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Trade
Trade
involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services.[1][need quotation to verify] Barter
Barter
involves trading things without the use of money.[1] Later one bartering party started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and of non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade
Trade
between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade
Trade
exists due to specialization and the division of labor - a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs.[2][dead link] Trade
Trade
exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' size may encourage mass production[3]. As such, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations. Retail
Retail
trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location[4] (such as a department store, boutique or kiosk), online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser.[5] Wholesale
Wholesale
trade is defined[by whom?] as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.[6][not in citation given]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Ancient history 2.3 Later trade

2.3.1 Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Near East 2.3.2 The Orient 2.3.3 Central America

2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 The Age of Sail and the Industrial Revolution 2.6 19th century 2.7 20th century 2.8 21st century 2.9 Free trade

3 Perspectives

3.1 Protectionism 3.2 Religion 3.3 Development of money

4 Trends

4.1 Doha
Doha
rounds 4.2 China

5 International trade

5.1 Trade
Trade
sanctions 5.2 Trade
Trade
barriers 5.3 Fair
Fair
trade

6 See also 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Etymology[edit] Commerce is derived from the Latin
Latin
commercium, from cum and merx, merchandise. Trade
Trade
from Middle English trade (“path, course of conduct”), introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade (“track, course”), from Old Saxon trada (“spoor, track”), from Proto-Germanic *tradō (“track, way”), and cognate with Old English
Old English
tredan (“to tread”). History[edit] See also: Economic history of the world
Economic history of the world
and Timeline of international trade Prehistory[edit] Trade
Trade
originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.[7] In the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region the earliest contact between cultures were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BCE.[8][9][10] Some trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other.

The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce[11] with which Mercury has traditionally been associated.

Ancient history[edit]

Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolzhaya Bliznitsa tumulus near Phanagoria, South Russia (then part of the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
of Cimmerian Bosporus); on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
in Saint Petersburg.

Trade
Trade
is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and flint during the stone age. Trade
Trade
in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea
Guinea
from 17,000 BCE.[12][13]

The earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Lower and Middle paleolithic.[14] — HIH Prince Mikasa
Prince Mikasa
no Miya Takahito

Trade
Trade
in the stone age was investigated by Robert Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901.[15][16] Trade
Trade
is believed to have first begun in south west Asia.[17][18] Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was increasingly the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region.[19][20][21] Obsidian
Obsidian
is thought to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more easily obtainable materials were available, use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint".[17] Obsidian
Obsidian
was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region.[22] Trade
Trade
in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material.[19][23] Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE[24] Anatolia was the source primarily for trade with the Levant, Iran and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990.[25][26][27] Melos and Lipari
Lipari
sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region as known to archaeology.[28] The Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli.[29][30] The material was most largely traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE.[31][32] Later trade[edit] Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Near East[edit] Ebla
Ebla
was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia.[28][33][34][35]

A map of the Silk Road
Silk Road
trade route between Europe and Asia.

Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, and as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called emporia.[citation needed][36] From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce
Roman commerce
allowed its empire to flourish and endure. The latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
of the Roman empire
Roman empire
produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy, as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
with the conquest of Egypt and the near east.[37] In ancient Greece Hermes
Hermes
was the god of trade[38][39] (commerce) and weights and measures,[40] for Romans Mercurius also god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day of the fifth month.[41][42] The concept of free trade was an antithesis to the will and economic direction of the sovereigns of the ancient Greek states. Free trade
Free trade
between states was stifled by the need for strict internal controls (via taxation) to maintain security within the treasury of the sovereign, which nevertheless enabled the maintenance of a modicum of civility within the structures of functional community life.[43][44] The fall of the Roman empire, and the succeeding Dark Ages brought instability to Western Europe
Western Europe
and a near collapse of the trade network in the western world. Trade
Trade
however continued to flourish among the kingdoms of Africa, Middle East, India, China and Southeast Asia. Some trade did occur in the west. For instance, Radhanites were a medieval guild or group (the precise meaning of the word is lost to history) of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East.[citation needed] The Orient[edit] Archaeological evidence (Greenberg 1951) of the first use of trade-marks are from China dated about 2700 BCE.[45] Central America[edit] The emergence of exchange networks in the Pre-Columbian societies of and near to Mexico are known to have occurred within recent years before and after 1500 BCE.[46] Middle Ages[edit] During the Middle Ages, commerce developed in Europe by trading luxury goods at trade fairs. Wealth became converted into movable wealth or capital. Banking systems developed where money on account was transferred across national boundaries. Hand to hand markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities. Western Europe
Western Europe
established a complex and expansive trade network with cargo ships being the main workhorse for the movement of goods, Cogs and Hulks are two examples of such cargo ships[47]. Many ports would develop their own extensive trade networks. The English port city of Bristol
Bristol
traded with peoples from what is modern day Iceland, all along the western coast of France, and down to what is now Spain[48].

A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe.

During the Middle Ages, Central Asia was the economic center of the world.[49] The Sogdians dominated the East-West trade route known as the Silk Road
Silk Road
after the 4th century CE up to the 8th century CE, with Suyab
Suyab
and Talas ranking among their main centers in the north. They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia. From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings and Varangians
Varangians
traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia. Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while Varangians
Varangians
to Russia. The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, between the 13th and 17th centuries. The Age of Sail and the Industrial Revolution[edit] Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
pioneered the European Spice
Spice
trade in 1498 when he reached Calicut after sailing around the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
at the southern tip of the African continent. Prior to this, the flow of spice into Europe from India was controlled by Islamic powers, especially Egypt. The spice trade was of major economic importance and helped spur the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
in Europe. Spices brought to Europe from the Eastern world were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight, sometimes rivaling gold. In the 16th century, the Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
were the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange controls, and advocating the free movement of goods. Trade
Trade
in the East Indies
East Indies
was dominated by Portugal in the 16th century, the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in the 17th century, and the British in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
developed regular trade links across both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

Danzig
Danzig
in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League.

In 1776, Adam Smith
Adam Smith
published the paper An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. It criticised Mercantilism, and argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since the division of labour was restricted by the size of the market, he said that countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide labour more efficiently and thereby become more productive. Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import and export controls "dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the benefit of specific industries. In 1799, the Dutch East India Company, formerly the world's largest company, became bankrupt, partly due to the rise of competitive free trade.

Berber trade with Timbuktu, 1853.

19th century[edit] In 1817, David Ricardo, James Mill
James Mill
and Robert Torrens
Robert Torrens
showed that free trade would benefit the industrially weak as well as the strong, in the famous theory of comparative advantage. In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Ricardo advanced the doctrine still considered the most counterintuitive in economics:

When an inefficient producer sends the merchandise it produces best to a country able to produce it more efficiently, both countries benefit.

The ascendancy of free trade was primarily based on national advantage in the mid 19th century. That is, the calculation made was whether it was in any particular country's self-interest to open its borders to imports. John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
proved that a country with monopoly pricing power on the international market could manipulate the terms of trade through maintaining tariffs, and that the response to this might be reciprocity in trade policy. Ricardo and others had suggested this earlier. This was taken as evidence against the universal doctrine of free trade, as it was believed that more of the economic surplus of trade would accrue to a country following reciprocal, rather than completely free, trade policies. This was followed within a few years by the infant industry scenario developed by Mill promoting the theory that government had the duty to protect young industries, although only for a time necessary for them to develop full capacity. This became the policy in many countries attempting to industrialise and out-compete English exporters. Milton Friedman
Milton Friedman
later continued this vein of thought, showing that in a few circumstances tariffs might be beneficial to the host country; but never for the world at large.[50] 20th century[edit] The Great Depression
Great Depression
was a major economic recession that ran from 1929 to the late 1930s. During this period, there was a great drop in trade and other economic indicators. The lack of free trade was considered by many as a principal cause of the depression causing stagnation and inflation.[51] Only during the World War II
World War II
the recession ended in the United States. Also during the war, in 1944, 44 countries signed the Bretton Woods Agreement, intended to prevent national trade barriers, to avoid depressions. It set up rules and institutions to regulate the international political economy: the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later divided into the World Bank and Bank for International Settlements). These organisations became operational in 1946 after enough countries ratified the agreement. In 1947, 23 countries agreed to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Trade
to promote free trade.[52] The European Union
European Union
became the world's largest exporter of manufactured goods and services, the biggest export market for around 80 countries.[53] 21st century[edit] See also: Globalization Today, trade is merely a subset within a complex system of companies which try to maximize their profits by offering products and services to the market (which consists both of individuals and other companies) at the lowest production cost. A system of international trade has helped to develop the world economy but, in combination with bilateral or multilateral agreements to lower tariffs or to achieve free trade, has sometimes harmed third-world markets for local products. Free trade[edit] Main article: Free trade Free trade
Free trade
advanced further in the late 20th century and early 2000s:

1992 European Union
European Union
lifted barriers to internal trade in goods and labour. January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) took effect 1994 The GATT Marrakech Agreement specified formation of the WTO. January 1, 1995 World Trade
Trade
Organization
Organization
was created to facilitate free trade, by mandating mutual most favoured nation trading status between all signatories. EC was transformed into the European Union, which accomplished the Economic
Economic
and Monnetary Union (EMU) in 2002, through introducing the Euro, and creating this way a real single market between 13 member states as of January 1, 2007.

Intérêts des nations de l'Europe, dévélopés relativement au commerce (1766)

2005, the Central American Free Trade Agreement
Central American Free Trade Agreement
was signed; It includes the United States and the Dominican Republic.

Perspectives[edit] Protectionism[edit] Main article: Protectionism Protectionism
Protectionism
is the policy of restraining and discouraging trade between states and contrasts with the policy of free trade. This policy often takes of form of tariffs and restrictive quotas. Protectionist policies were particularly prevalent in the 1930s, between the Great Depression
Great Depression
and the onset of World War II. Religion[edit] Islamic teachings encourage trading (and condemn usury or interest). By trade, the whole society gets benefits but self-interest makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.[54][55] Judeao- Christian
Christian
teachings prohibit fraud and dishonest measures, and historically also forbade the charging of interest on loans.[56][57] Development of money[edit] Main article: History of money

A Roman denarius.

The first instances of money were objects with intrinsic value. This is called commodity money and includes any commonly available commodity that has intrinsic value; historical examples include pigs, rare seashells, whale's teeth, and (often) cattle. In medieval Iraq, bread was used as an early form of money. In Mexico under Montezuma cocoa beans were money. [6] Currency
Currency
was introduced as a standardised money to facilitate a wider exchange of goods and services. This first stage of currency, where metals were used to represent stored value, and symbols to represent commodities, formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. Numismatists have examples of coins from the earliest large-scale societies, although these were initially unmarked lumps of precious metal.[58] Bitcoin
Bitcoin
and other Cryptocurrency
Cryptocurrency
provide a worldwide payment system for decentralized digital currency. Trends[edit] Doha
Doha
rounds[edit] Main article: Doha
Doha
round The Doha round
Doha round
of World Trade
Trade
Organization
Organization
negotiations aimed to lower barriers to trade around the world, with a focus on making trade fairer for developing countries. Talks have been hung over a divide between the rich developed countries, represented by the G20, and the major developing countries. Agricultural subsidies
Agricultural subsidies
are the most significant issue upon which agreement has been hardest to negotiate. By contrast, there was much agreement on trade facilitation and capacity building. The Doha round
Doha round
began in Doha, Qatar, and negotiations were continued in: Cancún, Mexico; Geneva, Switzerland; and Paris, France
France
and Hong Kong.[citation needed] China[edit] Beginning around 1978, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) began an experiment in economic reform. In contrast to the previous Soviet-style centrally planned economy, the new measures progressively relaxed restrictions on farming, agricultural distribution and, several years later, urban enterprises and labor. The more market-oriented approach reduced inefficiencies and stimulated private investment, particularly by farmers, that led to increased productivity and output. One feature was the establishment of four (later five) Special
Special
Economic
Economic
Zones located along the South-east coast.[citation needed] The reforms proved spectacularly successful in terms of increased output, variety, quality, price and demand. In real terms, the economy doubled in size between 1978 and 1986, doubled again by 1994, and again by 2003. On a real per capita basis, doubling from the 1978 base took place in 1987, 1996 and 2006. By 2008, the economy was 16.7 times the size it was in 1978, and 12.1 times its previous per capita levels. International trade
International trade
progressed even more rapidly, doubling on average every 4.5 years. Total two-way trade in January 1998 exceeded that for all of 1978; in the first quarter of 2009, trade exceeded the full-year 1998 level. In 2008, China's two-way trade totaled US$2.56 trillion.[59] In 1991 China joined the Asia-Pacific Economic
Economic
Cooperation group, a trade-promotion forum.<https://www.apec.org/About-Us/About-APEC/Member-Economies> In 2001, it also joined the World Trade Organization.<https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/china_e.htm> International trade[edit] Main article: International trade

Part of a series on

World trade

Policy

Import Export Balance of trade Trade
Trade
law Trade
Trade
pact Trade
Trade
bloc Trade
Trade
creation Trade
Trade
diversion Export
Export
orientation Import
Import
substitution Trade
Trade
finance Trade
Trade
facilitation Trade
Trade
route Domestic trade Tax, tariff and trade

Restrictions

Trade
Trade
barriers Tariffs Non-tariff barriers Import
Import
quotas Tariff-rate quotas Quota share Import
Import
licenses Customs duties Export
Export
subsidies Technical barriers Bribery Exchange rate controls Embargo Safeguards Countervailing duties Anti-dumping duties Voluntary export restraints

History

Mercantilism Protectionism Laissez-faire Free trade Economic
Economic
nationalism Economic
Economic
integration

Organizations

International Monetary Fund International Trade
Trade
Centre World Trade
Trade
Organization World Customs Organization

Economic
Economic
integration

Preferential trading area Free trade
Free trade
area Customs union Single market Economic
Economic
union Monetary union Fiscal union Customs and monetary union Economic
Economic
and monetary union

Issues

Intellectual property
Intellectual property
rights Smuggling Competition policy Government procurement Outsourcing Globalization Fair
Fair
trade Trade
Trade
justice Emissions trading Trade
Trade
sanctions War

Currency Trade
Trade
costs Customs Trade

Trade
Trade
and development

Lists

Imports Exports Tariffs Largest consumer markets Leading trade partners

By country

Trade
Trade
mission Trading nation United States Argentina Pakistan Romania Vietnam India

Theory

Comparative advantage Competitive advantage Heckscher–Ohlin model New trade theory Economic
Economic
geography Intra-industry trade Gravity model of trade Ricardian trade theories Balassa–Samuelson effect Linder hypothesis Leontief paradox Lerner symmetry theorem Terms of trade

v t e

International trade
International trade
is the exchange of goods and services across national borders. In most countries, it represents a significant part of GDP. While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance have increased in recent centuries, mainly because of Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing.[citation needed] Empirical evidence for the success of trade can be seen in the contrast between countries such as South Korea, which adopted a policy of export-oriented industrialization, and India, which historically had a more closed policy. South Korea
South Korea
has done much better by economic criteria than India over the past fifty years, though its success also has to do with effective state institutions.[citation needed] Trade
Trade
sanctions[edit] Trade sanctions
Trade sanctions
against a specific country are sometimes imposed, in order to punish that country for some action. An embargo, a severe form of externally imposed isolation, is a blockade of all trade by one country on another. For example, the United States has had an embargo against Cuba
Cuba
for over 40 years.[60] Trade
Trade
barriers[edit] International trade, which is governed by the World Trade Organization, can be restricted by both tariff and non-tariff barriers. International trade
International trade
is usually regulated by governmental quotas and restrictions, and often taxed by tariffs. Tariffs are usually on imports, but sometimes countries may impose export tariffs or subsidies. Non-tariff barriers include Sanitary and Phytosanitary rules, labeling requirements and food safety regulations. All of these are called trade barriers. If a government removes all trade barriers, a condition of free trade exists. A government that implements a protectionist policy establishes trade barriers. There are usually few trade restrictions within countries although a common feature of many developing countries is police and other road blocks along main highways, that primarily exist to extract bribes.[citation needed] Fair
Fair
trade[edit] The "fair trade" movement, also known as the "trade justice" movement, promotes the use of labour, environmental and social standards for the production of commodities, particularly those exported from the Third and Second Worlds to the First World. Such ideas have also sparked a debate on whether trade itself should be codified as a human right.[61] Importing firms voluntarily adhere to fair trade standards or governments may enforce them through a combination of employment and commercial law. Proposed and practiced fair trade policies vary widely, ranging from the common prohibition of goods made using slave labour to minimum price support schemes such as those for coffee in the 1980s. Non-governmental organizations also play a role in promoting fair trade standards by serving as independent monitors of compliance with labeling requirements.[citation needed] As such, it is a form of Protectionism. See also[edit]

Economics
Economics
portal

Accounting Advertising Bachelor of Commerce Business Capitalism Commercial law Distribution (business)

Wholesale Retailing

Cargo Eco commerce Economy Electronic commerce Export Fair Finance Fishery Harvest Industry Import Laissez-faire Manufacturing Marketing Marketplace Mass production Master of Commerce Merchandising

List of trading companies

Notes[edit]

^ a b Samuelson, P (1939). "The Gains from International Trade". The Canadian Journal of Economics
Economics
and Political Science. 5 (2): 195–205. doi:10.2307/137133.  ^ Dollar, D; Kraay, A (2004). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty" (PDF). The Economic
Economic
Journal. 114 (493): F22–F49. doi:10.1111/j.0013-0133.2004.00186.x.  ^ Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim (2018). "The impacts of port infrastructure and logistics performance on economic growth: the mediating role of seaborne trade". Journal of Shipping and Trade. 3 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1186/s41072-018-0027-0.  ^ Compare peddling. ^ "Distribution Services". Foreign Agricultural Service. 2000-02-09. Retrieved 2006-04-04.  ^ WTO – World Trade
Trade
Organization ^ Watson (2005), Introduction. ^ D Abulafia; O Rackham; M Suano, The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in History, Getty Publications, 1 Mar 2011, ISBN 1606060570, retrieved 2012-06-26  ^ V Stefansson. Great Adventures and Explorations: From the Earliest Times to the Present As Told by the Explorers Themselves Kessinger Publishing, 30 May 2005 ISBN 1417990902 Retrieved 2012-06-26[dead link] ^ National Maritime Historical Society. Sea History, Issues 13-25 published by National Maritime Historical Society 1979. Retrieved 2012-06-26 ^ Hans Biedermann, James Hulbert (trans.), Dictionary of Symbolism - Cultural Icons and the Meanings behind Them, p. 54. ^ (secondary)G G Lowder – Studies in volcanic petrology: I. Talasea, New Guinea. II. Southwest Utah University of California, 1970 Retrieved 2012-06-28 ^ T Darvill, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology, Oxford University Press, 10 Oct 2008, ISBN 0199534047, retrieved 2012-06-28  ^ HIH Prince Mikasa
Prince Mikasa
no Miya Takahito – Essays on Anatolian Archaeology Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1993Retrieved 2012-06-16 ^ Vernon Horace Rendall, ed. (1904). The Athenaeum. J. Francis.  Retrieved 2012-06-09 ^ Donald A. Mackenzie – Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe – published 1917 – ISBN 1605063754 Retrieved 2012-06-09 ^ a b R L Smith, Premodern Trade
Trade
in World History, Taylor & Francis, 2009, ISBN 0415424763, retrieved 2012-06-15  ^ P Singh – Neolithic cultures of western Asia Seminar Press, 20 Aug 1974 ^ a b J Robb, The Early Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Village: Agency, Material Culture, and Social Change in Neolithic Italy, Cambridge University Press, 23 July 2007, ISBN 0521842417, retrieved 2012-06-11  ^ P Goldberg, V T Holliday, C Reid Ferring – Earth Sciences and Archaeology Springer, 2001 ISBN 0306462796 Retrieved 2012-06-28 ^ S L Dyson, R J Rowland – Archaeology And History In Sardinia From The Stone Age To The Middle Ages: Shepherds, Sailors, & Conquerors University of Pennsylvania – Museum of Archaeology, 2007 ISBN 1934536024 Retrieved 2012-06-28 ^ " Obsidian
Obsidian
in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Near East: A Provenancing Success Story". Archaeometry. 37 (2): 217–48. 1995. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1995.tb00740.x.  ^ D Harper – etymology online Retrieved 2012-06-09 ^ A. J. Andrea, World History Encyclopedia, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2011, ISBN 1851099301, retrieved 2012-06-11  ^ T A H Wilkinson – Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategies, Society and Security[dead link] ^ secondary – [1] + [2] + [3] + [4] + [5] ^ (was secondary) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(translated by J Bostock, H T Riley), The natural history of Pliny, Volume 6, H G Bohn 1857, ISBN 1851099301, retrieved 2012-06-11  ^ a b E Blake; A B Knapp, The Archaeology Of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Prehistory, John Wiley & Sons, 21 Feb 2005, ISBN 0631232680, retrieved 2012-06-22  ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson – Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategies, Society and Security Routledge, 8 Aug 2001 Retrieved 2012-07-03[dead link] ^ D Collon – Near Eastern Seals University of California Press, 4 Dec 1990 Retrieved 2012-07-03 ISBN 0520073088 (Interpreting the past: British Museum PublicationsArmenian Research Center collection) ^ G Leick – The Babylonian world Routledge 2007 Retrieved 2012-07-03 ISBN 1134261284 ^ S Bertman – Handbook To Life In Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Oxford University Press, 7 Jul 2005 Retrieved 2012-07-03 ISBN 0195183649 ^ L S Etheredge, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, The Rosen Publishing Group, 15 Jan 2011, ISBN 1615303294, retrieved 2012-06-15  ^ M Dumper; B E Stanley, Cities of The Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2007, ISBN 1576079198, retrieved 2012-06-28  ^ B.Gascoigne et al – History World .net ^ Ivan Dikov (July 12, 2015). "Bulgarian Archaeologists To Start Excavations of Ancient Greek Emporium in Thracians' Odrysian Kingdom". Archaeology in Bulgaria. Retrieved 28 October 2010. An emporium (in Latin; “emporion" in Greek) was a settlement reserved as a trading post, usually for the Ancient Greeks, on the territory of another ancient nation, in this case the Ancient Thracian Odrysian Kingdom (5th century BC – 1st century AD), the most powerful Thracian state.  ^ Pax Romana
Pax Romana
let average villagers throughout the Empire conduct day to day affairs without fear of armed attack. ^ P D Curtin – Cross-Cultural Trade
Trade
in World History Cambridge University Press, 25 May 1984 ISBN 0521269318 Retrieved 2012-06-25 ^ N. O. Brown – Hermes
Hermes
the Thief: The Evolution of a Myth SteinerBooks, 1 Mar 1990 ISBN 0940262266 Retrieved 2012-06-25 ^ D Sacks, O Murray – A Dictionary of the Ancient Greek World Oxford University Press, 6 Feb 1997 ISBN 0195112067 Retrieved 2012-06-26 ^ Alexander S. Murray – Manual of Mythology Wildside Press LLC, 30 May 2008 ISBN 1434470288 Retrieved 2012-06-25 ^ John R. Rice – Filled With the Spirit Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1 Aug 2000 ISBN 087398255X Retrieved 2012-06-25 ^ Johannes Hasebroek – Trade
Trade
and Politics in Ancient Greece Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1 Mar 1933 Retrieved 2012-07-04 ISBN 0819601500 ^ Cambridge dictionaries online ^ AS Greenberg – J. Pat. Off. Soc'y, 1951 – HeinOnline ^ K G Hirth – American Antiquity Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan., 1978), pp. 35–45 Retrieved 2012-06-28 ^ McGrail, Sean (2001). Boats of the World : From the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Poole, Austin Lane (1958). Medieval England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ Beckwith (2011), p. xxiv. ^ Price
Price
theory Milton Friedman ^ (secondary) British Broadcasting Corporation
Corporation
– history ^ (secondary) M Smith – V. Gollancz, 1996 ISBN 0575061502 ^ "EU position in world trade". European Commission. Retrieved 7 March 2016.  ^ Nomani & Rahnema (1994), p. ?. "I want nine out of ten people from my Ummah (nation) as traders" and "Trader, who did trading in truth, and sold the right quantity and quality of goods, he will stand along Prophets and Martyrs, on Judgment day". ^ "O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities; but let there be among you traffic and trade by mutual good-will." Quran 4:29 and "Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury." Quran 2:275 ^ Leviticus 19:13 ^ Leviticus 19:35 ^ Gold
Gold
was an especially common form of early money, as described in Davies (2002). ^ Division, US Census Bureau Foreign Trade. "Foreign Trade: Data". www.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ "U.S.– Cuba
Cuba
Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ "Should trade be considered a human right?". COPLA. 9 December 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trade.

Beckwith, Christopher I (2011) [2009]. Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze
Bronze
Age to the Present. Princeton: University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15034-5.  Bernstein, William (2008). A Splendid Exchange: How Trade
Trade
Shaped the World. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4416-4.  Davies, Glyn (2002) [1995]. Ideas: A History of Money
Money
from Ancient Times to the Present Day. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1773-0.  Nomani, Farhad; Rahnema, Ali (1994). Islamic Economic
Economic
Systems. New Jersey: Zed Books. ISBN 1-85649-058-0.  Paine, Lincoln (2013). The Sea and Civilisation: a Maritime History of the World. Atlantic.  (Covers sea-trading over the whole world from ancient times.) Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention from Fire to Freud. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-621064-3. 

External links[edit]

Look up trade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Agritrade Resource material on trade by ACP countries World Bank's World Integrated Trade Solution provides summary trade statistics and custom query features World Bank's Preferential Trade
Trade
Agreement Database

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Part of a series on trade routes

Amber Road Hærvejen Incense Route Dvaravati–Kamboja route King's Highway Rome-India routes Royal Road Salt road Siberian Route Silk Road Maritime Silk Road Spice
Spice
Route Tea Horse Road Varangians
Varangians
to the Greeks Via Maris Triangular trade Volga trade route Trans-Saharan trade Old Salt Route Maritime republics Hanseatic Leagu

.