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The two Treblinka trials concerning the Treblinka extermination camp personnel began in 1964. Held at Düsseldorf in West Germany, they were the two judicial trials in a series of similar war crime trials held during the early 1960s, such as the Jerusalem Adolf Eichmann trial (1961) and the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials (1963–65), as a result of which the general public came to realize the extent of the crimes that some two decades earlier had been perpetrated in occupied Poland by Nazi bureaucrats and their willing executioners. In the subsequent years, separate trials dealt with personnel of the Bełżec (1963–65), Sobibor (1966), and Majdanek (1975–81) extermination camps.[1]

Contents

1 Hirtreiter trial 2 First Treblinka trial 3 Second Treblinka trial 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

Hirtreiter trial[edit] In 1946 Josef Hirtreiter was arrested in the course of the Allied investigations into the killing of disabled persons in the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre. Although not focused on Treblinka from the beginning, and not serving as an upbeat to the later Treblinka trials, the Hirtreiter trial is viewed by some historians as being part of these.[2] Hirtreiter could not be shown to have been criminally involved at Hadamar; however, he did confess to having worked in a camp near the Polish village of Małkinia where Jews were killed in a gas chamber. Further investigations showed that Hirtreiter had been stationed at the Treblinka extermination camp, where he supervised the victims' disrobement prior to their gassing. He was charged with participation in the mass-murder of Jews, particularly the killing of more than 10 persons, including infants. On 3 March 1951 Hirtreiter was sentenced to life imprisonment (released in 1971).[3][4] First Treblinka trial[edit] The crimes committed in the General Government territory of occupied Poland were investigated by the Central Agency from July 1959 by the German specialist in the Nazi prosecution Dietrich Zeug, present at the Eichmann trial. His inquiry led to the first arrest of Treblinka deputy commandant on December 2, 1959. Zeug received survivor testimonies from Yad Vashem which allowed him to examine German national archives for more clues. He was the first to establish the chain of command for Operation Reinhard.[5] The first Treblinka trial began on 12 October 1964 and concerned eleven members of the SS camp personnel, or about a quarter of the total number of SS employed in the extermination of Jews brought aboard Holocaust trains to Treblinka. More than 100 witnesses were called, with incriminating evidence presented by Franciszek Ząbecki, a dispatcher employed by the Reichsbahn during the Holocaust train departures from across occupied Poland, proven by original German waybills he collected. The verdicts were pronounced on 3 September 1965:[6]

Defendants Photograph Rank Function Sentence Reality

Franz, KurtKurt Franz

SS-Untersturmführer Deputy commandant Life imprisonment Served 28 years, released, lived another 5 years

Richard Horn, OttoOtto Richard Horn

SS-Unterscharführer Totenlager – Corpse detail Acquitted

Lambert, ErwinErwin Lambert

SS-Unterscharführer Built Large Gas Chambers 4 years imprisonment Time served. Died 1976

Matthes, HeinrichHeinrich Matthes

SS-Scharführer Chief of Totenlager Life imprisonment

Mentz, WilliWilli Mentz

SS-Unterscharführer Lazarett ("Infirmary," which actually meant shooting victims) Life imprisonment Released in 1978 and died 3 months later

Miete, AugustAugust Miete

SS-Unterscharführer Lazarett – "Angel of Death" Life imprisonment Possibly released in the mid 1980s.[7]

Münzberger, GustavGustav Münzberger

SS-Unterscharführer Totenlager – Gas Chambers 12 years imprisonment Served 6 years, released on good behavior, lived another 6 years

Rum, AlbertAlbert Rum

SS-Unterscharführer Totenlager – Gas Chambers 3 years imprisonment

Stadie, OttoOtto Stadie

SS-Stabsscharführer Camp Administration 6 years imprisonment Released early due to poor health, lived about another decade

Suchomel, FranzFranz Suchomel

SS-Unterscharführer Gold and Valuables 7 years imprisonment Served 4 years, released, lived another 10 years

Küttner, KurtKurt Küttner

SS-Oberscharführer Lower camp of Treblinka II Died before trial

Second Treblinka trial[edit] The second Treblinka trial also known as the Stangl trial,[1] was held from 13 May to 22 December 1970, five years after the first group trial for war crimes. In this trial, camp commandant Franz Stangl, expelled three years earlier from Brazil, finally stood accused. Stangl had previously assisted in killing handicapped people during Operation T4 (the Euthanasia Programme of the National Socialists), and, before moving on to Treblinka, had been the first commandant of Sobibor. Under his supervision, most of the Treblinka killings took place. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, and died in prison on 28 June 1971, during the appeal case. See also[edit]

Belsen trial in 1945 of the SS functionaries from Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen Belzec trial in the mid-1960s of eight former SS members of Belzec extermination camp Chełmno trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart Dachau trials held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp, 1945–1948 Euthanasia trials, an overview of trials dealing specifically with the associated Nazi euthanasia programme Majdanek trials, the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials Nuremberg trials of the 23 most important leaders of the Third Reich, 1945–1946 Ravensbrück Trial Sobibor trial held in Hagen, Germany in 1965 against the SS-men of the Sobibor extermination camp Ivan the Terrible (Treblinka guard), notorious Treblinka guard not brought to trial. In the 1970s-80s John Demjanjuk was accused of being Ivan and brought to trial in 1986, but eventually it was established that he was not the same person.

Notes[edit]

^ a b Sereny, Gitta (1974). Into That Darkness: from Mercy Killing to Mass Murder, a study of Franz Stangl, the commandant of Treblinka.  ^ Bauer (1968), vol. 8; Hofmann. ^ Bryant, Michael (2014). Eyewitness to Genocide: The Operation Reinhard Death Camp Trials, 1955-1966. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 36. ISBN 1621900495.  ^ Webb, Chris (2014). The Treblinka Death Camp: History, Biographies, Remembrance. Columbia University Press. pp. 195–196, 233. ISBN 3838265467.  ^ Ruth Bettina Birn. "Fifty Years After: A Critical Look At The Eichmann Trial" (PDF). Journal of International Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Ohio (1/28/2012): 6, 13–14/31. PDF file, direct download.  ^ S.J. (2007), First Treblinka Trial H.E.A.R.T Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. ^ Hans Peter Rullmann, Der Fall Demjanjuk: Unschuldiger oder Massenmörder? Verlag Helmut Wild, 1987; p. 166. (in German)

References[edit]

Bauer, Fritz, ed. (1968). Justiz und NS-Verbrechen: Sammlung deutscher Strafurteile wegen nationalsozialistischer Tötungsverbrechen 1945–1999 (Justice and Nazi Crimes: a Collection of German Verdicts on national socialist Killings) (in German). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 90-6042-000-4. 

Erster Treblinka-Prozess (First Treblinka Trial): vol. 8, ISBN 90-6042-008-X. Zweiter Treblinka-Prozess (Second Treblinka Trial): vol. 22, ISBN 90-6042-022-5. Dritter Treblinka-Prozess (Third Treblinka Trial): vol. 34, ISBN 90-5356-720-8.

Hofmann, Christian. "Die Treblinka-Prozesse (The Treblinka Trials)". shoa.de (in German). Arbeitskreis Shoa.de e.V.  Rückerl, Adalbert, ed. (1977). NS-Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse (Nazi Extermination Camps mirrored by German Criminal Trials). Munich. p. 81. 

v t e

Treblinka extermination camp

Timeline and List of individuals responsible

Camp organizers

Odilo Lotario Globocnik Hermann Julius Höfle Erwin Hermann Lambert Richard Wolfgang Thomalla Christian Wirth

Commandant

Irmfried Eberl

11 July to 26 August 1942

Franz Paul Stangl

1 September 1942 to August 1943

Kurt Hubert Franz

August to November 1943

Deputies

Theodor van Eupen Heinrich Arthur Matthes Karl Pötzinger

Gas chamber executioners

Gustav Münzberger Fritz Schmidt

Other officers

Max Biala Paul Bredow Herbert Floss Erich Fritz Erhard Fuchs Lorenz Hackenholt Hans Hingst Josef Hirtreiter Otto Richard Horn Kurt Küttner Karl Emil Ludwig Willy Mätzig Willi Mentz August Wilhelm Miete Max Möller Willi Post Albert Franz Rum Karl Schiffer Otto Stadie Ernst Stengelin Franz Suchomel

Guards

"Ivan the Terrible" John Demjanjuk a Feodor Fedorenko Nikolay Yegorovich Shalayev "Trawnikis" a

Prominent victims

Ernst Arndt Yitzchok Breiter Amalia Carneri Julian Chorążycki Samuel Finkelstein Artur Gold Ludwik Holcman Janusz Korczak Berek Lajcher Henryka Łazowertówna Yechiel Lerer Yitzchak Lowy Simon Pullman Natan Spigel Symche Trachter Zygmunt Zalcwasser Lidia Zamenhof

Resistance Survivors

Richard Glazar Chil Rajchman Sol Rosenberg Kalman Taigman Jankiel Wiernik Samuel Willenberg Franciszek Ząbecki

Nazi organizations

General Government SS-Totenkopfverbände

Aftermath Memorials

Treblinka trials

a Alleged b Numbering 90 to 120

Death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište

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