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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States
United States
of America and the Mexican Republic,[1] is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico
Mexico
City) between the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848.[2] With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the U.S. to pay US$15 million to Mexico
Mexico
and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico
Mexico
up to US$5 million. It gave the United States
United States
the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California
California
and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights. The U.S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14. The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny
Manifest destiny
in general, and rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States
United States
from Mexico
Mexico
was increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico
Mexico
to the United States.

Contents

1 Negotiators 2 Terms

2.1 Results

3 Background to the war 4 Conduct of war

4.1 Peace negotiations 4.2 Changes to the treaty and ratification 4.3 Protocol of Querétaro 4.4 Treaty of Mesilla

5 Effects

5.1 Additional issues

6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links

Negotiators[edit] The peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the US State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
as a diplomat and President Polk's representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with General José Joaquín de Herrera, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico
Mexico
was as a conquered enemy. Nicholas Trist
Nicholas Trist
negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don José Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel de Atristain, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas of Mexico.[3] Terms[edit]

"Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Méjico by John Distrunell, the 1847 map used during the negotiations

Although Mexico
Mexico
ceded Alta California
California
and Santa Fe de Nuevo México, the text of the treaty[4] did not list territories to be ceded, and avoided the disputed issues that were causes of war: the validity of the 1836 secession of the Republic of Texas, Texas's unenforced boundary claims as far as the Rio Grande, and the 1845 annexation of Texas
Texas
by the United States. Instead, Article V of the treaty simply described the new U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border. From east to west, the border consisted of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
northwest from its mouth to the point Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico
Mexico
(roughly 32 degrees north), as shown in the Disturnell map, then due west from this point to the 110th meridian west, then north along the 110th Meridian to the Gila River
Gila River
and down the river to its mouth. Unlike the New Mexico
Mexico
segment of the boundary, which depended partly on unknown geography, "in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California", a straight line was drawn from the mouth of the Gila to one marine league south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego, slightly north of the previous Mexican provincial boundary at Playas de Rosarito. Comparing the boundary in the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
to the Guadalupe Hidalgo boundary, Mexico
Mexico
conceded about 55% of its pre-war, pre-Texas territorial claims[5] and now has an area of 1,972,550 km² (761,606 sq mi). In the United States, the 1.36 million km² (525,000 square miles) of the area between the Adams-Onis and Guadalupe Hidalgo boundaries outside the 1,007,935 km2 (389,166 sq mi) claimed by the Republic of Texas
Texas
is known as the Mexican Cession. That is to say, the Mexican Cession
Mexican Cession
is construed not to include any territory east of the Rio Grande, while the territorial claims of the Republic of Texas included no territory west of the Rio Grande. The Mexican Cession included essentially the entirety of the former Mexican territory of Alta California, but only the western portion of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, and includes all of present-day California, Nevada
Nevada
and Utah, most of Arizona, and western portions of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. Articles VIII and IX ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were often not honored by the U.S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty.[6][7][8] The U.S. also agreed to assume $3.25 million (equivalent to $91.9 million today) in debts that Mexico
Mexico
owed to United States
United States
citizens. The residents had one year to choose whether they wanted American or Mexican citizenship; Over 90% chose American citizenship. The others returned to Mexico
Mexico
(where they received land), or in some cases in New Mexico
Mexico
were allowed to remain in place as Mexican citizens.[9][10] Article XII engaged the United States
United States
to pay, "In consideration of the extension acquired", 15 million dollars (equivalent to $420 million today),[11] in annual installments of 3 million dollars. Article XI of the treaty was important to Mexico. It provided that the United States
United States
would prevent and punish raids by Indians into Mexico, prohibited Americans from acquiring property, including livestock, taken by the Indians in those raids, and stated that the U.S. would return captives of the Indians to Mexico. Mexicans believed that the United States
United States
had encouraged and assisted the Comanche
Comanche
and Apache raids that had devastated northern Mexico
Mexico
in the years before the war. This article promised relief to them. [12] Article XI, however, proved unenforceable. Destructive Indian raids continued despite a heavy U.S. presence near the Mexican border. Mexico
Mexico
filed 366 claims with the U.S. government for damages done by Comanche
Comanche
and Apache
Apache
raids between 1848 and 1853.[13] In 1853, in the Treaty of Mesilla
Treaty of Mesilla
concluding the Gadsden Purchase, Article XI was annulled.[14] Results[edit] The land that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
brought into the United States became, between 1850 and 1912, all or part of ten states: California
California
(1850), Nevada
Nevada
(1869), Utah
Utah
(1896), and Arizona
Arizona
(1912), as well as the whole of, depending upon interpretation, the entire state of Texas
Texas
(1845), which then included part of Kansas
Kansas
(1861); Colorado (1876); Wyoming
Wyoming
(1890); Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(1907); and New Mexico
Mexico
(1912). The remainder (the southern parts) of New Mexico
Mexico
and Arizona
Arizona
were peacefully purchased under the Gadsden Purchase, which was carried out in 1853. In this purchase the United States
United States
paid an additional $10 million (equivalent to $290 million today), for land intended to accommodate a transcontinental railroad. However, the American Civil War delayed construction of such a route, and it was not until 1881 that the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
finally was completed, fulfilling the purpose of the acquisition.[15] Background to the war[edit] Mexico
Mexico
had claimed the area in question since winning its independence from the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
had conquered part of the area from the American Indian tribes over the preceding three centuries, but there remained rather powerful and independent indigenous nations within that northern region of Mexico. Most of that land was too dry (low rainfall) and too mountainous or hilly to support very much population until the advent of new technology following about 1880: means for damming and distributing water from the few rivers to irrigated farmland; the telegraph; the railroad; the telephone; and electrical power. About 80,000 Mexicans lived in the areas of California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas
Texas
during the period of 1845 to 1850, and far fewer in Nevada, in southern and western Colorado, and in Utah.[16] On 1 March 1845, U.S. President John Tyler
John Tyler
signed legislation to authorize the United States
United States
to annex the Republic of Texas, effective on 29 December 1845. The Mexican government, which had never recognized the Republic of Texas
Texas
as an independent country, had warned that annexation would be viewed as an act of war. The United Kingdom and France, both of which recognized the independence of the Republic of Texas, repeatedly tried to dissuade Mexico
Mexico
from declaring war against its northern neighbor. British efforts to mediate the quandary proved fruitless – in part because additional political disputes (particularly the Oregon boundary dispute) arose between Great Britain (as the sovereign of Canada) and the United States. Before the outbreak of hostilities, President James K. Polk
James K. Polk
sent his envoy, John Slidell, on 10 November 1845 to Mexico
Mexico
with instructions to offer Mexico
Mexico
around $5 million for the territory of Nuevo México and up to $40 million for Alta California.[17] The Mexican government dismissed Slidell, refusing to even meet with him.[18] Earlier in that year, Mexico
Mexico
had broken off diplomatic relations with the United States, based partly on its interpretation of the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (under which newly independent Mexico
Mexico
claimed it had inherited rights). In that agreement, the United States
United States
had supposedly "renounced forever" all claims to Spanish territory.[19][20] Neither side took any further action to avoid a war. Meanwhile, Polk settled a major territorial dispute with Britain with the Oregon Treaty, signed on 15 June 1846; this avoided a conflict with Great Britain, and hence gave the U.S. a free hand. After the Thornton Affair of 25–26 April, when Mexican forces attacked an American unit in the disputed area with 11 Americans killed, 5 wounded and 49 captured, Congress passed and Polk signed a declaration of war into effect on 13 May 1846. The Mexican Congress responded with its war declaration on 7 July 1846.[citation needed]

Map o. S. Augustus Mitchell, Philadelphia, 1847. Alta California
California
shown including Nevada, Utah, Arizona

Conduct of war[edit] Main article: Mexican–American War California
California
and New Mexico
Mexico
were quickly occupied by American forces in the summer of 1846, and fighting there ended on 13 January 1847 with the signing of the "Capitulation Agreement" at "Campo de Cahuenga" and end of the Taos Revolt.[21] By the middle of September 1847, U.S. forces had successfully invaded central Mexico
Mexico
and occupied Mexico City. Peace negotiations[edit] Some Eastern Democrats called for complete annexation of Mexico
Mexico
and claimed that some Mexican liberals would welcome this,[22] but President Polk's State of the Union address
State of the Union address
in December 1847 upheld Mexican independence and argued at length that occupation and any further military operations in Mexico
Mexico
were aimed at securing a treaty ceding California
California
and New Mexico
Mexico
up to approximately the 32nd parallel north and possibly Baja California
California
and transit rights across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.[18] Despite its lengthy string of military defeats, the Mexican government was reluctant to agree to the loss of California
California
and New Mexico. Even with its capital under enemy occupation, the Mexican government was inclined to consider factors such as the unwillingness of the U.S. administration to annex Mexico
Mexico
outright and what appeared to be deep divisions in domestic U.S. opinion regarding the war and its aims, which gave it reason to conclude that it was actually in a far better negotiating position than the military situation might have suggested. A further consideration was the Mexican government's opposition to slavery and its awareness of the well-known and growing sectional divide in the U.S. over the issue of slavery. It therefore made sense for Mexico
Mexico
to negotiate with a goal of pandering to Northern U.S. interests at the expense of Southern U.S. interests. The Mexicans proposed peace terms that offered only sale of Alta California
California
north of the 37th parallel north — north of Santa Cruz, California
California
and Madera, California
California
and the southern boundaries of today's Utah
Utah
and Colorado. This territory was already dominated by Anglo-American settlers, but perhaps more importantly from the Mexican point of view, it represented the bulk of pre-war Mexican territory north of the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
line of parallel 36°30′ north — lands that, if annexed by the U.S., would have been presumed by Northerners to be forever free of slavery. The Mexicans also offered to recognize the U.S. annexation of Texas, but held to its demand of the Nueces River
Nueces River
as a boundary. While the Mexican government could not reasonably have expected the Polk Administration to accept such terms, it would have had reason to hope that a rejection of peace terms so favorable to Northern interests might have the potential to provoke sectional conflict in the United States, or perhaps even a civil war that would fatally undermine the U.S. military position in Mexico. Instead, these terms combined with other Mexican demands (in particular, for various indemnities) only provoked widespread indignation throughout the U.S. without causing the sectional conflict the Mexicans were hoping for. Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
advised Polk that if Mexico
Mexico
appointed commissioners to come to the U.S., the government that appointed them would probably be overthrown before they completed their mission, and they would likely be shot as traitors on their return; so that the only hope of peace was to have a U.S. representative in Mexico.[23] Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the State Department under President Polk, finally negotiated a treaty with the Mexican delegation after ignoring his recall by President Polk in frustration with failure to secure a treaty.[24] Notwithstanding that the treaty had been negotiated against his instructions, given its achievement of the major American aim, President Polk passed it on to the Senate.[24]

A section of the original treaty

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
was signed by Nicholas Trist
Nicholas Trist
(on behalf of the U.S.) and Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto and Miguel Atristain as plenipotentiary representatives of Mexico
Mexico
on 2 February 1848, at the main altar of the old Basilica of Guadalupe
Basilica of Guadalupe
at Villa Hidalgo (within the present city limits) as U.S. troops under the command of Gen. Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
were occupying Mexico
Mexico
City. Changes to the treaty and ratification[edit] The version of the treaty ratified by the United States
United States
Senate eliminated Article X,[25] which stated that the U.S. government would honor and guarantee all land grants awarded in lands ceded to the U.S. to citizens of Spain and Mexico
Mexico
by those respective governments. Article VIII guaranteed that Mexicans who remained more than one year in the ceded lands would automatically become full-fledged United States citizens (or they could declare their intention of remaining Mexican citizens); however, the Senate modified Article IX, changing the first paragraph and excluding the last two. Among the changes was that Mexican citizens would "be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States)" instead of "admitted as soon as possible", as negotiated between Trist and the Mexican delegation. An amendment by Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
giving the U.S. most of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
and Nuevo León, all of Coahuila
Coahuila
and a large part of Chihuahua was supported by both senators from Texas
Texas
( Sam Houston
Sam Houston
and Thomas Jefferson Rusk), Daniel S. Dickinson
Daniel S. Dickinson
of New York, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, Edward A. Hannegan
Edward A. Hannegan
of Indiana, and one each from Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri and Tennessee. Most of the leaders of the Democratic party, Thomas Hart Benton, John C. Calhoun, Herschel V. Johnson, Lewis Cass, James Murray Mason
James Murray Mason
of Virginia and Ambrose Hundley Sevier were opposed and the amendment was defeated 44–11.[26] An amendment by Whig Sen. George Edmund Badger
George Edmund Badger
of North Carolina to exclude New Mexico
Mexico
and California
California
lost 35–15, with three Southern Whigs voting with the Democrats. Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
was bitter that four New England senators made deciding votes for acquiring the new territories. A motion to insert into the treaty the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
(banning slavery from the acquired territories) failed 15–38 on sectional lines. The treaty was subsequently ratified by the U.S. Senate by a vote of 38 to 14 on 10 March 1848 and by Mexico
Mexico
through a legislative vote of 51 to 34 and a Senate vote of 33 to 4, on 19 May 1848. News that New Mexico's legislative assembly had just passed an act for organization of a U.S. territorial government helped ease Mexican concern about abandoning the people of New Mexico.[27] The treaty was formally proclaimed on 4 July 1848.[28] Protocol of Querétaro[edit] On 30 May 1848, when the two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, they further negotiated a three-article protocol to explain the amendments. The first article stated that the original Article IX of the treaty, although replaced by Article III of the Treaty of Louisiana, would still confer the rights delineated in Article IX. The second article confirmed the legitimacy of land grants pursuant to Mexican law.[29] The protocol further noted that said explanations had been accepted by the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs on behalf of the Mexican Government,[29] and was signed in Santiago de Querétaro
Santiago de Querétaro
by A. H. Sevier, Nathan Clifford
Nathan Clifford
and Luis de la Rosa. The U.S. would later go on to ignore the protocol on the grounds that the U.S. representatives had over-reached their authority in agreeing to it.[30] Treaty of Mesilla[edit] The Treaty of Mesilla, which concluded the Gadsden purchase of 1854, had significant implications for the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Article II of the treaty annulled article XI of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and article IV further annulled articles VI and VII of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Article V however reaffirmed the property guarantees of Guadalupe Hidalgo, specifically those contained within articles VIII and IX.[31] Effects[edit]

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The Mexican Cession
Mexican Cession
agreed with Mexico
Mexico
(white) and the Gadsden Purchase (brown). Part of the area marked as Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
near modern-day Mesilla, New Mexico, was disputed after the Treaty.

In addition to the sale of land, the treaty also provided for the recognition of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as the boundary between the state of Texas
Texas
and Mexico.[32] The land boundaries were established by a survey team of appointed Mexican and American representatives,[24] and published in three volumes as The United States
United States
and Mexican Boundary Survey. On 30 December 1853, the countries by agreement altered the border from the initial one by increasing the number of border markers from 6 to 53.[24] Most of these markers were simply piles of stones.[24] Two later conventions, in 1882 and 1889, further clarified the boundaries, as some of the markers had been moved or destroyed.[24] Photographers were brought in to document the location of the markers. These photographs are in Record Group 77, Records of the Office of the Chief Engineers, in the National Archives. The southern border of California
California
was designated as a line from the junction of the Colorado
Colorado
and Gila rivers westward to the Pacific Ocean, so that it passes one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay. This was done to ensure that the United States received San Diego and its excellent natural harbor, without relying on potentially inaccurate designations by latitude.[citation needed] The treaty extended the choice of U.S. citizenship to Mexicans in the newly purchased territories, before many African Americans, Asians and Native Americans were eligible. If they chose to, they had to declare to the U.S. government within a year the Treaty was signed; otherwise, they could remain Mexican citizens, but they would have to relocate. [5] Between 1850 and 1920, the U.S. Census counted most Mexicans as racially "white".[33] Nonetheless, racially tinged tensions persisted in the era following annexation, reflected in such things as the Greaser Act in California, as tens of thousands of Mexican nationals suddenly found themselves living within the borders of the United States. Mexican communities remained segregated de facto from and also within other U.S. communities, continuing through the Mexican migration right up to the end of the 20th century throughout the Southwest.[citation needed] Community property
Community property
rights in California
California
are a legacy of the Mexican era. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
provided that the property rights of Mexican subjects would be kept inviolate. The early Californians felt compelled to continue the community property system regarding the earnings and accumulation of property during a marriage, and it became incorporated into the California
California
constitution.[34] Additional issues[edit] Border disputes continued. The U.S.'s desire to expand its territory continued unabated and Mexico's economic problems persisted,[35] leading to the controversial Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
in 1854 and William Walker's Republic of Lower California
California
filibustering incident in that same year.[citation needed] The Channel Islands of California
California
and Farallon Islands
Farallon Islands
are not mentioned in the Treaty.[36] The border was routinely crossed by the armed forces of both countries. Mexican and Confederate troops often clashed during the American Civil War, and the U.S. crossed the border during the war of French intervention in Mexico. In March 1916 Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
led a raid on the U.S. border town of Columbus, New Mexico, which was followed by the Pershing expedition. The shifting of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
would much later cause a dispute over the boundary between purchase lands and those of the state of Texas, called the Country Club Dispute.[citation needed] Controversy over community land grant claims in New Mexico persists to this day.[37] Disputes about whether to make all this new territory into free states or slave-holding states contributed heavily to the rise in North-South tensions that led to the American Civil War
American Civil War
just over a decade later. The treaty was leaked to John Nugent before the U.S. Senate could approve it. Nugent published his article in the New York Herald
New York Herald
and, afterward, was questioned by Senators. Nugent did not reveal his source.[citation needed] The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
led to the establishment in 1889 of the International Boundary and Water Commission
International Boundary and Water Commission
to maintain the border, and pursuant to newer treaties to allocate river waters between the two nations, and to provide for flood control and water sanitation. Once viewed as a model of international cooperation, in recent decades the IBWC has been heavily criticized as an institutional anachronism, by-passed by modern social, environmental and political issues.[38] See also[edit]

Gadsden Purchase Treaty of Cahuenga United States
United States
and Mexican Boundary Survey 1848 in Mexico Annexation Bill of 1866 Reconquista (Mexico) United States
United States
Court of Private Land Claims Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(History of New Mexico) Californios in literature Botiller v. Dominguez Zimmermann Telegram

Aboriginal title

Aboriginal title in California Aboriginal title in New Mexico

Footnotes[edit]

^ https://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/ghtreaty/61340s.jpg ^ "Avalon Project – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; February 2, 1848". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-13.  ^ Defiant Peacemker: Nicholas Trist
Nicholas Trist
in the Mexican War, by author Wallace Ohrt ^ "Avalon Project – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; February 2, 1848". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-08.  ^ a b "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved 27 June 2007.  ^ U.S. Congress. Recommendation of the Public Land Commission for Legislation as to Private Land Claims, 46th Congress, 2nd Session, 1880, House Executive Document 46, pp. 1116–17. ^ Mexicanos: A history of Mexicans in the United States. Manuel G. Gonzales, Indiana University Press P.86-87 ISBN 0-253-33520-5 ^ The U.S.- Mexico
Mexico
Border: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, John C. Davenport, P.48, ISBN 0-7910-7833-7 ^ Linda C. Noel, "'I am an American': Anglos, Mexicans, Nativos, and the National Debate over Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
Mexico
Statehood," Pacific Historical Review, (Aug 2011) 80#3 pp 430–467, at p 436 ^ Richard Griswold del Castillo, The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict, (1990) ch 5 ^ [1] ^ Delay, Brian (2007). "Independent Indians and the U.S. Mexican War". The American Historical Review. 112 (1): 67. doi:10.1086/ahr.112.1.35.  ^ Schmal, John P. "Sonora: Four Centuries of Indigenous Resistance" Houston Institute of Culture http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/sonora2.html, accessed 12 Jul 2012 ^ Kluger, Richard Seizing Destiny: How America Grew From Sea to Shining Sea. (2007), pp. 493–494 ISBN 978-0-375-41341-4 ^ David Devine, Slavery, Scandal, and Steel Rails: The 1854 Gadsden Purchase and the Building of the Second Transcontinental Railroad Across Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
Mexico
Twenty-Five Years Later (2004) ^ Nostrand, Richard L. (1975). "Mexican Americans Circa 1850". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 65 (3): 378–390. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1975.tb01046.x.  ^ Mills, B. 2003. U.S.-Mexican War. Facts On File, p. 23. ISBN 0-8160-4932-7 ^ a b "James K. Polk's Third Annual Message, 7 December 1847". presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 27 June 2007.  ^ Adams-Onis Treaty, Article III. Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. From: yale.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ "The United States
United States
hereby cede to His Catholic Majesty, and renounce forever, all their rights, claims, and pretensions to the Territories lying West and South of the above described Line [...]. http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/adamonis.htm ^ Original Capitulation Agreement document (one of 25) on view at Campo de Cahuenga historical site ^ "Mexican Argument for Annexation." The Living Age, Volume 10, Issue 123. 19 September 1846. ^ Rives 1913, p. 622. ^ a b c d e f Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. National Archives. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." Library of Congress, Hispanic Reading Room. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ George Lockhart Rives. The United States
United States
and Mexico, 1821–1848. pp. 634–636.  ^ Rives 1913, p. 649. ^ Online Highways LLC editorial group. "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". U-S-History.com. Retrieved 2012-03-25.  ^ a b Treaty of Hidalgo, Protocol of Querétaro. From: academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ David Hunter Miller, Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States
United States
of America, vol. 5 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937) ^ Mills, B. p. 122. ^ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Article V. From: academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved 7 November 2007. ^ Gibson, C.J. and E. Lennon. 1999. "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850–1990." U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ Cali. Const. art. XX, § 7. ^ The U.S.- Mexico
Mexico
Border: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, John C. Davenport, p. 60, ISBN 0-7910-7833-7. ^ Barnard R. Thompson. "Mexico's Claim to California
California
Islands – A Never-ending Story".  ^ "Treaty of Guadalpe Hidalgo: Findings and Possible Options Regarding Longstanding Community Land Grant Claims in New Mexico" (PDF). General Accounting Office. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  ^ Robert J. McCarthy, Executive Authority, Adaptive Treaty Interpretation, and the International Boundary and Water Commission, U.S.-Mexico, 14-2 U. Denv. Water L. Rev. 197(Spring 2011) (also available for free download at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1839903).

References[edit]

Griswold del Castillo, Richard (1990), The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict, Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, ISBN 0-8061-2240-4  Ohrt, Wallace (1997), Defiant Peacemaker: Nicholas Trist
Nicholas Trist
in the Mexican War, College Station: Texas
Texas
A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-778-4  Reeves, Jesse S. (1905), "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo", American Historical Review, 10 (2): 309–324, doi:10.2307/1834723, JSTOR 1834723  Rives, George Lockhart (1913). The United States
United States
and Mexico, 1821–1848: a history of the relations between the two countries from the independence of Mexico
Mexico
to the close of the war with the United States. 2. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
and related resources at the U.S. Library of Congress Library of Congress – Hispanic
Hispanic
Reading Room portal, The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Text of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Copy of Treaty, including sections stricken out by Senate Text of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and anaysis U.S. General Accounting Office report on the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, June 2004 Library of Congress Guide to the Mexican War Time magazine article on the treaty leak Occupation and Aftermath at A Continent Divided: The U.S.- Mexico
Mexico
War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington Map of North America and the Caribbean at the time of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at omniatlas.com

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Culture

Chicano
Chicano
films Chicano
Chicano
literature Chicano
Chicano
poetry Chicano
Chicano
rock Chicano
Chicano
rap Mexican muralism Skull art Teatro Campesino Tortilla art Chicano
Chicano
Park Estrada Courts murals Cholo Pachuco Paño Tejano music Tex-Mex
Tex-Mex
cuisine Zoot suit Lowrider

By city

Arizona
Arizona
(Tucson) California
California
(Los Angeles) Illinois (Chicago) Michigan (Detroit) Nebraska (Omaha) Texas

Dallas-Fort Worth Houston

Lists

Caló Chicano
Chicano
poets U.S. communities with Hispanic
Hispanic
majority Mexican Americans Writers List of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans Bibliography

Category:American people of Mexican descent Category:Mexican-Amer

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