The Info List - Treaty Of Lausanne

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The Treaty of Lausanne
(French: Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in Palais de Rumine,[1] [2] Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923. It officially settled the conflict that had originally existed between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Allied French Republic, British Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Empire of Japan, Kingdom of Greece, and the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
since the onset of World War I.[3] The original text of the treaty is in French.[3] It was the result of a second attempt at peace after the failed Treaty of Sèvres, which was signed by all previous parties, except the Kingdom of Greece, but later rejected by the Turkish national movement
Turkish national movement
who fought against the previous terms and significant loss of territory. The Treaty of Lausanne
ended the conflict and defined the borders of the modern Turkish Republic. In the treaty, Turkey
gave up all claims to the remainder of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and in return the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within its new borders.[3] The treaty was ratified by Turkey
on 23 August 1923,[4][5] Greece on 25 August 1923,[4] Italy on 12 March 1924,[6] Japan on 15 May 1924,[5] Great Britain on 16 July 1924.[7] The treaty came into force on 6 August 1924, when the instruments of ratification had been officially deposited in Paris, France.[3]


1 Background 2 Stipulations

2.1 Borders 2.2 Agreements

3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External links

Background[edit] Main article: Conference of Lausanne See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Turkish Independence War

Borders of Turkey
according to the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
(1920) which was annulled and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne
(1923) in the aftermath of the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

After the withdrawal of the Greek forces in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the expulsion of the Ottoman sultan by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Ankara-based government of the Turkish national movement rejected the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
previously signed by the Ottoman Empire. Negotiations were undertaken during the Conference of Lausanne, where İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
was the chief negotiator for Turkey. Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary of that time, was the chief negotiator for the Allies, while Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos
negotiated on behalf of Greece. The negotiations took many months. On 20 November 1922, the peace conference was opened and after strenuous debate was interrupted by Turkish protest on 4 February 1923. After reopening on 23 April, and following more protests by the Turks and tense debates, the treaty was signed on 24 July as a result of eight months of arduous negotiation. The Allied delegation included U.S. Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as the United States High Commissioner and championed Turkish efforts.[8] Stipulations[edit] The treaty was composed of 143 articles with major sections including:[9]

Convention on the Turkish Straits Trade (abolition of capitulations) Agreements Binding letters.

The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey
but also for the protection of the Greek Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey
and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, most of the Christian population of Turkey
and the Turkish population of Greece had already been deported under the earlier Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations signed by Greece and Turkey. Only the Greeks of Constantinople, Imbros
and Tenedos
were excluded (about 270,000 at that time),[10] and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923.)[11] Article 14 of the treaty granted the islands of Gökçeada (Imbros) and Bozcaada (Tenedos) "special administrative organisation", a right that was revoked by the Turkish government on 17 February 1926. Turkey
also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus
(which was leased to the British Empire
British Empire
following the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878, but de jure remained an Ottoman territory until World War I) as well as Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
(which were occupied by British forces with the pretext of "putting down the Urabi Revolt
Urabi Revolt
and restoring order" in 1882, but de jure remained Ottoman territories until World War I) to the British Empire, which had unilaterally annexed them on 5 November 1914.[3] The fate of the province of Mosul
was left to be determined through the League of Nations. Turkey
also explicitly renounced all claims on the Dodecanese Islands, which Italy was obliged to return to Turkey
according to Article 2 of the Treaty of Ouchy
Treaty of Ouchy
in 1912 following the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912).[12][13] Borders[edit]

Adakale Island in River Danube
was forgotten during the peace talks at the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878, which allowed it to remain a de jure Turkish territory and the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II's private possession until the Treaty of Lausanne
in 1923 (de facto until Romania unilaterally declared its sovereignty on the island in 1919 and further strengthened this claim with the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
in 1920.)[14] The island was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates hydroelectric plant in 1970, which also removed the possibility of a potential legal claim by the descendants of Abdul Hamid II.

The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey; formally ceded all Turkish claims on the Dodecanese Islands
Dodecanese Islands
(Article 15); Cyprus
(Article 20);[15] Egypt and Sudan (Article 17); Syria and Iraq (Article 3); and (along with the Treaty of Ankara) settled the boundaries of the latter two nations.[3] The territories to the south of Syria and Iraq on the Arabian Peninsula which still remained under Turkish control when the Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros
was signed on 30 October 1918 were not explicitly identified in the text of the treaty. However, the definition of Turkey's southern border in Article 3 also meant that Turkey officially ceded them. These territories included Yemen, Asir
and parts of Hejaz
like the city of Medina. They were held by Turkish forces until 23 January 1919.[16][17] Turkey
officially ceded Adakale Island in River Danube
to Romania with Articles 25 and 26 of the Treaty of Lausanne; by formally recognizing the related provisions in the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
of 1920.[3][14] Due to a diplomatic irregularity at the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the island had technically remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey
also renounced its privileges in Libya which were defined by Article 10 of the Treaty of Ouchy
Treaty of Ouchy
in 1912 (per Article 22 of the Treaty of Lausanne
in 1923.)[3] Agreements[edit] Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States: the Chester concession. The United States Senate
United States Senate
refused to ratify the treaty, and consequently Turkey
annulled the concession.[9] Aftermath[edit]

Turkish delegation after having signed the Treaty of Lausanne. The delegation was led by İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
(in the middle)

The Treaty of Lausanne
led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey
as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.[3] The Convention on the Straits
lasted only thirteen years and was replaced with the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits
in 1936. The customs limitations in the treaty were shortly reworked. Hatay Province
Hatay Province
remained a part of the French Mandate of Syria according to the Treaty of Lausanne, but in 1938 gained its independence as the Hatay State, which later joined Turkey
after a referendum in 1939. Political amnesty was applied to the 150 personae non gratae of Turkey
(mostly descendants of the Ottoman dynasty) who slowly acquired citizenship — the last one was in 1974. See also[edit]

1920s portal Turkey
portal Europe portal United Nations portal

has original text related to this article: Treaty of Lausanne

Aftermath of World War I İsmet İnönü Minority Treaties Greeks in Turkey Greek refugees Muslim minority of Greece Population exchange between Greece and Turkey Turks of Western Thrace Turks of the Dodecanese Italo-Turkish War Treaty of Lausanne
Monument and Museum in Karaağaç, Edirne, Turkey

Notes and references[edit]

^ https://www.lonelyplanet.com/switzerland/lausanne/attractions/palais-de-rumine/a/poi-sig/1439510/360822 ^ http://www.myswitzerland.com/en-us/mice/palais-de-rumine-musee-cantonal-des-beaux-arts.html ^ a b c d e f g h i Treaty of Peace with Turkey
signed at Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 24 July 1923, retrieved 28 November 2012  ^ a b "League of Nations, Official Journal". 4. October 1924: 1292.  ^ a b Martin Lawrence (1924). Treaties of Peace, 1919-1923. I. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. lxxvii.  ^ Cite error: The named reference rence was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Hansard, House of Commons, 16 July 1924. ^ Morgenthau, Henry, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story,(Detroit: Wayne State University, 2003), 303. ^ a b Mango, Andrew (2002). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook Press. p. 388. ISBN 1-58567-334-X.  ^ The Greek minority of Turkey
- Hellenic Resources Network ^ Öksüz 2004, 255[clarification needed] ^ Treaty of Ouchy
Treaty of Ouchy
(1912), also known as the First Treaty of Lausanne ^ James Barros, The Corfu Incident of 1923: Mussolini and The League of Nations, Princeton University Press, 1965 (reprinted 2015), ISBN 1400874610, p. 69 ^ a b Adakale Island in River Danube ^ Xypolia, Ilia (2011). "Cypriot Muslims among Ottomans, Turks and British" (PDF). Bogazici Journal. 25 (2): 109–120. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ Ottoman Web Site: "Arabia (Yemen-Hejaz) Front" ^ Osmanlı Web Sitesi: "Arabistan Cephesi"

External links[edit]

Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne
(1923) Newspaper clippings about Treaty of Lausanne
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics

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