Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and
practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and
entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism
may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World
Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go
"beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday
activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism
has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of
payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many
countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host
countries, in some cases being of vital importance.
Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the
late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of
2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but slowly
recovered. International tourism receipts (the travel item in the
balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in
2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.
International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion
tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such
Brazil had significantly increased their spending
over the previous decade. The
ITB Berlin is the world's leading
tourism trade fair.
2 Significance of tourism
4 World tourism statistics and rankings
4.1 Total volume of cross-border tourist travel
4.2 World’s top tourism destinations
4.3 International tourism receipts
4.4 International tourism expenditure
MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index
4.6 Euromonitor International Top City Destinations Ranking
5.2 Middle Ages
5.3 Grand Tour
5.4 Emergence of leisure travel
6 Cruise shipping
7 Modern day tourism
7.1 Winter tourism
7.2 Mass tourism
7.3 Niche tourism
8 Recent developments
8.1 Sustainable tourism
8.3 Volunteer Tourism
8.4 Pro-poor tourism
8.5 Recession tourism
8.6 Medical tourism
8.7 Educational tourism
8.8 Creative tourism
8.9 Experiential tourism
8.10 Dark tourism
8.11 Social tourism
8.12 Doom tourism
8.13 Religious tourism
9.1 Space tourism
9.2 Sports tourism
9.3 Latest trends
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
1922 postcard of tourists in the High Tatras, Slovakia.
The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811. It is
formed from the word tour, which is derived from Old English turian,
from Old French torner, from Latin tornare; 'to turn on a lathe,'
which is itself from Ancient Greek tornos (τόρνος); 'lathe'.
Significance of tourism
Iguazu Falls in Misiones, Argentina. It is one of the most popular
destinations in Latin America.
Strandkorb chairs on
Usedom Island, Germany. Not only does the service
sector grow thanks to tourism, but also local manufacturers (like
those producing the strandkorb), retailers, the real estate sector and
the general image of a location can benefit.
Drawa National Park
Drawa National Park in Poland, famous for its canoeing routes.
Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions
and countries. Its importance was recognized in the
Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of
nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural,
educational, and economic sectors of national societies and on their
Tourism brings in large amounts of income into a local economy in the
form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting
for 30% of the world's trade of services, and 6% of overall exports of
goods and services. It also creates opportunities for employment in
the service sector of the economy associated with tourism.
The service industries which benefit from tourism include
transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, trains and
taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including
hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks,
restaurants, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and theaters. This
is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs.
In 1936, the
League of Nations
League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone
traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the
United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a
maximum stay of six months.
In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the
phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of
non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and
are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the
Tourism Society of England's definition was: "
Tourism is the
temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the
places where they normally live and work and their activities during
the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all
purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific
Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities
chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the
United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its
Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling
only within this country
Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given
Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country
The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In
this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies
a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes
used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or
locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of
distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values
underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class
World tourism statistics and rankings
Total volume of cross-border tourist travel
International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from
over 996 million in 2011, and 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and
2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses
resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a
strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international
tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of
2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in
2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in
some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus,
resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million
international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international
World’s top tourism destinations
Main article: World
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations
as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers
International tourism receipts
International tourism receipts grew to US$1.2 trillion in 2014,
corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.7% from 2013.[not
in citation given] The
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization reports the
following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015:
International tourism expenditure
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the
ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2015.
MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index
Based upon air traffic, the
MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index
rates the following as the world's ten most popular cities for
United Arab Emirates
New York City
United Arab Emirates
New York City
MasterCard rates the following cities as the world's ten biggest
earners from international tourism in 2015.
New York City
United Arab Emirates
Euromonitor International Top City Destinations Ranking
Euromonitor International rated these the world's cities most visited
by international tourists in January 2015:
New York City
Countries Showing Strong International
Sao Tome & Principe
Countries that performed best in fastest growing tourism and travel
industry in 2016
A Japanese tourist consulting a tour guide and a guide book from
Akizato Ritō's Miyako meisho zue (1787)
Travel outside a person's local area for leisure was largely confined
to wealthy classes, who at times traveled to distant parts of the
world, to see great buildings and works of art, learn new languages,
experience new cultures, and to taste different cuisines. As early as
Shulgi, however, kings praised themselves for protecting roads and
building way stations for travelers. Travelling for pleasure can
be seen in
Egypt as early on as 1500 B.C. During the Roman
Republic, spas and coastal resorts such as
Baiae were popular among
the rich. Pausanias wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century
AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount
Tai and, on occasion, all five Sacred Mountains.
By the Middle Ages, Christianity, Buddhism, and
Islam all had
traditions of pilgrimage that motivated even the lower classes to
undertake distant journeys for health or spiritual improvement, seeing
the sights along the way. The Islamic hajj is still central to its
faith and Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales and Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the
West remain classics of English and Chinese literature.
The 10th- to 13th-century
Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers
Su Shi (11th century) and
Fan Chengda (12th century) become
popular in China. Under the Ming,
Xu Xiake continued the practice.
In medieval Italy,
Francesco Petrarch also wrote an allegorical
account of his 1336 ascent of
Mount Ventoux that praised the act of
traveling and criticized frigida incuriositas ("cold lack of
curiosity"). The Burgundian poet Michault Taillevent (fr) later
composed his own horrified recollections of a 1430 trip through the
Prince Ladislaus Sigismund of
Poland visiting Gallery of Cornelis van
der Geest in
Brussels in 1624.
See also: Grand Tour
Modern tourism can be traced to what was known as the Grand Tour,
which was a traditional trip around
Italy), undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means,
mainly from Western and Northern European countries. In 1624, young
Prince of Poland, Ladislaus Sigismund Vasa, the eldest son and heir of
Sigismund III, embarked for a journey across Europe, as was in custom
among Polish nobility. He travelled through territories of today's
Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, where he admired the Siege of Breda by
Spanish forces, France,
Switzerland to Italy, Austria, and the Czech
Republic. It was an educational journey and one of the
outcomes was introduction of Italian opera in the Polish–Lithuanian
The custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale
rail transit in the 1840s, and generally followed a standard
itinerary. It was an educational opportunity and rite of passage.
Though primarily associated with the
British nobility and wealthy
landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of
Protestant Northern European nations on the Continent, and from the
second half of the 18th century some South American, US, and other
overseas youth joined in. The tradition was extended to include more
of the middle class after rail and steamship travel made the journey
Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" a byword.
Grand Tour became a real status symbol for upper class students in
the 18th and 19th centuries. In this period, Johann Joachim
Winckelmann's theories about the supremacy of classic culture became
very popular and appreciated in the European academic world. Artists,
writers and travellers (such as Goethe) affirmed the supremacy of
classic art of which Italy,
France and Greece provide excellent
examples. For these reasons, the Grand Tour's main destinations were
to those centres, where upper-class students could find rare examples
of classic art and history.
The New York Times
The New York Times recently described the
Grand Tour in this way:
Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a
Oxbridge trek through
Italy in search of art, culture
and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds,
aristocratic connections and months (or years) to roam, they
commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled
with the upper crust of the Continent.
— Gross, Matt., Lessons From the Frugal Grand Tour." New York
Times 5 September 2008.
The primary value of the Grand Tour, it was believed, laid in the
exposure both to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the
Renaissance, and to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of
the European continent.
Emergence of leisure travel
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Englishman in the Campagna by
Carl Spitzweg (c. 1845)
Leisure travel was associated with the
Industrial Revolution in the
United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure
time to the increasing industrial population. Initially, this
applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic
oligarchy, factory owners and traders. These comprised the new middle
class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be
formed in 1758.
The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place
names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday
resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront
is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other
historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace
hotels have names like the
Hotel Carlton, or Hotel
Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers.
Panels from the
Thomas Cook Building in Leicester, displaying
excursions offered by Thomas Cook
Leicester railway station
Leicester railway station – built in 1894 to replace, largely on the
same site, Campbell Street station, the origin for many of Cook's
A pioneer of the travel agency business, Thomas Cook's idea to offer
excursions came to him while waiting for the stagecoach on the London
Road at Kibworth. With the opening of the extended Midland Counties
Railway, he arranged to take a group of 540 temperance campaigners
Leicester Campbell Street station to a rally in Loughborough,
eleven miles (18 km) away. On 5 July 1841,
Thomas Cook arranged
for the rail company to charge one shilling per person; this included
rail tickets and food for the journey. Cook was paid a share of the
fares charged to the passengers, as the railway tickets, being legal
contracts between company and passenger, could not have been issued at
his own price.[clarification needed] This was the first privately
chartered excursion train to be advertised to the general public; Cook
himself acknowledged that there had been previous, unadvertised,
private excursion trains. During the following three summers he
planned and conducted outings for temperance societies and Sunday
school children. In 1844 the
Midland Counties Railway
Midland Counties Railway Company agreed
to make a permanent arrangement with him, provided he found the
passengers. This success led him to start his own business running
rail excursions for pleasure, taking a percentage of the railway
In 1855, he planned his first excursion abroad, when he took a group
Calais to coincide with the
Paris Exhibition. The
following year he started his "grand circular tours" of Europe.
During the 1860s he took parties to Switzerland, Italy,
Egypt and the
United States. Cook established "inclusive independent travel",
whereby the traveller went independently but his agency charged for
travel, food and accommodation for a fixed period over any chosen
route. Such was his success that the Scottish railway companies
withdrew their support between 1862 and 1863 to try the excursion
business for themselves.
Prinzessin Victoria Luise, the first cruise ship of the world,
launched in June 1900 in
Cruising is a popular form of water tourism.
Leisure cruise ships were
introduced by the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company
(P&O) in 1844, sailing from
Southampton to destinations such
Malta and Athens. In 1891, German businessman Albert
Ballin sailed the ship Augusta Victoria from
Hamburg into the
Mediterranean Sea. In 1900, one of the first purpose-built cruise
ships was Prinzessin Victoria Luise, built in Hamburg.
Modern day tourism
Further information: Impacts of tourism
Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to seaside resorts on their
nearest coast or further afield. Coastal areas in the tropics are
popular in both summer and winter.
List of ski areas and resorts and Winter sport
Switzerland became the cradle of the developing winter
tourism in the 1860s: hotel manager Johannes Badrutt invited some
summer guests from England to return in the winter to see the snowy
landscape, thereby inaugurating a popular trend. It was,
however, only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from
summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in winter, up to
one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of
Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries
(e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy,
Norway, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey), Canada, the
United States (e.g.
Montana, Utah, Colorado, California, Wyoming, Vermont, New Hampshire,
New York) Lebanon, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, and
Travel plans) by
Adolph Menzel (1875)
Tourists at the Mediterranean Coast of Barcelona, 2007
Academics have defined mass tourism as travel by groups on
pre-scheduled tours, usually under the organization of tourism
professionals. This form of tourism developed during the second
half of the 19th century in the
United Kingdom and was pioneered by
Thomas Cook. Cook took advantage of Europe's rapidly expanding railway
network and established a company that offered affordable day trip
excursions to the masses, in addition to longer holidays to
Continental Europe, India, Asia and the Western Hemisphere which
attracted wealthier customers. By the 1890s over 20,000 tourists per
Thomas Cook & Son.
The relationship between tourism companies, transportation operators
and hotels is a central feature of mass tourism. Cook was able to
offer prices that were below the publicly advertised price because his
company purchased large numbers of tickets from railroads. One
contemporary form of mass tourism, package tourism, still incorporates
the partnership between these three groups.
Travel developed during the early 20th century and was facilitated by
the development of the automobiles and later by airplanes.
Improvements in transport allowed many people to travel quickly to
places of leisure interest, so that more people could begin to enjoy
the benefits of leisure time.
In Continental Europe, early seaside resorts included: Heiligendamm,
founded in 1793 at the Baltic Sea, being the first seaside resort;
Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels;
Deauville for the Parisians;
Taormina in Sicily. In the United States,
the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City,
New Jersey and Long Island, New York.
By the mid-20th century the Mediterranean Coast became the principal
mass tourism destination. The 1960s and 1970s saw mass tourism play a
major role in the Spanish economic "miracle".
For a more comprehensive list, see List of adjectival tourisms.
The Sanctuary of Christ the King, in Almada, has become one of the
most religious tourism visited places.
Niche tourism refers to the numerous specialty forms of tourism that
have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of
these terms have come into common use by the tourism industry and
academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain
popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets are:
Other terms used for niche or specialty travel forms include the term
"destination" in the descriptions, such as destination weddings, and
terms such as location vacation.
A destination hotel in Germany: Yacht Harbour Residence in Rostock,
Nazaré, Portugal, is now listed on the
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records for the
biggest waves ever surfed and has become a worldwide tourist
There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few
decades,[vague] especially in Europe, where international travel for
short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and
tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to
cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach
vacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter
resorts, family-oriented holidays, or niche market-targeted
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as
jumbo jets, low-cost airlines, and more accessible airports have made
many types of tourism more affordable. The
WHO estimated in 2009 that
there are around half a million people on board aircraft at any given
time. There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some
retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated
by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites have now started to
offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a
tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.
There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11
attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali
and several European cities. Also, on 26 December 2004, a tsunami,
caused by the 2004
Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on
the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost
including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up
operations, stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a
Individual low-price or even zero-price overnight stays have become
more popular in the 2000s, especially with a strong growth in the
hostel market and services like
CouchSurfing and airbnb being
established. There has also been examples of jurisdictions wherein
a significant portion of GDP is being spent on altering the primary
sources of revenue towards tourism, as has occurred for instance in
Main article: Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all
resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can
be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential
ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems."
Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs." (World Commission on Environment and Development,
Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and
social-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the
community of the destination in tourism development planning (that was
done e.g. in
Fruška Gora National Park in Serbia). It also
involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth
policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social
impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an
'ecological approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when
implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in
contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism
planning, neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or
sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.
However, Butler questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in
the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that "the
emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed
as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with
economic growth without regard to its social and environmental
consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus 'sustainable
tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of
economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth.
Main article: Ecotourism
Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to
fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be
low-impact and (often) small-scale. It helps educate the traveler;
provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic
development and political empowerment of local communities; and
fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.Take only
memories and leave only footprints is a very common slogan in
protected areas. Tourist destinations are shifting to low carbon
emissions following the trend of visitors more focused in being
environmentally responsible adopting a sustainable behavior.
Volunteer tourism (or voluntourism) is growing as a largely Western
phenomenon, with volunteers travelling to aid those less fortunate
than themselves in order to counter global inequalities. Wearing
(2001) defines volunteer tourism as applying “to those tourists who,
for various reasons, volunteer in an organised way to undertake
holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty
of some groups in society”. VSO was founded in the UK in 1958
and the US Peace Corps was subsequently founded in 1960. These were
the first large scale voluntary sending organisations, initially
arising to modernise less economically developed countries, which it
was hoped would curb the influence of communism.
This form of tourism is largely praised for its more sustainable
approach to travel, with tourists attempting to assimilate into local
cultures, and avoiding the criticisms of consumptive and exploitative
mass tourism. However, increasingly voluntourism is being
criticised by scholars who suggest it may have negative effects as it
begins to undermine local labour, and force unwilling host communities
to adopt Western initiatives, while host communities without a
strong heritage fail to retain volunteers who become dissatisfied with
experiences and volunteer shortages persist. Increasingly
organisations such as VSO have been concerned with community-centric
volunteer programmes where power to control the future of the
community is in the hands of local people.
Community tourism in Sierra Leone → The story of a community in
Sierra Leone trying to manage tourism in a responsible manner
Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing
countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved
in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale
projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of
Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas
Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to
encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less
(far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of
money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in
cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos. There is also the
possibility of pro-poor tourism principles being adopted in centre
sites of regeneration in the developed world.
Recession tourism is a travel trend which evolved by way of the world
economic crisis. Recession tourism is defined by low-cost and
high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats.
Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the
recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world
job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money
travels further. This concept is not widely used in tourism research.
It is related to the short-lived phenomenon that is more widely known
Main article: Medical tourism
When there is a significant price difference between countries for a
given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India,
Eastern Europe, Cuba and Canada where there are different
regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g.
dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory
differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".
Educational tourism is developed because of the growing popularity of
teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical
competency outside of classroom environment. In educational tourism,
the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting
another country to learn about the culture, study tours, or to work
and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different
environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.
Friendship Force visitors from Indonesia meet their hosts in Hartwell,
Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the
early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to
the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic
families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational
experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own
name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the
Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a
number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and
crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined
"creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of
travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive
workshops and informal learning experiences.
Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by
high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative
Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged,
authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the
specific cultural features of a place.
A tourism conference underway.
More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of
cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the
culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer
examples of this type of tourism development, including the United
Kingdom, Austria, France, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain,
Italy and New
The growing interest of tourists in this new way to discover a
culture regards particularly the operators and branding managers,
attentive to the possibility of attracting a quality tourism,
highlighting the intangible heritage (craft workshops, cooking
classes, etc.) and optimizing the use of existing infrastructure (for
example, through the rent of halls and auditorium).
Experiential travel (or "immersion travel") is one of the major market
trends in the modern tourism industry. It is an approach to travelling
which focuses on experiencing a country, city or particular place by
connecting to its history, people, food and culture.
The term “Experiential travel” is already mentioned in
publications from 1985 – however it was discovered as a
meaningful market trend much later.
Main article: Dark tourism
The Skull Chapel in south-western
Poland is an example of dark
tourism. Its interior walls, ceiling and foundations are adorned by
human remains. It is the only such monument in Poland, and one of six
One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon
and Foley (2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism
involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of
horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example concentration camps.
Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied
motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre
curiosity or even entertainment. Its origins are
rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.
Philip Stone argues that dark tourism is a way of imagining one's own
death through the real death of others. Erik H Cohen introduces
the term "populo sites" to evidence the educational character of dark
tourism. Populo sites transmit the story of victimized people to
visitors. Based on a study at Yad Vashem, the Shoah (Holocaust)
memorial museum in Jerusalem, a new term—in populo—is proposed to
describe dark tourism sites at a spiritual and population center of
the people to whom a tragedy befell. Learning about the Shoah in
Jerusalem offers an encounter with the subject which is different from
visits to sites in Europe, but equally authentic. It is argued that a
dichotomy between "authentic" sites at the location of a tragedy and
"created" sites elsewhere is insufficient. Participants' evaluations
of seminars for European teachers at
Yad Vashem indicate that the
location is an important aspect of a meaningful encounter with the
subject. Implications for other cases of dark tourism at in populo
locations are discussed. In this vein,
Peter Tarlow defines dark
tourism as the tendency to visit the scenes of tragedies or
historically noteworthy deaths, which continue to impact our lives.
This issue cannot be understood without the figure of trauma.
Social tourism is making tourism available to poor people who
otherwise could not afford to travel for their education or
recreation. It includes youth hostels and low-priced holiday
accommodation run by church and voluntary organisations, trade unions,
or in Communist times publicly owned enterprises. In May 1959, at the
second Congress of Social
Tourism in Austria,
Walter Hunziker proposed
the following definition: "Social tourism is a type of tourism
practiced by low income groups, and which is rendered possible and
facilitated by entirely separate and therefore easily recognizable
Perito Moreno Glacier, Patagonia, Argentina.
Also known as "
Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this
emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally
or otherwise threatened (such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro,
the melting glaciers of Patagonia, or the coral of the Great Barrier
Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine
Travel Age West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later
explored in The New York Times, this type of tourism is believed
to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable
tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist
destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such
as global warming, overpopulation or climate change. Others worry that
travel to many of these threatened locations increases an
individual’s carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened
locations are already facing.
Main article: Religious tourism
The Shrine of Our Lady of Fátima, in Portugal, is one of the largest
religious tourism sites in the world.
Religious tourism, in particular religious travel, is used to
strengthen faith and show devotion both of which are central tenets of
many major religions. Religious tourists seek destinations whose
image encourages them to believe that they can strengthen the
religious elements of their self-identity in a positive manner. Given
this, the perceived image of a destination may be positively
influenced by whether it conforms to the requirements of their
religious self-identity or not.
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international
tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4%.
With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the
most traded items on the internet.
and services have been made available through intermediaries, although
tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.), including small-scale
operators, can sell their services directly. This has put
pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.
It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism
expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the
global context. Not only as a result of the important economic
contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the
degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources
of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any
projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the
relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.
SpaceShipTwo is a major project in space tourism.
Main article: Space tourism
There has been a limited amount of orbital space tourism, with only
Russian Space Agency
Russian Space Agency providing transport to date. A 2010 report
into space tourism anticipated that it could become a billion-dollar
market by 2030.
Main article: Sports tourism
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Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular.
Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and
football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain
official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include
flights, hotels and excursions.
Tourism Police of Colombia at the Chicamocha National Park, Santander.
The focus on sport and spreading knowledge on the subject, especially
more so recently, led to the increase in the sport tourism. Most
notably, the international event such as the Olympics caused a shift
in focus in the audience who now realize the variety of sports that
exist in the world. In the United States, one of the most popular
sports that usually are focused on was Football. This popularity was
increased through major events like the World Cups. In Asian
countries, the numerous football events also increased the popularity
of football. But, it was the Olympics that brought together the
different sports that led to the increase in sport tourism. The
drastic interest increase in sports in general and not just one sport
caught the attention of travel companies, who then began to sell
flights in packages. Due to the low number of people who actually
purchase these packages than predicted, the cost of these packages
plummeted initially. As the number start to rise slightly the packages
increased to regain the lost profits. With the certain economic state,
the number of purchases decreased once again. The fluctuation in the
number of packages sold was solely dependent on the economic
situation, therefore, most travel companies were forced to set aside
the plan to execute the marketing of any new package features.
As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals
suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to
2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. This
slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air
transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a
3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry
also reported a slowdown, with room occupancy declining. In 2009
worldwide tourism arrivals decreased by 3.8%. By the first quarter
of 2009, real travel demand in the
United States had fallen 6% over
six quarters. While this is considerably milder than what occurred
after the 9/11 attacks, the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP
However, evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomenon shows
no signs of substantially abating in the long term. It has been
suggested that travel is necessary in order to maintain relationships,
as social life is increasingly networked and conducted at a
distance. For many people vacations and travel are increasingly
being viewed as a necessity rather than a luxury, and this is
reflected in tourist numbers recovering some 6.6% globally over 2009,
with growth up to 8% in emerging economies.
International tourism advertising
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Antje Monshausen, Sustainable and development friendly In: D+C
Tourism vs. Alternative Tourism
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