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The Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
(TSR, Russian: Транссибирская магистраль, tr. Transsibirskaya Magistral, IPA: [trənsʲsʲɪˈbʲirskəjə məgʲɪˈstralʲ]) is a network of railways connecting Moscow
Moscow
with the Russian Far East.[1] With a length of 9,289 kilometres (5,772 miles), it is the longest railway line in the world. There are connecting branch lines into Mongolia, China
China
and North Korea. It has connected Moscow
Moscow
with Vladivostok
Vladivostok
since 1916, and is still being expanded. It was built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers personally appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II). Even before it had been completed, it attracted travellers who wrote of their adventures.[2] Russia
Russia
has expressed its desire for Pakistan to participate in the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, by linking the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
with Gwadar Port.[3]

Contents

1 Route description 2 History

2.1 Demand and design 2.2 Construction 2.3 Effects 2.4 War and revolution 2.5 World War II

3 Today

3.1 Developments in shipping 3.2 TransSiberian route in 7 days

4 Gallery 5 Routes

5.1 Trans-Siberian line 5.2 Trans-Manchurian line 5.3 Trans-Mongolian line 5.4 Future proposals

5.4.1 New lines 5.4.2 Proposed platform heights by routes

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Route description[edit]

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The railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At a Moscow- Vladivostok
Vladivostok
track length of 9,289 kilometres (5,772 miles),[4] it spans a record eight time zones.[5] Taking eight days to complete the journey, it is the third-longest single continuous service in the world, after the Moscow– Pyongyang
Pyongyang
10,267 kilometres (6,380 mi)[6] and the Kiev– Vladivostok
Vladivostok
11,085 kilometres (6,888 mi)[7] services, both of which also follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes. The main route of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
begins in Moscow
Moscow
at Yaroslavsky Vokzal, runs through Yaroslavl, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Ulan-Ude, Chita, and Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
via southern Siberia. A second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian east of Chita as far as Tarskaya (a stop 12 km (7 mi) east of Karymskoye, in Chita Oblast), about 1,000 km (621 mi) east of Lake Baikal. From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin
Harbin
and Mudanjiang
Mudanjiang
in China's Northeastern Provinces (from where a connection to Beijing
Beijing
is used by one of the Moscow–Beijing trains), joining with the main route in Ussuriysk
Ussuriysk
just north of Vladivostok. This is the shortest and the oldest railway route to Vladivostok. While there are currently no traverse passenger services (enter China
China
from one side and then exit China
China
and return to Russia
Russia
on the other side) on this branch, it is still used by several international passenger services between Russia
Russia
and China.[citation needed] The third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
on Lake Baikal's eastern shore. From Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaan-Baatar
Ulaan-Baatar
before making its way southeast to Beijing. In 1991, a fourth route running further to the north was finally completed, after more than five decades of sporadic work. Known as the Baikal Amur Mainline (BAM), this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet
Taishet
several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
and passes the lake at its northernmost extremity. It crosses the Amur River
Amur River
at Komsomolsk-na-Amure
Komsomolsk-na-Amure
(north of Khabarovsk), and reaches the Tatar Strait at Sovetskaya Gavan. On 13 October 2011, a train from Khasan made its inaugural run to Rajin, North Korea. History[edit]

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Demand and design[edit] In the late 19th century, the development of Siberia was hampered by poor transport links within the region, as well as with the rest of the country. Aside from the Great Siberian Route, good roads suitable for wheeled transport were rare. For about five months of the year, rivers were the main means of transport. During the cold half of the year, cargo and passengers travelled by horse-drawn sledges over the winter roads, many of which were the same rivers, but ice-covered. The first steamboat on the River Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. But early beginnings were difficult, and it was not until 1857 that steamboat shipping started developing on the Ob system in a serious way. Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei
Yenisei
in 1863, and on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. While the comparative flatness of Western Siberia was at least fairly well served by the gigantic Ob–Irtysh–Tobol–Chulym river system, the mighty rivers of Eastern Siberia - the Yenisei, the upper course of the Angara River (the Angara below Bratsk
Bratsk
was not easily navigable because of the rapids), and the Lena - were mostly navigable only in the north-south direction. An attempt to partially remedy the situation by building the Ob- Yenisei
Yenisei
Canal was not particularly successful. Only a railway could be a real solution to the region's transport problems. The first railway projects in Siberia emerged after the completion of the Moscow- Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Railway
Railway
in 1851.[8] One of the first was the Irkutsk–Chita project, proposed by the American entrepreneur Perry Collins
Perry Collins
and supported by Transport Minister Constantine Possiet with a view toward connecting Moscow
Moscow
to the Amur River, and consequently, to the Pacific Ocean. Siberia's governor, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was anxious to advance the colonisation of the Russian Far East, but his plans could not materialise as long as the colonists had to import grain and other food from China
China
and Korea.[9] It was on Muravyov's initiative that surveys for a railway in the Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
region were conducted. Before 1880, the central government had virtually ignored these projects, because of the weakness of Siberian enterprises, a clumsy bureaucracy, and fear of financial risk. By 1880, there were a large number of rejected and upcoming applications for permission to construct railways to connect Siberia with the Pacific, but not Eastern Russia. This worried the government and made connecting Siberia with Central Russia
Russia
a pressing concern. The design process lasted 10 years. Along with the route actually constructed, alternative projects were proposed:

Southern route: via Kazakhstan, Barnaul, Abakan
Abakan
and Mongolia. Northern route: via Tyumen, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk
Yeniseysk
and the modern Baikal Amur Mainline
Baikal Amur Mainline
or even through Yakutsk.

The line was divided into seven sections, on all or most of which work proceeded simultaneously, using the labour of 62,000 men. The total cost was estimated at £35 million sterling; the first section ( Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
to the River Ob) was finished at a cost £900,000 less than the estimate.[10] Railwaymen fought against suggestions to save funds, for example, by installing ferryboats instead of bridges over the rivers until traffic increased. The designers insisted and secured the decision to construct an uninterrupted railway.[citation needed] Unlike the rejected private projects that intended to connect the existing cities demanding transport, the Trans-Siberian did not have such a priority. Thus, to save money and avoid clashes with land owners, it was decided to lay the railway outside the existing cities. Tomsk
Tomsk
was the largest city, and the most unfortunate, because the swampy banks of the Ob River
Ob River
near it were considered inappropriate for a bridge. The railway was laid 70 km (43 mi) to the south (instead crossing the Ob at Novonikolaevsk, later renamed Novosibirsk); just a dead-end branch line connected with Tomsk, depriving the city of the prospective transit railway traffic and trade.[citation needed] Construction[edit]

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In March 1890, the Tsarevich (later Tsar Nicholas II) personally inaugurated the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. Nicholas II
Nicholas II
made notes in his diary about his anticipation of travelling in the comfort of "the tsar's train" across the unspoiled wilderness of Siberia. The tsar's train was designed and built in St. Petersburg to serve as the main mobile office of the tsar and his staff for travelling across Russia.[citation needed]

Clearing on the right-of-way of the Eastern Siberian Railway, 1895

Construction work being performed by convicts on the Eastern Siberian Railway
Railway
near Khabarovsk, 1895

On 9 March 1891, the Russian government issued an imperial rescript in which it announced its intention to construct a railway across Siberia.[11] Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) inaugurated the construction of the railway in Vladivostok
Vladivostok
on 19 May that year.[12] The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
was overseen by Sergei Witte, who was then finance minister. Similar to the First Transcontinental Railroad in the US, Russian engineers started construction at both ends and worked towards the centre. From Vladivostok
Vladivostok
the railway was laid north along the right bank of the Ussuri River
Ussuri River
to Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
at the Amur River, becoming the Ussuri Railway.[citation needed] In 1890, a bridge across the Ural River
Ural River
was built and the new railway entered Asia. The bridge across the Ob River
Ob River
was built in 1898 and the small city of Novonikolaevsk, founded in 1883, grew into the large Siberian city of Novosibirsk. In 1898 the first train reached Irkutsk and the shores of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
about 60 kilometres (37 miles) east of the city. The railway ran on to the east, across the Shilka and Amur rivers and soon reached Khabarovsk. The Vladivostok
Vladivostok
to Khabarovsk section was built slightly earlier, in 1897. Russian soldiers, as well as convict labourers from Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and other places were used for building the railway.[citation needed] Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
is more than 640 kilometres (400 miles) long and more than 1,600 metres (5,200 feet) deep. Until the Circum-Baikal Railway
Railway
was built the line ended on either side of the lake. The ice-breaking train ferry SS Baikal built in 1897 and smaller ferry SS Angara built in about 1900 made the four-hour crossing to link the two railheads.[13][14] The Russian admiral and explorer Stepan Makarov
Stepan Makarov
(1849–1904) designed Baikal and Angara but they were built in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, by Armstrong Whitworth. They were "knock down" vessels; that is, each ship was bolted together in England, every part of the ship was marked with a number, the ship was disassembled into many hundreds of parts and transported in kit form to Listvyanka where a shipyard was built especially to reassemble them.[14] Their boilers, engines and some other components were built in Saint Petersburg[14] and transported to Listvyanka to be installed. Baikal had 15 boilers, four funnels, and was 64 metres (210 ft) long. it could carry 24 railway coaches and one locomotive on the middle deck. Angara was smaller, with two funnels.[13][14] Completion of the Circum-Baikal Railway
Railway
in 1904 bypassed the ferries, but from time to time the Circum-Baikal Railway
Railway
suffered from derailments or rockfalls so both ships were held in reserve until 1916. Baikal was burnt out and destroyed in the Russian Civil War[13][14] but Angara survives. It has been restored and is permanently moored at Irkutsk
Irkutsk
where it serves as an office and a museum.[13] In winter, sleighs were used to move passengers and cargo from one side of the lake to the other until the completion of the Lake Baikal spur along the southern edge of the lake. With the Amur River
Amur River
Line north of the Chinese border being completed in 1916, there was a continuous railway from Petrograd
Petrograd
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
that remains to this day the world's longest railway line. Electrification of the line, begun in 1929 and completed in 2002, allowed a doubling of train weights to 6,000 tonnes. There were expectations upon electrification that it would increase rail traffic on the line by 40 percent.[15] The additional Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
was constructed as the Russo-Chinese part of the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Russia with China
China
and providing a shorter route to Vladivostok. A Russian staff and administration based in Harbin
Harbin
operated it.[citation needed] Effects[edit]

Siberian peasants watching a train at a station, 1902

As Siberian agriculture began, from around 1869, to send cheap grain westwards,[citation needed] agriculture in Central Russia
Russia
was still under economic pressure after the end of serfdom, which was formally abolished in 1861. Thus, to defend the central territory and to prevent possible social destabilisation, in 1896 the Tsarist government introduced the Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
tariff-break (Челябинский тарифный перелом), a tariff barrier for grain passing through Chelyabinsk, and a similar barrier in Manchuria. This measure changed the nature of export: mills emerged to produce bread from grain in Altai Krai, Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
and Tomsk, and many farms switched to corn (maize) production. From 1896 until 1913 Siberia exported on average 501,932 tonnes (30,643,000 pood) of bread (grain, flour) annually.[16] The Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
brought with it millions of peasant-migrants from the Western regions of Russia
Russia
and Ukraine.[17] Between 1906 and 1914, the peak migration years, about 4 million peasants arrived in Siberia.[18] The railway immediately filled to capacity with local traffic, mostly wheat. Despite the low speed and low possible weights of trains, the railway fulfilled its promised role as a transit route between Europe and East Asia. During the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
of 1904–1905, military traffic to the east disrupted the flow of civil freight. War and revolution[edit] In the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904–1905), the strategic importance of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
was seen, though its shortcomings contributed to Russia's defeat in the war. The track was a single track and as such could only allow train travel in one direction. This caused significant strategic and supply difficulties for the Russians, as they could not move resources to and from the front as quickly as would be necessary, as a goods train carrying supplies, men and ammunition coming from west to east would have to wait in the sidings, whilst troops and injured personnel in a troop train travelling from east to west went along the line. Thus the Japanese were quickly able to advance whilst the Russians were awaiting necessary troops and supplies. After the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, the railway served as the vital line of communication for the Czechoslovak Legion and the allied armies that landed troops at Vladivostok
Vladivostok
during the Siberian Intervention of the Russian Civil War. These forces supported the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak, based in Omsk, and White Russian soldiers fighting the Bolsheviks on the Ural front. The intervention was weakened, and ultimately defeated, by partisan fighters who blew up bridges and sections of track, particularly in the volatile region between Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
and Chita.[19] The Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
also played a very direct role during parts of Russia's history, with the Czechoslovak Legion using heavily armed and armoured trains to control large amounts of the railway (and of Russia
Russia
itself) during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
at the end of World War I.[20] As one of the few organised fighting forces left in the aftermath of the imperial collapse, and before the Red Army
Red Army
took control, the Czechs
Czechs
and Slovaks
Slovaks
were able to use their organisation and the resources of the railway to establish a temporary zone of control before eventually continuing onwards towards Vladivostok, from where they emigrated back to Czechoslovakia. World War II[edit] Main article: Pacific Route During World War II, the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
played an important role in the supply of the powers fighting in Europe. During the first two years of the war the USSR was secretly allied with Germany. While Germany's merchant shipping was interdicted by the Western allies, the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
(along with its Trans-Manchurian branch) served as the essential link between Germany and Japan. One commodity particularly essential for the German war effort was natural rubber, which Japan was able to source from South-East Asia (in particular, French Indochina).[citation needed] As of March 1941, 300 tonnes of this material would, on average, traverse the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
every day on its way to Germany. According to one analysis of the natural rubber supply chain, as of 22 March 1941, 5800 tonnes of this essential material were transiting on the Soviet railway network between the borders of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and the Third Reich, 2000 tonnes were transiting Manchukuo, 4000 tonnes were sitting in Dairen, 3800 tonnes were in Japan, and 5700 tonnes, on the way from South-East Asia to Japan.[21] At this time, a number of Jews and anti-Nazis used the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
to escape Europe, including the mathematician Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
and Betty Ehrlich Löwenstein, mother of British actor, director and producer Heinz Bernard.[22] Several thousand Jewish refugees were able to make this trip thanks to the Japanese visas issued by the Japanese consul, Chiune Sugihara, in Kaunas, Lithuania. Typically they would travel east on the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
where they would board a ship bound for the USA.[citation needed] The situation reversed after 22 June 1941. By invading the Soviet Union, Germany cut off its only reliable trade route to Japan. Instead, it had to use fast merchant ships (blockade runners) and later large oceanic submarines in an attempt to evade the allied maritime patrols. On the other hand, the USSR became the recipient of lend lease supplies from the USA. Even though Japan went to war with the USA, it was anxious to preserve good relations with the USSR and, despite German complaints, usually allowed Soviet ships to sail between the USA and Russia's Pacific ports unmolested.[23] This contrasted with Germany and Britain's behaviour; their navies would destroy or capture neutrals' ships sailing to their respective adversaries. As a result, the Pacific Route – involving crossing the northern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
– became the safest connection between the USA and the USSR.[citation needed] Accordingly, it accounted for as much freight as the two other routes (North Atlantic–Arctic and Iranian) combined, though cargoes were limited to raw materials and non-military goods (locomotives, clothing, foodstuffs etc.). From 1941-42 the railway also played an important role in relocating Soviet industries from European Russia
Russia
to Siberia in the face of the German invasion. The railway transported Soviet troops west from the Far east to take part in the Soviet counter-offensive in December 1941, and later east from Germany to the Japanese front in preparation for the Soviet–Japanese War
Soviet–Japanese War
of August 1945.[citation needed] Today[edit]

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The Trans-Siberian line remains the most important transport link within Russia; around 30% of Russian exports travel on the line. While it attracts many foreign tourists, it gets most of its use from domestic passengers.

The Trans-Siberian is a vital link to the Russian Far East.

Today the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
carries about 200,000 containers per year to Europe. Russian Railways
Russian Railways
intends to at least double the volume of container traffic on the Trans-Siberian and is developing a fleet of specialised cars and increasing terminal capacity at the ports by a factor of 3 to 4. By 2010, the volume of traffic between Russia
Russia
and China
China
could reach 60 million tons (54 million tonnes), most of which will go by the Trans-Siberian.[24] With perfect coordination of the participating countries' railway authorities, a trainload of containers can be taken from Beijing
Beijing
to Hamburg, via the Trans-Mongolian and Trans-Siberian lines in as little as 15 days, but typical cargo transit times are usually significantly longer[25] and typical cargo transit time from Japan to major destinations in European Russia
Russia
was reported as around 25 days.[26] According to a 2009 report, the best travel times for cargo block trains from Russia's Pacific ports to the western border (of Russia, or perhaps of Belarus) were around 12 days, with trains making around 900 km (559 mi) per day, at a maximum operating speed of 80 km/h (50 mph). However, in early 2009, Russian Railways announced an ambitious "Trans-Siberian in Seven Days" programme; according to this plan, $11 billion will be invested over the next five years to make it possible for goods traffic to cover the same 9,000 km (5,592 mi) distance in just seven days. The plan will involve increasing the cargo trains' speed to 90 km/h (56 mph) in 2010–12, and, at least on some sections, to 100 km/h (62 mph) by 2015. At these speeds, goods trains will be able to cover 1,500 km (932 mi) per day.[27] Developments in shipping[edit] Main article: Trans-Eurasia Logistics On 11 January 2008, China, Mongolia, Russia, Belarus, Poland
Poland
and Germany agreed to collaborate on a cargo train service between Beijing and Hamburg.[28] The railway can typically deliver containers in ​1⁄3 to ​1⁄2 of the time of a sea voyage, and in late 2009 announced a 20% reduction in its container shipping rates. With its 2009 rate schedule, the TSR will transport a forty-foot container to Poland
Poland
from Yokohama
Yokohama
for $2,820, or from Busan
Busan
for $2,154.[29] One of the most complicating factors related to such ventures is the fact that the CIS states' broad railway gauge is incompatible with China
China
and Western and Central Europe's standard gauge. Therefore, a train travelling from China
China
to Western Europe
Western Europe
would encounter gauge breaks twice: at the Chinese–Mongolian or the Chinese–Russian frontier and at the Ukrainian or the Belorussian border with Central European countries.[citation needed] TransSiberian route in 7 days[edit] In 2008, the Russian Railways
Russian Railways
JSC (state company) launched a program for the accelerated delivery of containers cargo by block trains from the Far-Eastern ports (Vladivostok, Nakhodka
Nakhodka
and others) to the western borders of Russia, called "Transsib in 7 days". Within the framework of the program it is planned to decrease the cargo delivery time from the Far East from 11 days in 2008 to 7 days in 2015. The length of the routes is about 10.000 km. The speed of delivery via the block trains should increase from 900 km per day in 2008 to 1.500 km per day in 2015. The first accelerated experimental block-train was launched in February 2009 from the Vladivostok
Vladivostok
station to Moscow. The length of the route was about 9.300 km, the actual time of the experimental train's delivery was 7 days and 5 hours, the average route speed was up to 1.289 km / day. The maximum route speed of the train was 1.422 km / day. Gallery[edit]

Start of Trans-Siberian railway in Moscow.

Bashkir switchman near the town Ust' Katav on the Yuryuzan River between Ufa
Ufa
and Cheliabinsk
Cheliabinsk
in the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
region, c. 1910

View from the rear platform of the Simskaia railway station of the Samara–Zlatoust Railway, c. 1910

Almost every station on Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
have food sellers, often by local vendors which sell local food (fish (like Baikal omul), pirozhki, potatoes). Beside food-stands there are also small kiosks

Snow in late-April at Nazyvayevsk
Nazyvayevsk
station, Siberia.

The train ferry SS Baikal in service on Lake Baikal

Train entering a Circum-Baikal tunnel west of Kultuk

Vladivostok
Vladivostok
terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway

The marker for kilometre 9,288 at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
in Vladivostok

Routes[edit] Trans-Siberian line[edit] A commonly used main line route is as follows. Distances and travel times are from the schedule of train No. 002M, Moscow–Vladivostok.[4]

Location Distance Travel Time Time Zone Notes

Moscow, Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal 0 km (0 mi)

Moscow Time

Vladimir 210 km (130 mi)

MT

Nizhny Novgorod 461 km (286 mi) 6 hours MT on the Volga River

Kirov 917 km (570 mi) 13 hours MT on the Vyatka River

Perm 1,397 km (868 mi) 20 hours MT+2 on the Kama River

Yekaterinburg 1,816 km (1,128 mi) 1 day 2 hours MT+2 in the Urals, still called by its old Soviet name Sverdlovsk in most timetables

Tyumen 2,104 km (1,307 mi)

Omsk 2,676 km (1,663 mi) 1 day 14 hours MT+3 on the Irtysh
Irtysh
River

Novosibirsk 3,303 km (2,052 mi) 1 day 22 hours MT+3 on the Ob River; Turk-Sib
Turk-Sib
railway branches from here

Krasnoyarsk 4,065 km (2,526 mi) 2 days 11 hours MT+4 on the Yenisei
Yenisei
River

Taishet 4,483 km (2,786 mi)

junction with the Baikal-Amur Mainline

Irkutsk 5,153 km (3,202 mi) 3 days 4 hours MT+5 near Lake Baikal's southern extremity

Ulan Ude 5,609 km (3,485 mi) 3 days 12 hours MT+5 eastern shore of Lake Baikal

Junction with the Trans-Mongolian line 5,622 km (3,493 mi)

Chita 6,166 km (3,831 mi) 3 days 22 hours MT+6

Junction with the Trans-Manchurian line at Tarskaya 6,274 km (3,898 mi)

Birobidzhan 8,312 km (5,165 mi) 5 days 13 hours

capital of the Jewish Autonomous Region

Khabarovsk 8,493 km (5,277 mi) 5 days 15 hours MT+7 on the Amur River

Ussuriysk 9,147 km (5,684 mi)

junction with the Trans-Manchurian line and Korea branch; located in Varanovsky, 13 km (8 miles) from Ussuriysk

Vladivostok 9,289 km (5,772 mi) 6 days 4 hours MT+7 on the Pacific Ocean

Services to North Korea
North Korea
continue from Ussuriysk
Ussuriysk
via:

Primorskaya station 9,257 km (5,752 mi) 6 days 14 hours MT+7

Khasan 9,407 km (5,845 mi) 6 days 19 hours MT+7 border with North Korea

Tumangang 9,412 km (5,848 mi) 7 days 10 hours MT+5:30 North Korean side of the border

Pyongyang 10,267 km (6,380 mi) 9 days 2 hours MT+5:30

There are many alternative routings between Moscow
Moscow
and Siberia. For example:

Some trains would leave Moscow
Moscow
from Kazansky Rail Terminal
Kazansky Rail Terminal
instead of Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal; this would save some 20 km (12 mi) off the distances, because it provides a shorter exit from Moscow
Moscow
onto the Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
main line. One can take a night train from Moscow's Kursky Rail Terminal to Nizhny Novgorod, make a stopover in the Nizhny and then transfer to a Siberia-bound train From 1956 to 2001 many trains went between Moscow
Moscow
and Kirov via Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
instead of Nizhny Novgorod. This would add some 29 km (18 mi) to the distances from Moscow, making the total distance to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
at 9,288 km (5,771 mi). Other trains get from Moscow
Moscow
(Kazansky Terminal) to Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
via Kazan. Between Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
and Omsk
Omsk
it is possible to travel via Kurgan Petropavlovsk (in Kazakhstan) instead of Tyumen. One can bypass Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
altogether by travelling via Samara, Ufa, Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
and Petropavlovsk; this was historically the earliest configuration.

Depending on the route taken, the distances from Moscow
Moscow
to the same station in Siberia may differ by several tens of km. Trans-Manchurian line[edit] Main articles: Trans-Manchurian Railway
Railway
and China
China
Far East Railway The Trans-Manchurian line, as e.g. used by train No.020, Moscow–Beijing[30] follows the same route as the Trans-Siberian between Moscow
Moscow
and Chita and then follows this route to China:

Branch off from the Trans-Siberian-line at Tarskaya (6,274 km (3,898 mi) from Moscow) Zabaikalsk
Zabaikalsk
(6,626 km), Russian border town; there is a break-of-gauge Manzhouli
Manzhouli
(6,638 km (4,125 mi) from Moscow, 2,323 km (1,443 mi) from Beijing), Chinese border town Harbin
Harbin
(7,573 km (4,706 mi), 1,388 km) Changchun
Changchun
(7,820 km (4,859 mi) from Moscow) Beijing
Beijing
(8,961 km (5,568 mi) from Moscow)

The express train (No. 020) travel time from Moscow
Moscow
to Beijing
Beijing
is just over six days. There is no direct passenger service along the entire original Trans-Manchurian route (i.e., from Moscow
Moscow
or anywhere in Russia, west of Manchuria, to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
via Harbin), due to the obvious administrative and technical (gauge break) inconveniences of crossing the border twice. However, assuming sufficient patience and possession of appropriate visas, it is still possible to travel all the way along the original route, with a few stopovers (e.g. in Harbin, Grodekovo
Grodekovo
and Ussuriysk).[citation needed] Such an itinerary would pass through the following points from Harbin east:

Harbin
Harbin
(7,573 km (4,706 mi) from Moscow) Mudanjiang
Mudanjiang
(7,928 km) Suifenhe
Suifenhe
(8,121 km), the Chinese border station Grodekovo
Grodekovo
(8,147 km), Russia Ussuriysk
Ussuriysk
(8,244 km) Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(8,356 km)

Trans-Mongolian line[edit] Main article: Trans-Mongolian Railway The Trans-Mongolian line follows the same route as the Trans-Siberian between Moscow
Moscow
and Ulan Ude, and then follows this route to Mongolia and China:

Branch off from the Trans-Siberian line (5,655 km (3,514 mi) from Moscow) Naushki (5,895 km (3,663 mi), MT+5), Russian border town Russian–Mongolian border (5,900 km (3,666 mi), MT+5) Sükhbaatar (5,921 km (3,679 mi), MT+5), Mongolian border town Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
(6,304 km (3,917 mi), MT+5), the Mongolian capital Zamyn-Üüd
Zamyn-Üüd
(7,013 km (4,358 mi), MT+5), Mongolian border town Erenhot
Erenhot
(842 km (523 mi) from Beijing, MT+5), Chinese border town Datong
Datong
(371 km (231 mi), MT+5) Beijing
Beijing
(MT+5)

Future proposals[edit] New lines[edit] New lines between Perm
Perm
and Mariinsk
Mariinsk
via Ural base tunnel, Nizhny Tagil, Tyumen
Tyumen
and Tomsk, from Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
via Eniseisk, Ermakovo, Igarka to Dudinka, from Kirov via Tobolsk, Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, Eniseisk to Bratsk, and from Nizhny Tagil via Tobolsk
Tobolsk
and Tomsk
Tomsk
to Eniseisk are proposed.

Details:

Track gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) Russian gauge Electrification: 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead lines Loading gauge: 4.1 metres (13.5 feet) wide and 6.15 metres (20.2 feet) tall Platform height: 200 mm (7.9 in) above rails Minimum overhead line height: 6.5 metres (21.3 feet) above rails

Proposed platform heights by routes[edit]

High platform line

Moscow-Kazanskaya - Ryazan - Samara - Ufa
Ufa
- Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
- Kurgan route should be 1,100 mm (43.3 in) for DC EMUs and 550 mm (21.7 in) for the other trains.

Low platform lines

Trans-Siberian lines except high platform line (see above) should be 200 mm (7.9 in) for most platforms and 550 mm (21.7 in) for some platforms. See also[edit]

Railways portal Baikal–Amur Mainline Famous trains History of Siberia Russian gauge

Broad gauge

Russian Railways Sibirjak Starlight Express, a train musical in which a character is modeled on the Trans-Siberian Express. Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
Panorama

References[edit]

^ "Lonely Planet Guide to the Trans-Siberian Railway" (PDF). Lonely Planet Publications. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2012.  ^ Meakin, Annette, A Ribbon of Iron (1901), reprinted in 1970 as part of the Russia
Russia
Observed series (Arno Press/New York Times)(OCLC 118166). ^ " Russia
Russia
formally requests access to Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
Latest Gwadar News". Gwadarnews.com. 2016-11-25. Retrieved 2017-04-29.  ^ a b "CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Vladivostok". Archived from the original on 3 December 2009.  ^ Moscow
Moscow
is at UTC+3, Vladivostok
Vladivostok
is at UTC+10; therefore the line passes through 8 time zones; see map ^ "CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Pyongyang". Archived from the original on 3 December 2009.  ^ "CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok". Archived from the original on 3 December 2009.  ^ Alexeev, V.V.; Bandman, M.K.; Kuleshov—Novosibirsk, V. V., eds. (2002). Problem Regions of Resource Type: Economical Integration of European North-East, Ural and Siberia. IEIE. ISBN 5-89665-060-4.  ^ March, G. Patrick (1996). Eastern Destiny: Russia
Russia
in Asia and the North Pacific. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 152–53. ISBN 0-275-95648-2.  ^ "The Great Siberian Iron Road", The Daily News (London), 30 December 1896, pg. 7. ^ Davis, Clarence B.; Wilburn, Kenneth E., Jr; Robinson, Ronald E. (1991). "Russia, the Soviet Union, and the Chinese Eastern Railway". Railway
Railway
Imperialism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780313259661. Retrieved 24 July 2015 – via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Pleshakov, Constantine (2002). The Tsar's Last Armada: The Epic Journey to the Battle of Tsushima. New York: Basic Books. p. 10. ISBN 0465057926. Retrieved 3 October 2015 – via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c d "Irkutsk: Ice-Breaker "Angara"". Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
Travel Company. Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
Travel Company. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ a b c d e Babanine, Fedor (2003). "Circumbaikal Railway". Lake Baikal Homepage. Fedor Babanine. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "Russia's legendary Trans-Siberian railroad line completely electrified". Associated Press. 25 December 2002. Retrieved 14 June 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Храмков, А.А. (2001). "Железнодорожные перевозки хлеба из Сибири в западном направлении в конце XIX—начале XX вв" [Railroad transportation of bread from Siberia westwards in the late 19th–early 20th centuries]. Предприниматели и предпринимательство в Сибири. Вып.3 [Entrepreneurs and business undertakings in Siberia. 3rd issue]. Барнаул: Изд-во АГУ. ISBN 5-7904-0195-3.  ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: a history. University of Toronto Press. p. 262. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.  ^ Dronin, N.M.; Bellinger, E.G. (2005). Climate dependence and food problems in Russia, 1900–1990: the interaction of climate and agricultural policy and their effect on food problems. Central European University Press. p. 38. ISBN 963-7326-10-3.  ^ Isitt, Benjamin. "Mutiny from Victoria to Vladivostok, December 1918". Canadian Historical Review. 87 (2): 223–64. doi:10.3138/chr/87.2.223. Retrieved 3 October 2016.  ^ Willmott, H.P. (2003). First World War. Dorling Kindersley. p. 251.  ^ Martin, Bernd (1969), Deutschland und Japan Im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Musterschmidt Verlag, p. 155  ^ Lowenstein, Jonathan (26 April 2010). "The Journey of a Lifetime: my grandmother's escape on the Trans-Siberian railway". Telaviv1.  ^ Martin 1969, p. 174 ^ "Transsiberian Railway
Railway
(from Russian Railways
Russian Railways
official website)". Eng.rzd.ru. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  ^ Donahue, Patrick (24 January 2008). "China-to-Germany Cargo Train Completes Trial Run in 15 Days". Bloomberg.com.  ^ Kachi, Hiroyuki (20 July 2007). "Mitsui talking to Russian railway operator on trans-Siberian freight service". MarketWatch.com.  ^ "Trans-Siberian in seven days". Railway
Railway
Gazette International. 5 May 2009.  ^ " Beijing
Beijing
to Hamburg
Hamburg
fast cargo rail link planned". The China
China
Post. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  ^ "Chapter 4: Freight Rates" (PDF). Review of Maritime Transport. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: 89. 2010. ISSN 0566-7682. Retrieved 31 December 2011.  ^ "CIS railway timetable, route No. 020, Moscow-Beijing". Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

Ames, Edward (1947). "A century of Russian railroad construction: 1837–1936". American Slavic and East European Review. 6 (3/4): 57–74. doi:10.2307/2491700. JSTOR 2491700.  Dawson Jr., John W. (2002). "Max Dehn, Kurt Gödel, and the Trans-Siberian escape route". Notices of the AMS (49.9).  Marks, S.G. (1991). Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917. ISBN 0-8014-2533-6.  Faulstich, Edith M. (1972–1977). The Siberian Sojourn. Yonkers, NY.  Metzer, Jacob (1976). "Railroads in Tsarist Russia: Direct gains and implications". Explorations in Economic History. 13 (1): 85–111. doi:10.1016/0014-4983(76)90006-1.  Miller, Elisa B. (1978). "The Trans-Siberian landbridge, a new trade route between Japan and Europe: issues and prospects". Soviet Geography (19.4): 223–43.  North, Robert N. (1979). Transport in western Siberia: Tsarist and Soviet development. University of British Columbia Press.  Reichman, Henry (1988). "The 1905 Revolution on the Siberian Railroad". Russian Review. 47 (1): 25–48. doi:10.2307/130442. JSTOR 130442.  Richmond, Simon (2009). Trans-Siberian Railway. Lonely Planet.  Guide book for travelers Thomas, Bryn (2003). The Trans-Siberian Handbook (6th ed.). Trailblazer. ISBN 1-873756-70-4.  Guide book for travelers Tupper, Harmon (1965). To the great ocean: Siberia and the Trans-Siberian Railway. Little, Brown.  Westwood, John Norton (1964). A history of Russian railways. G. Allen and Unwin.  Калиничев, В.П. (1991). Великий Сиберский путь (историко-экономический очерк) (in Russian). Москва: Транспорт. ISBN 5-277-00758-X.  Omrani, Bijan (2010). Asia Overland: Tales of Travel on the Trans-Siberian and Silk Road. Odyssey Publications. ISBN 962-217-811-1.  Walker, Robert. The Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
Encyclopedia. https://trans-siberian-railway-encyclopedia.com/.  Wolmar, Christian (2013). To the Edge of the World. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN 9780857890375. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Trans-Siberian railway at Wikimedia Commons Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway
travel guide from Wikivoyage Trans-Siberian Railway, national geographic expeditions Trans-Siberian Railway: a view from Moscow
Moscow
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
– a photo essay (27 December 2016), The Guardian. Photographs of "life onboard the Trans-Siberian Railway, and beyond the carriage window." Russian Railways
Russian Railways
official website Overview of passenger travel today "A 1903 map of Trans-Siberian railway".  Guide to the Great Siberian Railway
Railway
(1900) Mikhailoff, M. (May 1900). ""The Great Siberian Railway"". the North American Review. 170 (522).  Manley, Deborah, ed. (January 2009). The Trans-Siberian Railway: A Traveller's Anthology. ISBN 1-904955-49-5. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.  Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1936), "The Trans-Siberian Express", Railway
Railway
Wonders of the World, pp. 451–57  illustrated description of the route and the train Trans-Siberian Train № 1 "Russia". Depart Fast Train on YouTube

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Trans-Siberian Railway New Eurasian Land Bridge Northern East West Freight Corridor Trans-Asian Railway Trans-Eurasia Logistics Bering Strait crossing Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Tunnel Sakhalin–Hokkaido Tunnel Seikan Tunnel Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel Maitree Express

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