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The Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.[1] It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
as the dominant power in Central and southeast Europe.[2]

Contents

1 Context and terms 2 Maps and images 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

Context and terms[edit] Following a two-month congress between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on one side and the Holy League of 1684, a coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia,[3] a treaty was signed on 26 January 1699. On the basis of uti possidetis, the treaty confirmed the then-current territorial holdings of each power.[2] The Habsburgs received from the Ottomans the Eğri Eyalet, Varat Eyalet, much of the Budin Eyalet, the northern part of the Temeşvar Eyalet
Temeşvar Eyalet
and parts of the Bosnia Eyalet. This corresponded to much of Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia. The Principality of Transylvania remained nominally independent but was subject to the direct rule of Austrian governors.[2] Poland recovered Podolia, including the dismantled fortress at Kamaniçe.[2] Venice obtained most of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
along with the Morea
Morea
(the Peloponnese peninsula of southern Greece), though the Morea
Morea
was restored to the Turks within 20 years by the Treaty of Passarowitz.[2] There was no agreement about the Holy Sepulchre, although it was discussed in Karlowitz.[4] The Ottomans retained Belgrade, the Banat of Temesvár (modern Timișoara), as well as suzerainty over Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia. Negotiations with Muscovy
Muscovy
for a further year under a truce agreed at Karlowitz culminated in the Treaty of Constantinople of 1700, whereby the Sultan ceded the Azov
Azov
region to Peter the Great.[2] ( Muscovy
Muscovy
had to return these territories eleven years later following the failed Pruth River Campaign
Pruth River Campaign
and the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711.) Commissions were set up to devise the new borders between the Austrians and the Turks, with some parts disputed until 1703.[2] Largely through the efforts of the Habsburg commissioner Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, the Croatian and Bihać
Bihać
borders were agreed by mid-1700 and that at Temesvár by early 1701, leading to a border demarcated by physical landmarks for the first time.[2] The acquisition of some 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) of Hungarian territories at Karlowitz and of the Banat of Temesvár 18 years later, at Passarowitz, led the Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs to its largest extent, cementing Austria as a dominant regional power.[2] Maps and images[edit]

Political situation in 1568–71, before the treaty. All territories shown are Ottoman eyalets or vassals. 

Central Europe
Central Europe
in 1683, before the treaty:       Habsburg Empire     Ottoman Empire 

Political situation in 1699, after the treaty:       Habsburg Empire       Ottoman Empire 

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1686, before the treaty 

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1699, after the treaty. Note the Ottoman loss of territory at the bottom of the map. 

Kapela mira (Peace Chapel), where the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
was negotiated 

Notes[edit]

^ Nolan 2008, p. 27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gábor Ágoston (2010). "Treaty of Karlowitz". Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 309–10. ISBN 978-0816-06259-1.  ^ Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, New York, 1998, p. 86. ISBN 0-415-16111-8 ^ János Nepomuk Jozsef Mailáth (gróf) (1848). Geschichte der europäischen Staaten (Geschichte des östreichischen Kaiserstaates, Band 4) [History of the European States (History of the Austrian Empire, volume 4)]. Hamburg: F. Perthes. pp. 262–63. 

References[edit]

Nolan, Cathal J. (2008). Wars of the Age of Louis XIV, 1650-1715: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare. Greenwood Publishing. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Treaty of Karlowitz.

Treaty of Karlowitz, Encyclopædia Britannica English text of treaty

v t e

Treaties of the Ottoman Empire

Rise (1299–1453)

Gallipoli Selymbria Venetian peace treaty (1419) Szeged

Classical Age (1453–1566)

Constantinople (1454) Constantinople (1479) Constantinople (1533) Franco-Ottoman Adrianople (1547) Amasya

Transformation (1566-1703)

Adrianople (1568) Constantinople (1590) Zitvatorok Nasuh Pasha Busza Serav Khotin Zuhab Vasvár Buczacz Żurawno Bakhchisaray Karlowitz (1699) Constantinople (1700)

Old Regime (1703-1789)

Pruth Passarowitz Constantinople (1724) Ahmet Pasha Constantinople (1736) Belgrade Niš Kerden Kuçük Kaynarca Aynalıkavak

Modernization (1789–1908)

Sistova Jassy Tripoli Tunis Paris Dardanalles Bucharest Erzurum (1823) Akkerman Adrianople (1829) Constantinople (1832) Hünkar İskelesi Kütahya Balta Liman London (1840) London (1841) Erzurum (1847) Paris (1856) Scutari (1862) San Stefano Berlin (1878) Cyprus Constantinople (1881) Tophane Constantinople (1897)

Fall (1908–1922)

Ouchy London (1913) Constantinople (1913) Athens Anglo-Ottoman Convention Brest-Litovsk (Ukraine) Brest-Litovsk (Russia) Trebizond Erzincan Batum Mudros Sèvres

v t e

Polish truces and peace treaties

Kingdom of Poland

Bautzen (1018) Kalisz (1343) Raciąż (1404) Thorn (1411) Melno (1422) Łęczyca (1433) Brześć Kujawski (1435) Thorn (1466) Ólafu (1474) Kraków (1525) Stettin (1570)

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

With Muscovy

Yam-Zapolsky (1582) Deulino (1618) Polyanovka (1634) Niemieża / Vilna (1656) Andrusovo (1667) Eternal Peace (1686)

With the Ottoman Empire

Busza (1617) Khotyn (1621) Buchach (1672) Żurawno (1676) Karlowitz (1699)

With Sweden

Mitawa (1622) Altmark (1629) Stuhmsdorf (1635) Oliwa (1660) Warsaw (1705)

With Cossacks

Kurukove (1625) Pereyaslav (1630) Zamość (1648) Zboriv (1649) Bila Tserkva (1651) Hadiach (1658) Cudnów (1660)

With others

Wehlau–Bromberg (1657) Vienna (1738)

Second Polish Republic

Warsaw (1920) Suwałki

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