The Treaty of
Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas
[tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ toɾðeˈziʎɐʃ], Spanish: Tratado de
Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas
on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the
newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire
and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues[note 1] west of
the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of
demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already
Portuguese) and the islands entered by
Christopher Columbus on his
first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as
Cuba and Hispaniola).
The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the
west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494 and by
Portugal, 5 September 1494. The other side of the world was divided a
few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529,
which specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified
in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at
Archivo General de Indias
Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da
Torre do Tombo in Portugal.
This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal,
despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World;
however, it omitted all of the other European powers. Those countries
generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became
Protestant after the Protestant Reformation.
The treaty was included by
UNESCO in 2007 in its Memory of the World
1 Signing and enforcement
Moluccas and Treaty of Zaragoza
4 Effect on other European powers
5 The Treaty of Madrid
6 Modern claims
7 See also
10 External links
Signing and enforcement
Lines dividing the non-Christian world between Castile and Portugal:
Tordesillas meridian (purple) and the 1529 Zaragoza
The Treaty of
Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute that had
been created following the return of
Christopher Columbus and his
crew, who had sailed for the Crown of Castile. On his way back to
Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. There he asked for another
meeting with King John II to show him the newly discovered lands.
After learning of the Castilian-sponsored voyage, the Portuguese King
sent a threatening letter to the
Catholic Monarchs stating that by the
Treaty of Alcáçovas
Treaty of Alcáçovas signed in 1479 and confirmed in 1481 with the
papal bull Æterni regis, that granted all lands south of the Canary
Islands to Portugal, all of the lands discovered by Columbus belonged,
in fact, to Portugal. Also, the Portuguese King stated that he was
already making arrangements for a fleet (an armada led by Francisco de
Almeida) to depart shortly and take possession of the new
lands. After reading the letter the Catholic Monarchs
knew they did not have any military power in the Atlantic to match the
Portuguese, so they pursued a diplomatic way out. On
4 May 1493
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), an Aragonese from
Valencia by birth, decreed in the bull
Inter caetera that all lands
west of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west of any of the islands of
Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Castile,
although territory under Catholic rule as of Christmas 1492 would
remain untouched. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands,
so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were
east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of
the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies and dated 25 September
1493, gave all mainlands and islands, "at one time or even still
belonging to India" to Spain, even if east of the line.
The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement,
feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from
possessing India, his near term goal. By 1493
Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of Africa, the Cape
of Good Hope. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the
islands encountered by Columbus, but the explicit mention of India was
a major issue. As the Pope had not made changes, the Portuguese king
opened direct negotiations with the Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand
and Queen Isabella, to move the line to the west and allow him to
claim newly discovered lands east of the line. In the bargain, John
Inter caetera as the starting point of discussion with
Ferdinand and Isabella, but had the boundary line moved 270 leagues
west, protecting the Portuguese route down the coast of
giving the Portuguese rights to lands that now constitute the Eastern
quarter of Brazil. As one scholar assessed the results, "both sides
must have known that so vague a boundary could not be accurately
fixed, and each thought that the other was deceived, [concluding that
it was a] diplomatic triumph for Portugal, confirming to the
Portuguese not only the true route to India, but most of the South
The treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was
subsequently sanctioned by
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II by means of the bull Ea quae
pro bono pacis of 24 January 1506. Even though the treaty was
negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the
resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation".
Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by
Europeans, as it was only divided via the treaty. Castile gained lands
including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven
wealth. The easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal
when in 1500
Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there while he was en route
to India. Some historians contend that the Portuguese already knew of
the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil before this
time, so his landing in Brazil was not an accident. One scholar
points to Cabral's landing on the Brazilian coast 12 degrees farther
south than the expected Cape São Roque, such that "the likelihood of
making such a landfall as a result of freak weather or navigational
error was remote; and it is highly probable that Cabral had been
instructed to investigate a coast whose existence was not merely
suspected, but already known".
The line was not strictly enforced—the Spanish did not resist the
Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. However, the
Catholic Monarchs attempted to stop the Portuguese advance in Asia, by
claiming the meridian line ran around the world, dividing the whole
world in half rather than just the Atlantic. Portugal pushed back,
seeking another papal pronouncement that limited the line of
demarcation to the Atlantic. This was given by Pope Leo X, who was
friendly toward Portugal and its discoveries, in 1514 in the bull
For a period between 1580 and 1640, the treaty was rendered
meaningless, as the Spanish King was also King of Portugal. It was
superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid which granted Portugal control
of the lands it occupied in South America. However, the latter treaty
was immediately repudiated by the Catholic Monarch. The First Treaty
of San Ildefonso settled the problem, with Spain acquiring territories
east of the
Uruguay River and Portugal acquiring territories in the
Emerging Protestant maritime powers, particularly England and The
Netherlands, and other third parties such as Roman Catholic France,
did not recognize the division of the world between only two Roman
Catholic nations brokered by the pope.
Tordesillas lines in South America (1495–1545)
The Treaty of
Tordesillas only specified the line of demarcation in
leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. It did not specify the line in
degrees, nor did it identify the specific island or the specific
length of its league. Instead, the treaty stated that these matters
were to be settled by a joint voyage which never occurred. The number
of degrees can be determined via a ratio of marine leagues to degrees
applied to the Earth regardless of its assumed size, or via a specific
marine league applied to the true size of the Earth, called "our
sphere" by historian Henry Harrisse.
The earliest Aragonese opinion was provided by Jaime Ferrer in 1495 at
the request of the Aragonese king and Castilian queen to those
monarchs. He stated that the demarcation line was 18° west of the
most central island of the Cape Verde Islands, which is Fogo according
to Harrisse, having a longitude of 24°25'W of Greenwich, hence Ferrer
placed the line at 42°25'W on his sphere, which was 21.1% larger than
our sphere. Ferrer also stated that his league contained 32 Olympic
stades, or 6.15264 km according to Harrisse, thus Ferrer's line was
2,276.5 km west of Fogo at 47°37'W on our sphere.
Cantino planisphere depicting the meridian, 1502
The earliest surviving Portuguese opinion is on the Cantino
planisphere of 1502. Because its demarcation line was midway between
Cape Saint Roque (northeast cape of South America) and the mouth of
Amazon River (its estuary is marked Todo este mar he de agua
doçe—"All of this sea is fresh water"—and its river is marked Rio
grande, "great river"), Harrisse concluded that the line was at
42°30'W on our sphere. Harrisse believed the large estuary just west
of the line on the Cantino map was that of the Rio Maranhão (this
estuary is now the
Baía de São Marcos and the river is now the
Mearim), whose flow is so weak that its gulf does not contain fresh
In 1518 another Castilian opinion was provided by Martin Fernandez de
Enciso. Harrisse concluded that Enciso placed his line at 47°24'W on
his sphere (7.7% smaller than ours), but at 45°38'W on our sphere
using Enciso's numerical data. Enciso also described the coastal
features near which the line passed in a very confused manner.
Harrisse concluded from this description that Enciso's line could also
be near the mouth of the Amazon between 49° and 50°W.
In 1524 the Castilian pilots (ships' captains) Thomas Duran, Sebastian
Cabot (son of John Cabot), and Juan Vespuccius (nephew of Amerigo
Vespucci) gave their opinion to the Badajoz Junta, whose failure to
resolve the dispute led to the Treaty of Saragossa. They specified
that the line was 22° plus nearly 9 miles west of the center of Santo
Antão (the westernmost Cape Verde island), which Harrisse concluded
was 47°17'W on their sphere (3.1% smaller than ours) and 46°36'W on
In 1524 the Portuguese presented a globe to the Badajoz Junta on which
the line was marked 21°30' west of Santo Antão (22°6'36" on our
Moluccas and Treaty of Zaragoza
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Main article: Treaty of Zaragoza
Dutch map of the
Moluccas (north is at right)
Initially, the line of demarcation did not encircle the Earth.
Instead, Spain and Portugal could conquer any new lands they were the
first to discover, Spain to the west and Portugal to the east, even if
they passed each other on the other side of the globe. But
Portugal's discovery of the highly valued
Moluccas in 1512 caused
Spain to argue in 1518 that the Treaty of
Tordesillas divided the
Earth into two equal hemispheres. After the surviving ships of
Magellan's fleet visited the
Moluccas in 1521, Spain claimed that
those islands were within its western hemisphere. In the early 16th
century, the Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Vitoria;
February 19, 1524 and called for the Badajoz Junta to meet in 1524, at
which the two countries tried to reach an agreement on the
anti-meridian but failed. They finally agreed in a treaty signed
Zaragoza that Spain would relinquish its claims to the Moluccas
upon the payment of 350,000 ducats (≈100 kg) of gold by
Portugal to Spain. To prevent Spain from encroaching upon Portugal's
Moluccas, the anti-meridian was to be 297.5 leagues or 17° to the
east of the Moluccas, passing through the islands of Las Velas and
Santo Thome. This distance is slightly smaller than the 300
leagues determined by Magellan as the westward distance from los
Ladrones to the Philippine island of Samar, which is just west of due
north of the Moluccas.
Moluccas are a group of islands west of New Guinea. However,
unlike the large modern Indonesian archipelago of the Maluku Islands,
to 16th-century Europeans the
Moluccas were a small chain of islands,
the only place on Earth where cloves grew, just west of the large
north Malukan island of
Halmahera (called Gilolo at the time). Cloves
were so prized by Europeans for their medicinal uses that they were
worth their weight in gold. 16th- and 17th-century maps and
descriptions indicate that the main islands were Ternate, Tidore,
Makian and Bacan, although the last was often ignored even
though it was by far the largest island. The principal
Ternate at the chain's northern end (0°47'N, only 11
kilometres (7 mi) in diameter) on whose southwest coast the
Portuguese built a stone fort (Forte de São João Baptista de
Ternate) during 1522–23, which could only be repaired, not
modified, according to the Treaty of Saragossa. This north-south chain
occupies two degrees of latitude bisected by the equator at about
127°24'E, with Ternate, Tidore, Moti, and
Makian north of the equator
Bacan south of it.
Although the treaty's Santo Thome island has not been identified, its
"Islas de las Velas" (Islands of the Sails) appear in a 1585 Spanish
history of China, on the 1594 world map of Petrus Plancius, on an
anonymous map of the
Moluccas in the 1598 London edition of
Linschoten, and on the 1607 world map of Petro Kærio, identified as a
north-south chain of islands in the northwest Pacific, which were also
called the "Islas de los Ladrones" (Islands of the Thieves) during
that period. Their name was changed by Spain in 1667 to
"Islas de las Marianas" (Mariana Islands), which include
Guam at their
southern end. Guam's longitude of 144°45'E is east of the Moluccas'
longitude of 127°24'E by 17°21', which is remarkably close by
16th-century standards to the treaty's 17° east. This longitude
passes through the eastern end of the main north Japanese island of
Hokkaidō and through the eastern end of New Guinea, which is where
Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line. Moriarty and
Keistman placed the demarcation line at 147°E by measuring 16.4°
east from the western end of
New Guinea (or 17° east of 130°E).
Despite the treaty's clear statement that the demarcation line passes
17° east of the Moluccas, some sources place the line just east of
The Treaty of Saragossa did not modify or clarify the line of
demarcation in the Treaty of Tordesillas, nor did it validate Spain's
claim to equal hemispheres (180° each), so the two lines divided the
Earth into unequal hemispheres. Portugal's portion was roughly 191°
whereas Spain's portion was roughly 169°. Both portions have a large
uncertainty of ±4° because of the wide variation in the opinions
regarding the location of the
Portugal gained control of all lands and seas west of the Saragossa
line, including all of Asia and its neighboring islands so far
"discovered," leaving Spain most of the Pacific Ocean. Although the
Philippines were not named in the treaty, Spain implicitly
relinquished any claim to them because they were well west of the
line. Nevertheless, by 1542, King Charles V decided to colonize the
Philippines, judging that Portugal would not protest because the
archipelago had no spices. Although a number of expeditions sent from
New Spain arrived in the Philippines, they were unable to establish a
settlement because the return route across the Pacific was unknown.
King Philip II succeeded in 1565 when he sent Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
and Andres de Urdaneta, establishing the initial Spanish trading post
Cebu and later founding
Manila in 1571.
Besides Brazil and the Moluccas, Portugal eventually controlled
Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, and São Tomé and Príncipe
(among other territories and bases) in Africa; several bases or
territories as Muscat,
Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, Goa,
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu (among other coastal cities) in India;
Ceylon, and Malacca, bases in present-day
Indonesia as Makassar, Solor
and Ambon, Portuguese Timor, the entrepôt-base of Macau and the
Dejima (Nagasaki) in the Far East.
Spain, on the other hand, would control vast western regions in the
Americas, in areas ranging from the present-day United States to
present-day Argentina, an empire that would extend to the Philippines,
and bases in
Formosa (17th century).
Portuguese and Spanish empires (anachronous world maps)
Spanish Empire alongside Iberian Union
Iberian Union (1581–1640)
Effect on other European powers
The treaty was historically important in dividing Latin America, as
well as establishing Spain in the western Pacific until 1898. However,
it quickly became obsolete in North America, and later in Asia and
Africa, where it affected colonization. It was ignored by other
European nations, and with the decline of Spanish and Portuguese
power, the home countries were unable to hold many of their claims,
much less expand them into poorly explored areas. Thus, with
sufficient backing, it became possible for any European state to
colonize open territories, or those weakly held by Lisbon or Madrid.
With the fall of
Malacca to the Dutch, the VOC (Dutch East India
Company) took control of Portuguese possessions in Indonesia, claiming
New Guinea and Western Australia, as New Holland. Eastern
Australia remained in the Spanish half of the world until claimed for
James Cook in 1770. The attitude towards the treaty that
other governments had was expressed in a statement attributed to
France's King Francis I, "Show me Adam's will!"
The Treaty of Madrid
Main article: Treaty of Madrid (13 January 1750)
In January 13, 1750,
King John V of Portugal
King John V of Portugal and Ferdinand VI of Spain
signed the Treaty of Madrid, in which both parts sought to establish
the borders between Brazil and Spanish America, admitting that the
Treaty of Tordesillas, as it had been envisioned in 1494 had been
superseded, and was considered void. Spain was acknowledged
sovereignty over the Philippines, while Portugal would get the
territory of the
Amazon River basin. Portugal would relinquish the
colony of Sacramento, on the northern bank of the River Plata in
modern-day Uruguay, while getting the territory of the Seven
The Treaty of
Tordesillas was invoked by Chile in the 20th century to
defend the principle of an Antarctic sector extending along a meridian
to the South Pole, as well as the assertion that the treaty made
Spanish (or Portuguese) all undiscovered land south to the Pole.
Indonesia took possession of Netherlands
New Guinea in 1962,
supporting its claim by stating the Empire of
Majapahit had included
western New Guinea, and that it was part of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
The Treaty of
Tordesillas was also invoked by Argentina in the 20th
century as part of its claim to the Falkland/Malvinas Islands.
Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery
History of Portugal (1415–1578)
List of treaties
^ 370 leagues equals 2,193 km, 1,362 statute miles, or 1,184 nautical
These figures use the legua náutica (nautical league) of four Roman
miles totaling 5.926 km, which was used by Spain during the 15th,
16th, and 17th centuries for navigation. In 1897 Henry Harrise
noted that Jaime Ferrer, the expert consulted by King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella, stated that a league was four miles of six stades
each. Modern scholars agree that the geographic stade was the Roman
or Italian stade, not any of several other Greek stades, supporting
these figures. Harrise is in the minority when he uses the stade
of 192.27 m marked within the stadium at Olympia, Greece, resulting in
a league (32 stades) of 6.153 km, 3.8% larger.
^ Emma Helen Blair, ed., The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803
(Cleveland, Ohio: 1903). Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed., European
Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its
Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of
Washington, 1917), 100.
^ In the European Portuguese pronunciation. Brazilians might variously
pronounce it as [tɾɐˈtadʊ dʑɪ toɾdeˈziʎəs] in São Paulo,
[tɾəˈtadu dʑi to̞ʀde̞ˈziʎəɕ] in
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro and
[tɾaˈtadu dʑi tɔʁdɛˈziʎəs] in
Salvador, Bahia and
[tɾɐˈtadu di tɔɦde̞ˈziʎəs] in Recife.
^ Chardon, Roland (1980). "The linear league in North America". Annals
of the Association of American Geographers. 70: 129–153 [pp. 142,
144, 151]. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1980.tb01304.x.
^ Harrisse, pp. 85–97, 176–190.
^ Newlyn Walkup, Eratosthenes and the mystery of the stades
^ Engels, Donald (1985). "The length of Eratosthenes' stade". American
Journal of Philology. 106: 298–311. doi:10.2307/295030.
^ Davenport, 85, 171.
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI (4 May 1493). Inter Caetera.
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI (25 September 1493) (in Latin). Dudum
^ Parry, J. H. (1973). The Age of Reconnaissance: Discovery,
Exploration, and Settlement, 1450–1650. London: Cardinal.
p. 194. ISBN 0-297-16603-4.
^ Davenport, ed., 107–111.
^ Leslie Ronald Marchant, The Papal Line of Demarcation and Its Impact
in the Eastern Hemisphere on the Political Division of Australia,
1479–1829 (Greenwood, Western Australia: Woodside Valley Foundation,
2008) ISBN 978-1-74126-423-4.
^ Crow, John A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America (Fourth ed.).
University of California Press. p. 136.
^ Parry, Age of Reconnaissance p. 198.
^ Parry, Age of Reconnaissance p. 202.
^ Parry, Age of Reconnaissance p. 205.
^ Henry Harrisse, The Diplomatic History of America: Its first chapter
1452—1493—1494 (London: Stevens, 1897). pp. 194
^ Harrisse, pp. 91–97, 178–190.
^ Harrisse, pp. 100–102, 190–192.
^ Harrisse, pp. 103–108, 122, 192–200.
^ Harrisse, pp. 138–139, 207–208.
^ Harrisse, pp. 207–208.
^ Edward Gaylord Bourne, "Historical Introduction", in Blair.
^ Emma Helen Blair, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803, part 2
^ Emma Helen Blair, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803, part 3
^ Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by
Magellan, London: Hakluyt, 1874, p. 71
^ Andaya, pp. 1–3
^ Corn, p. xxiv. "I split the nut, once more valuable than gold."
^ Gavan Daws and Marty Fujita, Archipelago: The Islands of Indonesia,
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), p. 98,
ISBN 0-520-21576-1 (early 1500s).
^ "The Portuguese in the
Moluccas and in the Lesser Sunda Islands by
Marco Ramerini, 1600s". Colonialvoyage.com. Archived from the original
on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
^ Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by
Magellan, London: Hakluyt Society, 1874, pp. 126–27.
^ Andaya, p. 117. After the
Iberian Union (1580–1640) and the
effective Dutch conquest of the
Moluccas (1605–1611, pp. 152–3),
the fort was destroyed by the Spanish in 1666 during their retreat to
the Philippines. (p. 156)
^ Knowlton, p.341. The islands were named both las Velas and los
Ladrones in a quote from Father Juan González de Mendoza in Historia
de las cosas más notables, ritos y costumbres del gran Reino de la
China (History of the most remarkable things, rites and customs of the
great Kingdom of China, 1585).
^ Cortesao, p.224, with detailed maps naming each island on several
^ ed. John O. E. Clark, 100 Maps (New York: Sterling, 2005) p. 115,
^ Le Réseau Asie (2006-09-15). "The cartography of the Orientals and
Southern Europeans in the beginning of the western exploration of
South-East Asia from the middle of the XVth century to the beginning
of the XVIIth century by Frédéric Durand". Reseau-asie.com.
^ "Philip II Orders the Journey of the First
Manila Galleon". The
Journal of San Diego History (Volume 12, Number 2 ed.). April 1966.
^ Lines in the sea by Giampiero Francalanci and others, p.3 about
129°E or only 1.5° east of the Moluccas.
^ Lines of Demarcation 1529 about 134°E or 6.5° east of the
^ Infoblatt Das Zeitalter der großen Entdeckungsfahrten about 135°E
or 7.5° east of the Moluccas.
^ Miller, James Rodger (2000-06-01). Skyscrapers hide the heavens: a
history of Indian-white relations in Canada. p. 20.
ISBN 9780802081537. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
^ José Damião Rodrigues, Pedro Aires Oliveira (2014) História da
Expansão e do Império Português ed. Esfera dos Livros, p.266-267
^ "National Interests And Claims In The Antarctic" (PDF). Retrieved
^ Laver, Roberto (2001). The Falklands/Malvinas case. Springer.
pp. 67–69. ISBN 978-90-411-1534-8.
Edward G. Bourne, 'The History and Determination of the Line of
Demarcation by Pope Alexander VI, between the Spanish and Portuguese
Fields of Discovery and Colonization', American Historical
Association, Annual Report for 1891, Washington, 1892; Senate
Miscellaneous Documents, Washington, Vol.5, 1891–92,
James R Akerman, The Imperial Map (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2009) 138.
Leonard Y. Andaya, The world of Maluku: Eastern
Indonesia in the early
modern period (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993,
Emma Helen Blair, ed., The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 (vol 1 of 55)
(Cleveland, Ohio: 1903-1909), containing complete English translations
of both treaties and related documents.
Stephen R. Bown, 1494: How a family feud in medieval Spain divided the
world in half (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2012)
Charles Corn, The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade, (New
York: Kodansha, 1998), ISBN 1-56836-202-1.
Cortesao, Armando (1939). "Antonio Pereira and his map of circa 1545".
Geographical Review. 29: 205–225. doi:10.2307/209943.
Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed., European Treaties bearing on the
History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington,
DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917/1967).
Translation of the Treaty of
Tordesillas by Davenport.
Henry Harrisse, The Diplomatic History of America: Its first chapter
1452—1493—1494 (London: Stevens, 1897).
Knowlton, Edgar C. (1963). "China and the
Philippines in El Periquillo
Sarniento". Hispanic Review. 31: 336–347. doi:10.2307/472212.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Treaty of
Tordesillas (Portuguese) from Archivo General de Indias
Treaty of Tordesillas[permanent dead link] English translation from
Compact Between the Catholic Sovereigns and the King of Portugal
Regarding the Demarcation and the Division of the Ocean Sea[permanent
dead link] English translation from Blair—BROKEN LINK