbone of the Alps
mountains through the
Semmering Pass near Graz. It approaches Trieste
through the village of Villa Opicina, a few kilometres from the big
city but over 300 metres (984 feet) higher in elevation. Due to this,
the line takes a 32 kilometres (20 miles) detour to the north,
gradually descending before terminating at the
In 1887, the
Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways
Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways (German:
kaiserlich-königliche österreichische Staatsbahnen) opened a new
railway line, the Trieste–Hrpelje railway (German: Hrpelje-Bahn),
from the new port of
Trieste to Hrpelje-Kozina, on the Istrian
railway. The intended function of the new line was to reduce the
Austrian Empire's dependence on the Südbahn network. Its opening
Trieste a second station south of the original one, which was
Trieste Sant'Andrea (German: Triest Sankt Andrea). The two
stations were connected by a railway line that in the initial plans
had to be an interim solution: the Rive railway (German: Rive-Bahn),
but which survived until 1981, when it was replaced by the Galleria di
Circonvallazione, a 5.7-kilometre (3.5 mi) railway tunnel route
to the east of the city.
With the opening of the Transalpina
Railway from Vienna,
Jesenice and Nova Gorica in 1906, the St Andrea station was replaced
by a new, more capacious, facility, named
Trieste stazione dello Stato
(German: Triest Staatsbahnhof), later
Trieste Campo Marzio -now a
railway museum-, and the original station came to be identified as
Trieste stazione della Meridionale or
Trieste Meridionale (German:
Triest Südbahnhof). This railway also approached
Trieste via Villa
Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards the sea
front. Freight services from the dock area include container services
Italy and to Budapest, Hungary, together with rolling
highway services to Salzburg,
Austria and Frankfurt, Germany.
Passenger rail service to
Trieste mostly consists of trains to and
from Venice, connecting there with high-speed trains to
Rome and Milan
at Mestre. There are also direct trains to Verona, Turin, Milan, Rome,
Naples and Bologna. These trains reach the
station bypassing the Gulf of Trieste, connecting with the Südbahn's
northern loop. Passenger trains also run between
Villa Opicina and
Trieste could in the remote future be connected to the Italian TAV
railway network: a 300-kilometre-per-hour (190 mph) fast train
route would possibly connect
Trieste with Venice. However, this
project will not be completed earlier than 2020.
Trieste is served by the
Friuli Venezia Giulia Airport (IATA
code: TRS), located 30 minutes away from the city, at Ronchi near
Monfalcone at the head of the Gulf of Trieste. There are many national
and international destinations available.
Trieste are heavily used in personal transport.
Local public transport is operated by
Trieste Trasporti, which
operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They
also operate the Opicina Tramway, a hybrid between tramway and
funicular railway providing a more direct link between the city centre
Trieste Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
Trieste e Gorizia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 49
min. 10% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every
day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for
public transit is 11 min, while 18% of riders wait for over 20 minutes
on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 4.6 km, while 6% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
Main article: List of people from Trieste
Trieste hosts the Secretariat of the Central European Initiative, an
intergovernmental organization among Central and South-Eastern
European states. In July 2017,
Trieste was selected by
be European Science Capital for 2020.
In recent years,
Trieste was chosen to host a number of high level
bilateral and multilateral meetings such as: the Western Balkans
Summit in 2017; the Italo-Russian Bilateral Summit in 2013
(Letta-Putin) and the Italo-German Bilateral Summit in 2008
(Berlusconi-Merkel); the G8 meetings of Foreign Affairs and
Environment Ministers respectively in 2009 and 2001.
Sister cities and twin towns
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Trieste is twinned with:
Lebanon (since 1956)
Cameroon (since 1971)
Graz, Austria (since 1973)
Brazil (since 1977)
United Kingdom (since 2002)
Le Havre, France
International Centre for Theoretical Physics
International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)
Bathyscaphe Trieste, Swiss-designed, Italian built deep sea
ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory
Free Territory of Trieste
Il Piccolo, Trieste's daily newspaper
INFN, (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), the nuclear physics
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB)
International School for Advanced Studies
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA)
People from Trieste
Primorski dnevnik, Trieste's
Slovene language daily newspaper
Risiera di San Sabba
Teatro Comunale Giuseppe Verdi
Treaty of peace with
Trieste Astronomical Observatory
U.S. Triestina Calcio, Trieste's football club.
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^ Alessandro Tuzza; et al. "Prospetto cronologico dei tratti di
ferrovia aperti all'esercizio dal 1839 al 31 dicembre 1926"
[Chronological overview of the features of the railways opened between
1839 and 31 December 1926]. www.trenidicarta.it (in Italian).
Alessandro Tuzza. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
^ Oberegger, Elmar. "Hrpelje-Bahn" [Hrpelje Railway] (in German). Part
of this series: Zur Eisenbahngeschichte des Alpen-Donau-Adria-Raumes.
Oberegger, Elmar. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011.
Retrieved 7 March 2011.
^ "Le linee Alta Velocità: Storia e traguardi" [History of the
Italian "Alta Velocità"] (PDF) (in Italian). Ferrovie dello Stato.
Retrieved 27 December 2012.
Trieste Trasporti S.p.A."
Trieste Trasporti S.p.A. Retrieved April
Trieste e Gorizia Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public
Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was
copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License.
^ "Twin Towns -
Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at. Archived
from the original on 2009-11-08. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trieste.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Trieste.
Trieste (in Italian)
Trieste Chamber of
Commerce (in Italian)
University Of Trieste
Trieste City of Science
Grotta Gigante official site (in Italian)
Porto.trieste.it (in Italian)
Trieste - Photo Guide - (in Italian) - (pdf)
Giovanni Maria Cassini (1791). "Lo Stato
Veneto da terra diviso nelle
sue provincie, seconda parte che comprede porzioni del Dogado del
Friuli e dell' Istria". Rome: Calcografia
camerale. (Map of
Color footage of
Trieste in the 1960's (1963) from British Pathé at
Friuli – Venezia Giulia · Comuni of the Province of Trieste
San Dorligo della Valle
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Italy by population