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The Treaty of Fez (Arabic: معاهدة فاس‎) was a treaty signed on 30 March 1912 in which Sultan
Sultan
Abdelhafid agreed to allow France
France
to make Morocco
Morocco
a French protectorate, ending the Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
of 1 July 1911. Germany recognised the French protectorate in Morocco, receiving in return territories in the French Equatorial African colony of Middle Congo (now the Republic of the Congo). This land, known as Neukamerun, became part of the German colony of Kamerun, part of German West Africa, although it only lasted briefly until it was captured by the Allies in World War I. As part of the treaty, Germany ceded France
France
a small area of territory to the south-east of Fort Lamy, now part of Chad. France
France
gained authority over non-Moroccan citizens in legislative, military, foreign policy and jurisdictional transactions. According to the treaty, this left the Moroccan government in control of its own citizens. Moroccan nationalists dispute this, noting that France
France
still influenced Moroccan affairs as a result of the treaty.[1] Spain
Spain
also gained a zone of influence in Northern Morocco
Morocco
which became Spanish Morocco. By the agreement signed with France
France
and Spain
Spain
in November that year, Spain
Spain
gained a zone of influence in the Rif
Rif
and the Cape Juby
Cape Juby
areas, where the Sultan
Sultan
remained nominally the sovereign and was represented by a vice regent under the control of the Spanish high commission.[2] Private agreements among the United Kingdom, Italy
Italy
and France
France
in 1904, collectively known as the Entente Cordiale, made without consulting the sultan, had divided the Maghreb
Maghreb
into spheres of influence, with France
France
given Morocco. In Morocco, the young Sultan
Sultan
Abdelaziz acceded in 1894 at the age of ten, and Europeans became the main advisers at the court, while local rulers became more and more independent from the sultan. The Sultan
Sultan
was deposed in 1908. Moroccan law and order continued to deteriorate under his successor, Abdelhafid, who abdicated in favour of his brother Yusef after signing the Treaty of Fez. The Treaty of Fez granted the concession for exploitation of the iron mines of Mount Uixan to the Spanish Rif
Rif
Mines Company, which was also given permission to build a railroad to connect the mines with Melilla. The treaty was perceived as a betrayal by Moroccan nationalists and led to the 1912 Fez riots
1912 Fez riots
and the War of the Rif
Rif
(1919–26) between the Spanish and the Moroccan Riffians and the Jebala
Jebala
tribes. Their leader became Abd el-Krim, who, after driving back the Spanish, founded a short-lived state, the Republic of the Rif. References[edit]

^ Mitchell, Harriett (1955). "The Development of Nationalism in French Morocco" (PDF). Phylon. 16 (4): 428. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Harold D. Nelson, "Morocco, a country study" Foreign Area Studies, The American University, DA Pamphlet No.550-49 (Washington, DC 1985), p 43, quoted in GlobalSecurity.org: "The United Nations Failure in Southern Morocco" 1997

See also[edit]

History of Morocco French Morocco Spanish Morocco

v t e

Franco-Spanish conquest of Morocco
Morocco
(1893–1932)

French protectorate in Morocco Spanish protectorate in Morocco

Major conflicts

Rif War
Rif War
(1920–26) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21)

Battles

Tetuan War (1859–60) Melilla
Melilla
War (1893–94) Battle of Casablanca (1908) Melilla
Melilla
War (1909–10) Battle of Sidi Bou Othman
Battle of Sidi Bou Othman
(1912) Battle of El Ksiba (1913) Battle of El Herri
Battle of El Herri
(1914) Battle of Annual
Battle of Annual
(1921)

Key people

Moroccans

Mohammed Ameziane Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni Mouha ou Hammou Zayani Moha ou Said Mhand n'Ifrutant Ali Amhaouch Sidi Ahmed El Hiba Ma al-'Aynayn Abd el-Krim Assou Oubasslam Aït Atta Zayanes Beni Ouryaghel

French

General Mangin General Lyautey General Henrys General Poeymirau Marshal Pétain Henry de Bournazel

French allies

Thami El Glaoui Sultan
Sultan
Moulay Youssef

Spaniards

Juan García y Margallo Martínez-Campos Manuel Fernández Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera José Sanjurjo Generalísimo Francisco Franco

Spanish allies

Mohamed Meziane

Treaties

Treaty of Fez (1894) Algeciras Conference
Algeciras Conference
(1906) Pact of Cartagena (1907) Treaty of Fes (1912) Franco-Spanish Treaty (1912)

Crises

First Moroccan Crisis
First Moroccan Crisis
(1905) Agadir C

.