Total Communication
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Total communication (TC) is an approach to communicating that aims to make use of a number of modes of communication such as signed,
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...
, auditory, written and visual aids, depending on the particular needs and abilities of the person.


History

The term "Total Communication", though, and its specific philosophy, was first used by Roy Holcomb in California.Nagengast, Larry. (1973) Deafness no handicap to newcomer. ''The Morning News'' (September 4, 1973), p. 11. It was adopted by the Maryland school as the official name for their educational philosophy. TC was supposed to find a middle ground in age-old disputes between
oralism Oralism is the Education of the deaf, education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the Articulatory phonetics, mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech.Through Deaf Eyes. Diane Garey, Lawrence ...
and
manualism Manualism is a method of Education of the deaf, education of deaf students using sign language within the classroom. Manualism arose in the late 18th century with the advent of free public schools for the deaf in Europe. These teaching methods we ...
, and as an alternative to
simultaneous communication Simultaneous communication, SimCom, or sign supported speech (SSS) is a technique sometimes used by deaf, hard-of-hearing or hearing sign language users in which both a spoken language and a manual variant of that language (such as English language ...
. In practice, however, most total communication programs use some form of simultaneous communication.


See also

* Bilingual-bicultural education


References

* Lowenbraun, S., Appelman, K., & Callahan, J. (1980). ''Teaching the hearing impaired through total communication''. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill. * Mayer, P. & Lowenbraun, S. (1990). ''Total communication use among elementary teachers of hearing-impaired children''. American Annals of the Deaf, 135, 257–263. * Moores, D. F. (1996). ''Educating the deaf''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. * Schlesinger, H. (1986). "Total communication in perspective". In D. M. Luterman (Ed.), ''Deafness in Perspective'' (pp. 87–116). College-Hill Press: San Diego, CA. * Scouten, E. (1984). ''Turning points in the education of deaf people''. Danville, IL: The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc.


External links


Total Communication
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, USA.
Interview with David Denton
Augmentative and alternative communication {{Comm-stub