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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Toulouse
Toulouse
(/tuːˈluːz/;[4] French: [tuluz] ( listen), locally [tuˈluzə] ( listen); Occitan: Tolosa [tuˈluzɔ], Latin: Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris. It is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse
Toulouse
is called the "Pink City" (La Ville Rose). The Toulouse Metro
Toulouse Metro
area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris, Lyon
Lyon
and Marseille, and ahead of Lille
Lille
and Bordeaux. Toulouse
Toulouse
is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus
Airbus
(formerly EADS), the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. It also hosts the European headquarters of Intel
Intel
and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe.[5] Thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites
Astrium Satellites
also have a significant presence in Toulouse. The University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse
is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris, Lyon
Lyon
and Lille.[6] The air route between Toulouse– Blagnac
Blagnac
and Paris
Paris
Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014.[7] According to the rankings of L'Express
L'Express
and Challenges, Toulouse
Toulouse
is the most dynamic French city.[8][9][10] The city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc
Languedoc
in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution), making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania
Occitania
(Southern France). It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose ("the Pink City"), Toulouse counts two UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
(designated in 1996 and shared with other cities), and the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe,[11] designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Hydrography 1.2 Climate

2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 County of Toulouse 2.3 Within the Kingdom of France 2.4 Within the French Republic

3 Population 4 Government and politics

4.1 Toulouse
Toulouse
Métropole 4.2 Local politics 4.3 Mayors

5 Sights

5.1 Religious buildings

6 Gallery 7 Economy 8 Education

8.1 Colleges and universities 8.2 Primary and secondary schools

9 Transport

9.1 Train 9.2 Metro 9.3 Tramway 9.4 Bicycle 9.5 Airports 9.6 Toulouse
Toulouse
Public Transportation Statistics

10 Communications 11 Culture 12 Sport 13 Notable people 14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns and sister cities 14.2 Other cooperations

15 Literature 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Bibliography

18 External links

Geography[edit]

Toulouse

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    52     10 3

    42     11 3

    49     15 5

    70     17 7

    74     21 11

    60     26 15

    38     28 17

    47     28 17

    47     25 14

    57     20 11

    51     14 6

    52     10 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2     49 37

    1.7     52 38

    1.9     58 41

    2.8     63 45

    2.9     70 52

    2.4     78 58

    1.5     83 62

    1.9     83 62

    1.9     77 56

    2.2     67 51

    2     56 43

    2     50 38

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Toulouse
Toulouse
is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Hydrography[edit] The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort. Climate[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
has a humid subtropical climate (borderline Cfa/Cfb in the Köppen climate classification) which can be qualified as "submediterranean" due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone.

Climate data for Toulouse
Toulouse
(Blagnac) 1981–2010 averages and records 1947–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 22.1 (71.8) 27.1 (80.8) 30.0 (86) 33.4 (92.1) 39.8 (103.6) 40.2 (104.4) 40.7 (105.3) 35.3 (95.5) 30.8 (87.4) 24.3 (75.7) 21.1 (70) 40.7 (105.3)

Average high °C (°F) 9.5 (49.1) 11.1 (52) 14.5 (58.1) 17.0 (62.6) 21.0 (69.8) 25.2 (77.4) 28.0 (82.4) 27.9 (82.2) 24.6 (76.3) 19.5 (67.1) 13.3 (55.9) 9.9 (49.8) 18.5 (65.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 7.0 (44.6) 9.8 (49.6) 12.1 (53.8) 16.0 (60.8) 19.7 (67.5) 22.3 (72.1) 22.2 (72) 19.0 (66.2) 15.0 (59) 9.5 (49.1) 6.5 (43.7) 13.8 (56.8)

Average low °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 3.0 (37.4) 5.0 (41) 7.1 (44.8) 10.9 (51.6) 14.3 (57.7) 16.5 (61.7) 16.5 (61.7) 13.4 (56.1) 10.5 (50.9) 5.8 (42.4) 3.2 (37.8) 9.1 (48.4)

Record low °C (°F) −17.0 (1.4) −19.2 (−2.6) −8.4 (16.9) −3.0 (26.6) −0.8 (30.6) 4.0 (39.2) 7.6 (45.7) 5.5 (41.9) 1.9 (35.4) −3.0 (26.6) −7.5 (18.5) −12.0 (10.4) −19.2 (−2.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.3 (2.02) 41.6 (1.638) 49.1 (1.933) 69.6 (2.74) 74.0 (2.913) 60.3 (2.374) 37.7 (1.484) 46.8 (1.843) 47.4 (1.866) 57.0 (2.244) 51.1 (2.012) 52.4 (2.063) 638.3 (25.13)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.2 7.8 8.6 9.6 9.9 7.1 5.0 6.1 6.5 8.1 9.2 8.6 95.7

Average snowy days 2.1 2.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.6 7.5

Average relative humidity (%) 87 82 77 76 76 72 68 71 74 81 85 88 78.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5 115.0 175.1 186.1 209.2 227.6 252.6 238.8 204.0 149.2 96.0 85.3 2,031.3

Source #1: Météo France[12][13][14]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[15]

Climate data for Toulouse
Toulouse
(Cugnaux) 1981–2010 averages and records 1922–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 24.8 (76.6) 28.3 (82.9) 29.9 (85.8) 33.9 (93) 39.3 (102.7) 40.2 (104.4) 44.0 (111.2) 36.0 (96.8) 35.4 (95.7) 27.0 (80.6) 26.9 (80.4) 44.0 (111.2)

Average high °C (°F) 9.7 (49.5) 11.1 (52) 14.5 (58.1) 16.9 (62.4) 20.9 (69.6) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 28.0 (82.4) 24.6 (76.3) 19.5 (67.1) 13.4 (56.1) 10.1 (50.2) 18.5 (65.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 7.2 (45) 9.9 (49.8) 12.2 (54) 16.1 (61) 19.8 (67.6) 22.4 (72.3) 22.3 (72.1) 19.1 (66.4) 15.2 (59.4) 9.7 (49.5) 6.8 (44.2) 13.9 (57)

Average low °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 3.3 (37.9) 5.4 (41.7) 7.4 (45.3) 11.3 (52.3) 14.7 (58.5) 16.8 (62.2) 16.7 (62.1) 13.7 (56.7) 10.8 (51.4) 6.1 (43) 3.4 (38.1) 9.4 (48.9)

Record low °C (°F) −19.0 (−2.2) −16.7 (1.9) −7.4 (18.7) −4.1 (24.6) 0.1 (32.2) 4.5 (40.1) 7.0 (44.6) 7.3 (45.1) 0.0 (32) −2.6 (27.3) −8.5 (16.7) −13.4 (7.9) −19.0 (−2.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.4 (1.984) 38.5 (1.516) 45.9 (1.807) 65.7 (2.587) 73.7 (2.902) 58.0 (2.283) 38.5 (1.516) 42.7 (1.681) 51.9 (2.043) 55.4 (2.181) 52.4 (2.063) 52.5 (2.067) 625.6 (24.63)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 7.1 8.2 10.0 9.6 7.0 4.9 6.2 6.3 8.2 8.8 8.7 93.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.1 116.6 173.6 186.7 207.5 224.8 246.8 234.9 202.5 147.9 94.9 85.4 2,014.5

Source: Météo France[16]

History[edit] Main articles: History of Toulouse
History of Toulouse
and Timeline of Toulouse

Vomitorium
Vomitorium
at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse

Early history[edit] The Garonne
Garonne
Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa (Τώλοσσα in Greek, and of its inhabitants, the Tolosates, first recorded in the 2nd century BC), it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian,[17] but has also been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages.[18] Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom
Visigothic kingdom
and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507 (Battle of Vouillé). From this time, Toulouse
Toulouse
was the capital of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim
Muslim
army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim
Muslim
expansion into Christian Europe, and Muslims finally occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade later, won the Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers. The Frankish conquest of Septimania
Septimania
followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse
County of Toulouse
emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse
Toulouse
of 844, pitting Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. County of Toulouse[edit] Further information: County of Toulouse

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse
Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse
was a leader of the First Crusade

During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status, becoming the capital of the County of Toulouse. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops.[19] The Dominican Order
Dominican Order
was founded in Toulouse
Toulouse
in 1215 by Saint Dominic
Saint Dominic
in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded. Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel.[citation needed] In the Treaty of Paris
Paris
of 1229, Toulouse
Toulouse
formally submitted to the crown of France. The county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France
France
by inheritance. Also in 1229, University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse
was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement.[citation needed] Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started. They found home in Les Jacobins.[citation needed] In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse
Toulouse
walls. The fear of repression obliged the notabilities to exile, or to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 400 years, making Toulouse
Toulouse
its capital. Count Raimond VII was convicted of heresy and died in 1249 without an heir.[citation needed] Within the Kingdom of France[edit] In 1271, Toulouse
Toulouse
was incorporated into the kingdom of France
France
and declared a "royal city". With this accolade, it started to transform itself into an intellectual and artistic centre.[citation needed] In 1323 the Consistori del Gay Saber
Consistori del Gay Saber
was established in Toulouse
Toulouse
to preserve the lyric art of the troubadours. Toulouse
Toulouse
became the centre of Occitan literary culture for the next hundred years; the Consistori was last active in 1484.[citation needed] But the 14th century was to mark a downturn in the city's fortunes. First came a pogrom against Toulouse's Jewish population by Crusaders in 1320,[20] then, in 1348, the Black Death, then the Hundred Years' War. Famine and floods also took their toll on the city. Despite strong immigration, the population lost 10,000 inhabitants in 70 years. By 1405 Toulouse
Toulouse
had only 19,000 people.[21] It was not until the 15th century that Toulouse
Toulouse
started to prosper.[22] Reinforcing its place as an administrative center, the city grew richer, participating in the trade of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
wine with England, as well as cereals and textiles. A parliament was set up by Charles VII and the city's merchants grew ever wealthier. Their economic well-being was mostly based on a plant-based blue dye known as pastel, made from woad, which they exported throughout Europe. These pastel merchants built grand town houses and, before long, both architecture and the fine arts flourished in the city as never before.[23] The bubble finally burst in the mid-16th century. Another blue dye arrived from India, known as indigo. It wiped out the pastel trade in one fell swoop. Religious conflict broke out between the Catholics and the Protestant Calvinists. At the same time, buildings were destroyed by fire and there were yet more outbreaks of famine and plague.

The Capitole de Toulouse, Toulouse's city hall, is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city.

In 1761, a Toulouse
Toulouse
merchant, Jean Calas, was accused of murdering his own son to prevent his conversion to Catholicism. Calas was put to death a year later. Toulouse's persecution of Protestants such as Calas was widely condemned and religious intolerance did gradually disappear.[citation needed] During the remainder of the 18th century, the city was slowly modernised. This included a period of urban rebuilding, which began in earnest from 1750. New projects included the building of the Jardin Royal. The Grand Rond also dates to this period, along with the Canal de Brienne and the Quai Dillon. Within the French Republic[edit]

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The Battle of Toulouse (1814)
Battle of Toulouse (1814)
was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. Toulouse, the regional capital, proved stoutly defended by Marshal Soult. In 1856, the Matabiau Station was opened, launching a new age in transportation. Other transport improvements included the widening of streets to form more spacious boulevards. Gradually, Toulouse
Toulouse
emerged as a modern French city. During the early decades of the 20th century, Toulouse
Toulouse
witnessed the mass arrival of immigrants from northern France, Italy
Italy
and Spain. New industries were developed in the city, including aircraft and chemical manufacturing. The French airmail service was set up here as well. During the Second World War, Toulouse
Toulouse
played a vital role in the Resistance movement. In the 1960s, a new wave of immigrants arrived in the city, this time from Algeria. New homes were built and the city's boundaries were extended. Toulouse's industry interests have more recently expanded to include space exploration and electronics. Today, it is France's fourth-largest city. Population[edit]

Historical population

Urban Area Metropolitan Area

1695

43,000

1750

48,000

1790

52,863

1801

50,171

1831

59,630

1851

95,277

1872

126,936

1911

149,000

1936

213,220

1946

264,411

1954

268,865

1962

329,044

1968

439,764

474,000

1975

509,939

585,000

1982

541,271

645,000

1990

650,336

797,373

1999

761,090

964,797

2006

851,947

1,169,865

2015

948,433

1,330,954

The population of the city proper (French: commune) was 479,638 at the January 2015 census,[1] with 1,330,954 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (within the 2010 borders of the metropolitan area), up from 1,169,865 at the January 2006 census (within the same 2010 borders of the metropolitan area).[3] Thus, the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +1.5% per year between 2006 and 2011, the highest growth rate of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, although it is slightly lower than the growth rate registered between the 1999 and 2006 censuses. Toulouse
Toulouse
is the fourth largest city in France, after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and the fourth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, and Marseille. Fueled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of +1.49% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s (compared with +0.37% for metropolitan France), and a record +1.87% a year in the early 2000s (+0.68% for metropolitan France), which is the highest population growth of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, means the Toulouse
Toulouse
metropolitan area overtook Lille
Lille
as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of France
France
at the 2006 census. A local Jewish group estimates there are about 2,500 Jewish families in Toulouse. A Muslim
Muslim
association has estimated there are some 35,000 Muslims in town.[24] Government and politics[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
Métropole[edit] Main article: Toulouse
Toulouse
Métropole The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse
Toulouse
(Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Toulouse) was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse
Toulouse
and its immediate independent suburbs. It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with less powers than the current council. It combines the city of Toulouse
Toulouse
and 24 independent communes, covering an area of 380 km2 (147 sq mi), totalling a population of 583,229 inhabitants (as of 1999 census), 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse
Toulouse
proper. As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse
Toulouse
was 651,209 inhabitants, 65.5% of whom live in the city of Toulouse. Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in. Since 2009, the Community of agglomeration has become an urban community (in French: communauté urbaine). This has become a métropole in 2015, spanning 37 communes.[25] Local politics[edit]

Toulouse's city hall, the Capitole de Toulouse, and the square of the same name with the Occitan cross
Occitan cross
designed by Raymond Moretti on the ground

The fountain in Wilson Square (Place du Président Thomas Wilson) shows the poet Pèire Godolin

One of the major political figures in Toulouse
Toulouse
was Dominique Baudis, the mayor of Toulouse
Toulouse
between 1983 and 2001, member of the centrist UDF.[citation needed] First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon, 36-year-old Dominique Baudis
Dominique Baudis
succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse. (Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983.) The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse
Toulouse
into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century.[citation needed] During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed.[citation needed] He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse
Toulouse
(such as its Airbus
Airbus
operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse
Toulouse
(which included the fleur de lis of the French monarchy). Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past. For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse
Toulouse
were restored, the city's symphonic concert hall (Halle aux Grains) was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation
Bemberg Foundation
(European paintings and bronzes from the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the 20th century) was established, a huge pop music concert venue (Zénith, the largest in France
France
outside Paris) was built, the space museum and educational park Cité de l'Espace
Cité de l'Espace
was founded, etc. To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched. Perhaps the one for which Baudis [weasel words] is most famous is the Toulouse
Toulouse
Metro: line A of the underground was opened in 1993, and Baudis succeeded in having work started on line B (which opened in 2007), despite strong local opposition to the anticipated costs. The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse
Toulouse
city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party.[26] In 2000, Dominique Baudis
Dominique Baudis
was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85%.[citation needed] He announced that he would not run for a fourth (6-year) term in 2001. He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse
Toulouse
since the French Revolution; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited. He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy, then UDF mayor of Lourdes
Lourdes
as his successor. Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA (Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel) in Paris, the French equivalent of the American FCC. Philippe Douste-Blazy
Philippe Douste-Blazy
narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades. Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001. In March 2004, he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc, elected mayor by the municipal council. In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate Pierre Cohen. At the next elections in 2014 Moudenc defeated Cohen in a rematch to re-take the job with more than 52% of the votes. Mayors[edit]

Mayor Term start Term end   Party

Raymond Badiou 1944 September 1958

SFIO

G. Carrère September 1958 16 October 1958

SFIO

Louis Bazerque 16 October 1958 1971

SFIO

Pierre Baudis March 1971 March 1983

UDF

Dominique Baudis March 1983 23 January 2001

UDF

Guy Hersant 23 January 2001 23 March 2001

UDF

Philippe Douste-Blazy 23 March 2001 30 April 2004

UDF

Françoise de Veyrinas 30 April 2004 6 May 2004

UMP

Jean-Luc Moudenc 6 May 2004 17 March 2008

UMP

Pierre Cohen 17 March 2008 4 April 2014

PS

Jean-Luc Moudenc 4 April 2014 incumbent

UMP

Sights[edit]

Toulouse
Toulouse
Cathedral

The Capitole de Toulouse
Capitole de Toulouse
(mainly 18th century), houses the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), the Théâtre du Capitole
Théâtre du Capitole
(opera house), and the 16th-century Donjon du Capitole tower. It is located on the Place du Capitole. The Cité de l'espace
Cité de l'espace
(Space City) is a theme park of space exploration. The Médiathèque José Cabanis
Médiathèque José Cabanis
is a library. The Jardin des Plantes is a large park spanning several blocks, including a museum, cafés, activities for children and a botanical garden. Toulouse
Toulouse
has many hôtels particuliers (large single-family homes usually enclosing an inner courtyard), the most significant being the Hôtel d'Assézat, which now houses five centuries of European art from the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the 19th century. The Bazacle
Bazacle
is a ford across the Garonne
Garonne
river, built in the late 12th century and also used for hydroelectricty. The river is crossed by the Pont Neuf from the 16th century. Religious buildings[edit] Toulouse Cathedral
Toulouse Cathedral
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse. Saint-Sernin Basilica, part of the Way of Saint James
Way of Saint James
UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Romanesque church in Europe. It contains what is widely considered to be the most beautiful pipe organ in France. The Daurade basilica, of the 18th–19th century, was founded as a temple to the Roman god Apollo
Apollo
before conversion to Christianity in 410 AD. The Church of the Jacobins, (French: Ensemble conventuel des Jacobins) in Toulouse
Toulouse
is the burial place of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Gallery[edit]

Sights and monuments of Toulouse

Saint Sernin belfry (11th - 13th c.)

Saint-Sernin basilica
Saint-Sernin basilica
(11th - 13th c.)

Church of the Jacobins
Church of the Jacobins
(13th c.)

Church of the Jacobins
Church of the Jacobins
cloister (13th c.)

Church of the Jacobins
Church of the Jacobins
"palm tree" vault (13th c.)

Saint Étienne cathedral (13th - 17th c.)

Immeuble des Cariatides, terracotta façade by fr:Auguste Virebent (19th c.)

Lamothe house, terracotta façade (19th c.)

The Capitole - city hall (18th c.)

Serta tower (15th - 16th c.)

University entrance (16th c.)

Hôtel d'Assézat
Hôtel d'Assézat
art gallery (16th c.)

Hôtel d'Assézat
Hôtel d'Assézat
tower (16th c.)

Hôtel de Bernuy
Hôtel de Bernuy
(16th c.)

Hôtel du Vieux-Raisin
Hôtel du Vieux-Raisin
(16th c.)

Hôtel Comère (17th c.)

Hôtel-Dieu Saint-Jacques (12th - 19th c.)

La Grave hospital (12th - 19th c.), fr:Hôpital de La Grave

Pont neuf (16th - 17th c.)

Musée des Augustins
Musée des Augustins
former convent (14th c.) housing a fine arts museum

Musée des Augustins
Musée des Augustins
cloister (14th c.) with display of gargoyles salvaged from demolished churches

Romano-gothic house (14th c.)

Church of Notre-Dame du Taur: clocher-mur facade (14th c.)

Halle aux Grains concert hall (19th c.) fr:Halle aux Grains de Toulouse

Banks of the Garonne
Garonne
river

Economy[edit]

The main Airbus
Airbus
factory in Blagnac, near Toulouse, lies next to Toulouse
Toulouse
Airport

The main industries are aeronautics, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology. Toulouse
Toulouse
hosts the Airbus
Airbus
headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus
Airbus
A320, A330, A350 and A380. (A320 lines also exist in Hamburg, Germany, Tianjin, China, and Mobile, Alabama, USA.) Airbus
Airbus
has its head office in Blagnac, near Toulouse.[27][28] Airbus's France
France
division has its main office in Toulouse.[28] Toulouse also hosts the headquarters of ATR, Sigfox
Sigfox
and Groupe Latécoère. The Concorde
Concorde
supersonic aircraft was also constructed in Toulouse. Education[edit]

Portal of the college de l'Esquile (1556), a symbol of the University's seniority

Toulouse
Toulouse
has the fourth-largest student population in France
France
after Paris, Lyon
Lyon
and Lille
Lille
with 103,000 students (2012).[29] Colleges and universities[edit] The University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse
(Université de Toulouse), established in 1229, is located here (now split into three separate universities). Like the universities in Oxford
Oxford
and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology—inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts—as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology.

Catholic University of Toulouse Université Toulouse
Toulouse
I, Toulouse
Toulouse
School of Economics, Toulouse
Toulouse
School of Management and Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse University of Toulouse-Jean Jaurès
University of Toulouse-Jean Jaurès
(Formerly University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail) Université Paul Sabatier ( Toulouse
Toulouse
III)

Toulouse
Toulouse
is also the home of Toulouse Business School
Toulouse Business School
(TBS), Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), the Institut supérieur européen de gestion group (ISEG Group), the Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action (ISEFAC), E-Artsup and several engineering schools:

ICAM Toulouse
Toulouse
(Institut catholique d'arts et métiers) INSA Toulouse ISAE SUPAERO (Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace) ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile) INP ENSEEIHT (École Nationale Supérieure d'Électronique, d'Électrotechnique, d'Informatique, d'Hydraulique et des Télécommunications) ENSFEA (École nationale supérieure de formation de l’enseignement agricole) INP ENSIACET (École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs en art chimique et technologique) INP ENSAT ('École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse) INP ENM (École Nationale de la Météorologie) EPITA (École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées) EPITECH ( École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies
École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies
or European Institute of Information Technology) IPSA (Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées) EIPurpan (École d'ingénieurs de Purpan)

Primary and secondary schools[edit] The most well known high schools in Toulouse
Toulouse
are Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat (fr), Lycée Saint-Joseph and Lycée Saint-Sernin. In 2012 a Jewish school was struck by an attack in which a rabbi, his two sons and the daughter of the school's director were murdered by Mohammed Merah. International schools serving area expatriates are in nearby Colomiers:

International School of Toulouse Deutsche Schule Toulouse
Deutsche Schule Toulouse
(German school)

Transport[edit]

Line A of the Toulouse
Toulouse
Metro.

Train[edit] The main railway station, with regional and national services, is Toulouse-Matabiau. Metro[edit] In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro
Toulouse Metro
is a VAL (Véhicule Automatique Léger) metro system made up of driverless (automatic) rubber-tired trains. Line A runs for 12.5 km (7.8 mi) from Balma-Gramont in the north-east to Basso Cambo in the south-west. Line B, which opened in June 2007, serves 20 stations north to south and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès. Line C has existed since line A was completed. It is not VAL but an urban railway line operated by SNCF. It connects to line A at Arènes. Two other stations located in Toulouse
Toulouse
are also served by line C. Lardenne, formerly named "Gare des Capelles", changed its name in September 2003 when line C opened.[30] Le TOEC station opened on 1 September 2003 with the creation of line C, allowing an urban train service in Toulouse
Toulouse
and close western suburbs.[30] Similarly, Line D runs south from Toulouse
Toulouse
Matabiau to Muret. Tramway[edit] The tramway line T1 (operating since December 2010), runs from Beauzelle
Beauzelle
to Toulouse
Toulouse
passing through Blagnac. All urban bus, metro and tram services are operated by Tisséo. Tramway line T2 is a branch of the first line serving notably Toulouse
Toulouse
Blagnac
Blagnac
airport. Bicycle[edit] In 2007, a citywide bicycle rental scheme called Vélô Toulouse
Toulouse
was introduced,[31] with bicycles available from automated stations for a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly subscription. Airports[edit] Airports include:

Toulouse
Toulouse
Blagnac, the principal local airport Toulouse
Toulouse
Lasbordes

The Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
begins in Toulouse
Toulouse
and runs up to Sète. Toulouse
Toulouse
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Toulouse, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 9.1% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 10.4% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 8% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[32] Communications[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission.[33] In 2001 a large (100 km) optical fiber (symmetric 360Gbit/s) network named Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications was deployed around the city and suburbs.[34] Culture[edit]

Musée des Augustins

The Théâtre du Capitole
Théâtre du Capitole
is the home of opera and ballet; there has been a theatre on the site since 1736.[35] The Orchestre National du Capitole, long associated with Michel Plasson, plays at the Halle aux Grains.[36] Le Château d'Eau,[37] an old 19th-century water-tower, was converted as a gallery in 1974 by Jean Dieuzaide, a French photographer from Toulouse
Toulouse
and is now one of the oldest public places dedicated to photography in the world. Toulouse's art museums include the Musée des Augustins, the Musée des Abattoirs, the Musée Georges Labit, and the Fondation Bemberg
Fondation Bemberg
in the Hôtel d'Assézat. The Musée Saint-Raymond is devoted to Antiquity and the Muséum de Toulouse
Muséum de Toulouse
to natural history. Toulouse
Toulouse
is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux, the equivalent of the French Academy
French Academy
for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern France, making Toulouse
Toulouse
the unofficial capital of Occitan culture. The traditional Cross of Toulouse
Toulouse
(from Provence, under the name of cross of Provence), emblem of the County of Toulouse
County of Toulouse
and commonly widespread around all of Occitania
Occitania
during the Middle Ages is the symbol of the city and of the newly founded Midi-Pyrénées région, as well as a popular Occitan symbol. The city's gastronomic specialties include the Saucisse de Toulouse, a type of sausage, cassoulet Toulousain, a bean and pork stew, and garbure, a cabbage soup with poultry. Also, foie gras, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy mainly made in the Midi-Pyrénées.[citation needed] Sport[edit]

Toulouse Olympique
Toulouse Olympique
playing rugby league against Gateshead Thunder (June 2009)

Stade Toulousain
Stade Toulousain
of the Top 14
Top 14
is considered one of the most successful rugby union clubs in all of Europe, having been crowned European champions four times and French champions nineteen times.[38][39] Toulouse Olympique
Toulouse Olympique
represents the city in rugby league, playing in the English/European 2nd tier Championship from 2017. The city also has a professional football team, Toulouse
Toulouse
FC, who play in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France, and won the 1957 Coupe de France
France
Final. The club play at the Stadium Municipal, which was a venue during the 1998 FIFA World Cup
1998 FIFA World Cup
and 2007 Rugby World Cup, as well as hosting important club rugby games and several Rugby League World Cups. Toulouse
Toulouse
was also a host of EuroBasket 1999.

Notable people[edit] Main category: People from Toulouse

Bust of mathematician Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
in the Capitole de Toulouse

Several notable Toulousains have been scientists, such as Jean Dausset, 1980 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat, who spent his life in Toulouse, where he wrote Fermat's Last Theorem
Fermat's Last Theorem
and was a lawyer in the city's Parlement; Paul Sabatier, 1912 winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Albert Fert,[40] 2007 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics who grew up in Toulouse
Toulouse
where he attended the Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat (fr) and Jean Tirole, owner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, chairman and founder of the Toulouse School of Economics along with Jean-Jacques Laffont. Musically, Toulouse
Toulouse
is one of the two controversial, disputed birthplaces of Carlos Gardel
Carlos Gardel
(the other being Tacuarembo, Uruguay), probably the most prominent figure in the history of the tango. The city's most renowned songwriter is Claude Nougaro. The composer and organist Georges Guiraud (1868–1928) was born in Toulouse. Concerning arts, Toulouse
Toulouse
is the birthplace of Impressionist painter Henri Martin as well as sculptors Alexandre Falguière
Alexandre Falguière
and Antonin Mercié. Moreover, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
and Antoine Bourdelle were trained at the Toulouse
Toulouse
fine arts school. Post Impressionist painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's (1864-1901) father was Count Alphonse Charles de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa (1838-1913) and was part of an aristocratic family of Counts of Toulouse, Odet de Foix, Vimcomte de Lautrec and the Viscounts of Montfa. French graffiti artist Cyril Kongo was born in Toulouse
Toulouse
in 1969. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, was born in Toulouse. Aviation pioneer Clément Ader
Clément Ader
and psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol
Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol
were also natives. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
is twinned with:[41]

Atlanta, United States, since 1975 Bologna, Italy, since 1981 Elche, Spain, since 1981 Chongqing, China, since 1981 Kiev, Ukraine, since 1975 Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1962

Other cooperations[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
also has accords of cooperation with the following towns:[42]

Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain N'Djamena, Chad Hanoi, Vietnam Saint-Louis, Senegal Düsseldorf, Germany

Literature[edit] Toulouse
Toulouse
is a location briefly mentioned in the M.R. James
M.R. James
short ghost story, Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book
Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book
published in Ghost Stories of an Antiquary in 1904 See also[edit]

France
France
portal

138 Tolosa, an asteroid Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse André Abbal Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière The works of Antonin Mercié

References[edit]

^ a b "Insee – Populations légales 2012 – 31555-Toulouse". INSEE. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Unité urbaine 2010 de Toulouse
Toulouse
(31701)". INSEE. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ a b "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Aire urbaine 2010 de Toulouse
Toulouse
(004)". INSEE. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ "Toulouse". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ CNES. "Ademe.fr" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2007.  ^ Lefebvre, Olivier (2014). Atlas régional : effectifs d'étudiants en 2012-2013 (PDF). Paris: Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche.  ^ Infographic / Air transport in Europe Aertec, Eurostat ^ Palmarès des villes les plus dynamiques : la revanche de la province L'Express ^ Les villes les plus dynamiques de France
France
Challenges ^ Toulouse, métropole la plus dynamique La Dépêche du Midi ^ Toulouse's Saint Sernin, Largest Romanesque Church in Europe Europe Close ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Toulouse" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Climat Midi-Pyrénées" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Toulouse– Blagnac
Blagnac
(31)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Toulouse- Blagnac
Blagnac
(31) – altitude 152m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Toulouse– Francazal
Francazal
(31)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.  ^ Albert Dauzat et Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieux en France, 2nd ed., Librairie Guénégaud 1978. ^ Le Nom de Toulouse
Toulouse
de Pierre Moret, 1996, Université Toulouse
Toulouse
le Mirail – Toulouse
Toulouse
II, p. 11; Histoire de Toulouse, 1974, p. 11. ^ "Simon de Montfort et la croisade contre les Albigeois".  ^ " "Goldberg, Jeffrey. "Is it Time for the Jews to Leave Europe?" The Atlantic. April 2015". Retrieved 2015-03-21.  ^ Biraben, Jean-Noël. La Population de Toulouse
Toulouse
au XIVe et au XVe siècles [Pierre Wolff, Les Estimes toulousaines du XIVe et XVe siècles]. Journal des savants, 1964, p. 300. ^ Brumont, Francis. La commercialisation du pastel toulousain (1350–1600). Privat presse, 1994, p. 27. ^ "terredepastel.com". terredepastel.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ Irish, John. "Killings sour good life for high-flying Toulouse". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ "Décret n° 2014-1078 du 22 septembre 2014 portant création de la métropole dénommée «  Toulouse
Toulouse
Métropole » Legifrance". Retrieved 2017-06-30.  ^ " Toulouse
Toulouse
politics information". Bonjourlafrance.com. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ " Airbus A380
Airbus A380
lands after making aviation history." USA Today. 27 April 2005. Updated 28 April 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2010. ^ a b "Contacts." Airbus. Retrieved 12 February 2010. ^ "Toulouse, France
France
travel guide - Travel S Helper". TravelsHelper. Retrieved 2017-02-20.  ^ a b "Le RER toulousain entre en gares". ladepeche.fr. Retrieved 2016-02-06.  ^ "Vélô Toulouse
Toulouse
arrive..." La Dépêche du Midi (in French). Toulouse. 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2017-03-27.  ^ " Toulouse
Toulouse
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ Bonhoure Transmission Tower at Structurae ^ "Garonne-networks.com". Garonne-networks.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ "L'univers du Théâtre". Theatre-du-capitole.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ "Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse". Onct.mairie-toulouse.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ "'''''Le Château d'Eau''''' Official website" (in French). Galeriechateaudeau.org. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ "Europe's Top Rugby Clubs – For Dummies". Dummies.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ "ERC : Classement Européen". Ercrugby.com. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ " Albert Fert
Albert Fert
retrouve son Toulouse". La Dépêche du Midi. Retrieved 23 May 2008.  ^ "Les villes jumelées" (in French). Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse. Retrieved 2015-07-05.  ^ "Accords de coopération" (in French). Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 

Bibliography[edit]

Le Stang, Anne (2006). Histoire de Toulouse
Toulouse
illustrée (in French). leperegrinateurediteur.com. ISBN 2-910352-44-7.  Kerrison, Helen & Jeremy (2008). The Practical Guide to Toulouse. leperegrinateurediteur.com. ISBN 2-910352-46-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toulouse.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Toulouse.

(in French) ToulouseCity.com Toulouse
Toulouse
city guide – About-France.com Toulouse : pink, violets, red and black – Official French website (in French) Official site

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the department of Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne

Agassac Aignes Aigrefeuille Alan Albiac Ambax Anan Antichan-de-Frontignes Antignac Arbas Arbon Ardiège Arguenos Argut-Dessous Arlos Arnaud-Guilhem Artigue Aspet Aspret-Sarrat Aucamville Aulon Auragne Aureville Auriac-sur-Vendinelle Auribail Aurignac Aurin Ausseing Ausson Aussonne Auterive Auzas Auzeville-Tolosane Auzielle Avignonet-Lauragais Ayguesvives Azas Bachas Bachos Bagiry Bagnères-de-Luchon Balesta Balma Barbazan Baren Bax Baziège Bazus Beauchalot Beaufort Beaumont-sur-Lèze Beaupuy Beauteville Beauville Beauzelle Belberaud Belbèze-de-Lauragais Belbèze-en-Comminges Bélesta-en-Lauragais Bellegarde-Sainte-Marie Bellesserre Benque Benque-Dessous-et-Dessus Bérat Bessières Bezins-Garraux Billière Binos Blagnac Blajan Bois-de-la-Pierre Boissède Bondigoux Bonrepos-Riquet Bonrepos-sur-Aussonnelle Bordes-de-Rivière Le Born Boudrac Bouloc Boulogne-sur-Gesse Bourg-d'Oueil Bourg-Saint-Bernard Boussan Boussens Boutx Bouzin Bragayrac Brax Bretx Brignemont Bruguières Burgalays Le Burgaud Buzet-sur-Tarn Cabanac-Cazaux Cabanac-Séguenville Le Cabanial Cadours Caignac Calmont Cambernard Cambiac Canens Capens Caragoudes Caraman Carbonne Cardeilhac Cassagnabère-Tournas Cassagne Castagnac Castagnède Castanet-Tolosan Castelbiague Castelgaillard Castelginest Castelmaurou Castelnau-d'Estrétefonds Castelnau-Picampeau Le Castéra Castéra-Vignoles Casties-Labrande Castillon-de-Larboust Castillon-de-Saint-Martory Cathervielle Caubiac Caubous Caujac Cazac Cazarilh-Laspènes Cazaril-Tambourès Cazaunous Cazaux-Layrisse Cazeaux-de-Larboust Cazeneuve-Montaut Cazères Cépet Cessales Charlas Chaum Chein-Dessus Ciadoux Cier-de-Luchon Cier-de-Rivière Cierp-Gaud Cintegabelle Cirès Clarac Clermont-le-Fort Colomiers Cornebarrieu Corronsac Coueilles Couladère Couret Cox Cugnaux Cuguron Le Cuing Daux Deyme Donneville Drémil-Lafage Drudas Eaunes Empeaux Encausse-les-Thermes Eoux Escalquens Escanecrabe Escoulis Espanès Esparron Esperce Estadens Estancarbon Esténos Eup Fabas Le Faget Falga Le Fauga Fenouillet Figarol Flourens Folcarde Fonbeauzard Fonsorbes Fontenilles Forgues Fos Fougaron Fourquevaux Le Fousseret Francarville Francazal Francon Franquevielle Le Fréchet Fronsac Frontignan-de-Comminges Frontignan-Savès Fronton Frouzins Fustignac Gagnac-sur-Garonne Gaillac-Toulza Galié Ganties Garac Gardouch Gargas Garidech Garin Gauré Gémil Génos Gensac-de-Boulogne Gensac-sur-Garonne Gibel Gouaux-de-Larboust Gouaux-de-Luchon Goudex Gourdan-Polignan Goutevernisse Gouzens Goyrans Gragnague Gratens Gratentour Grazac Grenade Grépiac Le Grès Guran Herran His Huos L'Isle-en-Dodon Issus Izaut-de-l'Hôtel Jurvielle Juzes Juzet-de-Luchon Juzet-d'Izaut Labarthe-Inard Labarthe-Rivière Labarthe-sur-Lèze Labastide-Beauvoir Labastide-Clermont Labastide-Paumès Labastide-Saint-Sernin Labastidette Labège Labroquère Labruyère-Dorsa Lacaugne Lacroix-Falgarde Laffite-Toupière Lafitte-Vigordane Lagarde Lagardelle-sur-Lèze Lagrâce-Dieu Lagraulet-Saint-Nicolas Lahage Lahitère Lalouret-Laffiteau Lamasquère Landorthe Lanta Lapeyrère Lapeyrouse-Fossat Larcan Laréole Larra Larroque Lasserre Latoue Latour Latrape Launac Launaguet Lautignac Lauzerville Lavalette Lavelanet-de-Comminges Lavernose-Lacasse Layrac-sur-Tarn Lécussan Lège Léguevin Lescuns Lespinasse Lespiteau Lespugue Lestelle-de-Saint-Martory Lévignac Lez Lherm Lieoux Lilhac Lodes Longages Loubens-Lauragais Loudet Lourde Luscan Lussan-Adeilhac Lux La Magdelaine-sur-Tarn Mailholas Malvezie Mancioux Mane Marignac Marignac-Lasclares Marignac-Laspeyres Marliac Marquefave Marsoulas Martisserre Martres-de-Rivière Martres-Tolosane Mascarville Massabrac Mauran Mauremont Maurens Mauressac Maureville Mauvaisin Mauvezin Mauzac Mayrègne Mazères-sur-Salat Melles Menville Mérenvielle Mervilla Merville Milhas Mirambeau Miramont-de-Comminges Miremont Mirepoix-sur-Tarn Molas Moncaup Mondavezan Mondilhan Mondonville Mondouzil Monès Monestrol Mons Montaigut-sur-Save Montastruc-de-Salies Montastruc-la-Conseillère Montastruc-Savès Montauban-de-Luchon Montaut Montberaud Montbernard Montberon Montbrun-Bocage Montbrun-Lauragais Montclar-de-Comminges Montclar-Lauragais Mont-de-Galié Montégut-Bourjac Montégut-Lauragais Montespan Montesquieu-Guittaut Montesquieu-Lauragais Montesquieu-Volvestre Montgaillard-de-Salies Montgaillard-Lauragais Montgaillard-sur-Save Montgazin Montgeard Montgiscard Montgras Montjoire Montlaur Montmaurin Montoulieu-Saint-Bernard Montoussin Montpitol Montrabé Montréjeau Montsaunès Mourvilles-Basses Mourvilles-Hautes Moustajon Muret Nailloux Nénigan Nizan-Gesse Noé Nogaret Noueilles Odars Ondes Oô Ore Palaminy Paulhac Payssous Péchabou Pechbonnieu Pechbusque Péguilhan Pelleport Peyrissas Peyrouzet Peyssies Pibrac Pin-Balma Le Pin-Murelet Pinsaguel Pins-Justaret Plagne Plagnole Plaisance-du-Touch Le Plan Pointis-de-Rivière Pointis-Inard Polastron Pompertuzat Ponlat-Taillebourg Portet-d'Aspet Portet-de-Luchon Portet-sur-Garonne Poubeau Poucharramet Pouy-de-Touges Pouze Pradère-les-Bourguets Préserville Proupiary Prunet Puydaniel Puymaurin Puysségur Quint-Fonsegrives Ramonville-Saint-Agne Razecueillé Rebigue Régades Renneville Revel Rieucazé Rieumajou Rieumes Rieux-Volvestre Riolas Roquefort-sur-Garonne Roques Roquesérière Roquettes Rouède Rouffiac-Tolosan Roumens Sabonnères Saccourvielle Saiguède Saint-Alban Saint-André Saint-Araille Saint-Aventin Saint-Béat Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges Saint-Cézert Saint-Christaud Saint-Clar-de-Rivière Sainte-Foy-d'Aigrefeuille Sainte-Foy-de-Peyrolières Sainte-Livrade Saint-Élix-le-Château Saint-Élix-Séglan Saint-Félix-Lauragais Saint-Ferréol-de-Comminges Saint-Frajou Saint-Gaudens Saint-Geniès-Bellevue Saint-Germier Saint-Hilaire Saint-Ignan Saint-Jean Saint-Jean-Lherm Saint-Jory Saint-Julia Saint-Julien-sur-Garonne Saint-Lary-Boujean Saint-Laurent Saint-Léon Saint-Loup-Cammas Saint-Loup-en-Comminges Saint-Lys Saint-Mamet Saint-Marcel-Paulel Saint-Marcet Saint-Martory Saint-Médard Saint-Michel Saint-Orens-de-Gameville Saint-Paul-d'Oueil Saint-Paul-sur-Save Saint-Pé-d'Ardet Saint-Pé-Delbosc Saint-Pierre Saint-Pierre-de-Lages Saint-Plancard Saint-Rome Saint-Rustice Saint-Sauveur Saint-Sulpice-sur-Lèze Saint-Thomas Saint-Vincent Sajas Saleich Salerm Salies-du-Salat Salles-et-Pratviel Salles-sur-Garonne La Salvetat-Lauragais La Salvetat-Saint-Gilles Saman Samouillan Sana Sarrecave Sarremezan Saubens Saussens Sauveterre-de-Comminges Saux-et-Pomarède Savarthès Savères Sédeilhac Ségreville Seilh Seilhan Sénarens Sengouagnet Sepx Seyre Seysses Signac Sode Soueich Tarabel Terrebasse Thil Touille Toulouse Tournefeuille Les Tourreilles Toutens Trébons-de-Luchon Trébons-sur-la-Grasse L'Union Urau Vacquiers Valcabrère Valentine Vallègue Vallesvilles Varennes Vaudreuille Vaux Vendine Venerque Verfeil Vernet Vieille-Toulouse Vieillevigne Vignaux Vigoulet-Auzil Villariès Villate Villaudric Villefranche-de-Lauragais Villematier Villemur-sur-Tarn Villeneuve-de-Rivière Villeneuve-Lécussan Villeneuve-lès-Bouloc Villeneuve-Tolosane Villenouvelle

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123078162 LCCN: n79091182 ISNI: 0000 0001 2264 7962 GND: 4060518-8 SUDOC: 026564122 BNF:

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