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Toss juggling is the form of juggling which is most recognisable as 'juggling'.[1] Toss juggling can be used as: a performing art, a sport, a form of exercise, as meditation, a recreational pursuit or hobby.

In toss juggling, objects — such as balls, bean bags, rings, clubs, etc. — are thrown or tossed into the air and caught. Toss juggling is a form of object manipulation.

Passing is the juggling skill of throwing objects between two or more jugglers. The most common passing combination is where two jugglers throw six objects between them and perform various tricks in addition to that basic pattern. The number of objects juggled between two people can be increased with 7, 8 and even nine object passing being a common occurrence. Higher numbers have also been achieved with the current record for club passing being 13 clubs passed (juggled) between the two jugglers.

A variation on passing, called feeding, is performed by three or more jugglers. The most common combination is performed by three jugglers: one juggler (the feeder) passes alternately to each of the other two jugglers (the feedees) while they stand in a 'triangle'. The tempo of the juggling as well as the way the objects are thrown between the jugglers can be varied. Feeding can be performed with one feeder feeding multiple feedees or a mix of multiple feeders and feedees in one pattern.

Passing and feeding patterns and tricks in toss juggling range from the simple to the very complex. New patterns and tricks are developed and practiced at juggling conventions.

Sport

As a sport, juggling can be done competitively, with the jugglers attempting to improve upon the tricks or performances of other jugglers within a range of disciplines and categories. Competitions are held for both solo and multiple juggling competitors. Jason Garfield popularised this form of juggling in the USA. This style of juggling became more popular after he organised a World Juggling Federation competition in 2004 which has now become an annual event.

Exercise and fitness

As exercise, juggling is a highly aerobic activity, increasing the heart rate and respiration. Juggling helps one to develop good hand-eye coordination, physical fitness and balance.

Reflexes

Juggling helps to develop quick reflexes, and in fact, jugglers develop "higher-order reflexes", reflexes not typically associated with normal human activity. These reflexes are formed through repetition of what are, at first, slowly learned and difficult processes. As the various processes develop into reflexive actions, additional, more difficult or complex skills are 'layered' atop previous, well-developed skills. These new more complex skills eventually become more reflexive, and eventually, various unusual high order reflexes develop. An example is that, while catching a raw chicken's egg may be quite challenging to a novice juggler, a more skilled juggler might be able to easily catch — unbroken — an egg thrown towards him without warning.

Meditation

Paradoxically, the same processes that are well known for exercising the body, can also be a very relaxing activity. As meditation, juggling a repeating pattern or patterns can take one's mind off the stresses they might encounter in their daily lives. Jugglers have described a phenomenon of near-disembodiment and tranquility which may come over them while juggling.[citation needed] The constant rising and falling of the objects, the regularity of the rhythms, can become almost hypnotic, and the attention of a juggler while tightly focused on the juggling pattern may seem to expand and even to "encompass the universe."

Recreation

As a recreational pursuit, juggling excels in many ways. Besides the previously mentioned health benefits, any form of juggling is at its best when done socially

Passing is the juggling skill of throwing objects between two or more jugglers. The most common passing combination is where two jugglers throw six objects between them and perform various tricks in addition to that basic pattern. The number of objects juggled between two people can be increased with 7, 8 and even nine object passing being a common occurrence. Higher numbers have also been achieved with the current record for club passing being 13 clubs passed (juggled) between the two jugglers.

A variation on passing, called feeding, is performed by three or more jugglers. The most common combination is performed by three jugglers: one juggler (the feeder) passes alternately to each of the other two jugglers (the feedees) while they stand in a 'triangle'. The tempo of the juggling as well as the way the objects are thrown between the jugglers can be varied. Feeding can be performed with one feeder feeding multiple feedees or

A variation on passing, called feeding, is performed by three or more jugglers. The most common combination is performed by three jugglers: one juggler (the feeder) passes alternately to each of the other two jugglers (the feedees) while they stand in a 'triangle'. The tempo of the juggling as well as the way the objects are thrown between the jugglers can be varied. Feeding can be performed with one feeder feeding multiple feedees or a mix of multiple feeders and feedees in one pattern.

Passing and feeding patterns and tricks in toss juggling range from the simple to the very complex. New patterns and tricks are developed and practiced at juggling conventions.

As a sport, juggling can be done competitively, with the jugglers attempting to improve upon the tricks or performances of other jugglers within a range of disciplines and categories. Competitions are held for both solo and multiple juggling competitors. Jason Garfield popularised this form of juggling in the USA. This style of juggling became more popular after he organised a World Juggling Federation competition in 2004 which has now become an annual event.

Exercise and fitness

Juggling helps to develop quick <

Juggling helps to develop quick reflexes, and in fact, jugglers develop "higher-order reflexes", reflexes not typically associated with normal human activity. These reflexes are formed through repetition of what are, at first, slowly learned and difficult processes. As the various processes develop into reflexive actions, additional, more difficult or complex skills are 'layered' atop previous, well-developed skills. These new more complex skills eventually become more reflexive, and eventually, various unusual high order reflexes develop. An example is that, while catching a raw chicken's egg may be quite challenging to a novice juggler, a more skilled juggler might be able to easily catch — unbroken — an egg thrown towards him without warning.

Meditation

Paradoxically, the same processes that are well known for exercising the body, can also be a very relaxing activity. As meditation, juggling a repeating pattern or patterns can take one's mind off the stresses they might encounter in their daily lives. Jugglers have described a phenomenon of near-disembodiment and tranquility which may come over them while juggling.[citation needed] The constant rising and falling of the objects, the regularity of the rhythms, can become almost hypnotic, and the attention of a juggler while tightly focused on the juggling pattern may seem to expand and even to "encompass the universe."

Recreation

As a recreational pursuit, juggling excels in many ways. Besides the previously mentioned health benefits, any form of juggling is at its best when done socially. The equipment is inexpensive or free — though very costly equipment is also available — and easily portable. Juggling is great for "breaking the ice" at parties and other social gatherings[citation needed]. Jugglers are a friendly sort, usually, and are often very willing to help beginning jugglers with advice. Juggling conventions, clubs and other gatherings where jugglers congregate can be great places to meet and share the art of juggling, for experts novices and even 'non-jugglers' — who often find themselves doing some form of juggling themselves.

In 1990 it was estimated by the International Jugglers' Association that twenty-three percent of Americans can juggle a three-ball cascade.&

In 1990 it was estimated by the International Jugglers' Association that twenty-three percent of Americans can juggle a three-ball cascade.[3]

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