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Toruń
Toruń
[ˈtɔruɲ] ( listen) (German: Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula
Vistula
River. Its population was 202,591 as of June 2016.[1] Previously it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–98) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(1921–45). Since 1999, Toruń
Toruń
has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
and, as such, is one of its two capitals (together with Bydgoszcz). The cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz–Toruń
Bydgoszcz–Toruń
twin city metropolitan area. Toruń
Toruń
is one of the oldest cities in Poland, with the first settlement dated back to the 8th century and later having been expanded in 1233 by the Teutonic Knights.[2] Over centuries, it was the home for people of diverse backgrounds and religions. At one point, the city was considered the most modern cultural and technological centre in Medieval Europe.[3] From 1264 until 1411 Toruń
Toruń
was part of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
and by the 17th century it was one of the elite trading points, which greatly affected the city's architecture ranging from Brick Gothic
Brick Gothic
to Mannerism
Mannerism
and Baroque. In the early-modern age, the city was a royal city of Poland, it was also considered one of four largest cities of Poland,[4] after the partitions of Poland
Poland
it was part of Prussia
Prussia
and later on the German Empire. After Poland
Poland
declared independence in 1918, Toruń
Toruń
was reincorporated into Polish territory, and, during World War II, as one of few cities in the country, it sustained no damage. This allowed the Old Town to be fully preserved with its iconic central marketplace.[5] Believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in Europe,[6] Toruń is renowned for the Museum of Gingerbread, whose baking tradition dates back nearly a millennium, and its large Cathedral. Toruń
Toruń
is noted for its very high standard of living and quality of life.[7] In 1997 the medieval part of the city was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. In 2007 the Old Town in Toruń
Toruń
was added to the list of Seven Wonders of Poland. Toruń
Toruń
is the birthplace of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

Contents

1 History 2 Sights

2.1 Gothic architecture

3 Districts 4 Demographics 5 Transport 6 Economy 7 Culture 8 Education 9 Healthcare 10 Media 11 Sports 12 Notable residents 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

14 Gallery 15 See also 16 Notes 17 External links

History[edit] Further information: History of Toruń The first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń
Toruń
is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC (Lusatian culture).[8] During early medieval times, in the 7th through 13th centuries, it was the location of an old Slavonic settlement,[9] at a ford in the Vistula
Vistula
river.

The Gothic Old Town Hall (Ratusz Staromiejski) dates back to the 13th century

In spring 1231 the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
crossed the river Vistula
Vistula
at the height of Nessau and established a fortress. On 28 December 1233, the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
and Hermann Balk,[10] signed the foundation charters for Thorn and Kulm. The original document was lost in 1244. The set of rights in general is known as Kulm law. In 1236, due to frequent flooding,[11] it was relocated to the present site of the Old Town. In 1263 Franciscan
Franciscan
monks settled in the city, followed in 1239 by Dominicans. In 1264 the adjacent New Town was founded predominantly to house Torun's growing population of craftsmen and artisans. In 1280, the city (or as it was then, both cities) joined the mercantile Hanseatic League, and thus became an important medieval trade centre.

Copernicus House

The First Peace of Thorn ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War was signed in the city in February 1411 leaving the town in the hands of the Order. In 1440, the gentry of Thorn formed the Prussian Confederation to further oppose the Knights' policies. The Confederation rose against the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights in 1454 and its delegation submitted a petition to Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon asking him to regain power over Prussia
Prussia
as the rightful ruler. An act of incorporation was signed in Kraków
Kraków
(6 March 1454), recognizing the region, including Toruń, as part[12] of the Polish Kingdom. These events led to the Thirteen Years' War. The New and the Old Towns amalgamated in 1454. The citizens of Thorn enraged by the Order's ruthless exploitation, conquered the Teutonic castle, and dismantled the fortifications brick by brick, except for the Gdanisko tower, which was used until the 18th century for the gunpowder storage.[13][14] During the war, Toruń
Toruń
financially supported the Polish Army. The Thirteen Years' War ended in 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, in which the Teutonic Order ceded their control over the city to Poland. The Polish King granted the town great privileges, similar to those of Gdańsk. In 1473, Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
was born in Toruń. In 1501, Polish King John I Albert
John I Albert
died in Toruń
Toruń
and his heart was buried in Toruń's St. John's Church. In 1506 Toruń
Toruń
became a royal city of Poland. In 1528, the royal mint started operating in Toruń. A city of great wealth and influence, it enjoyed voting rights during the royal election period.[15] Sejms of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Toruń
Toruń
in 1576 and 1626.[16]

Toruń
Toruń
in 1641

In 1557, during the Protestant Reformation, the city adopted Protestantism. Under Mayor Heinrich Stroband (1586–1609), the city became centralized. Administrative power passed into the hands of the city council. In 1595 Jesuits
Jesuits
arrived to promote the Counter-Reformation, taking control of St. John's Church. The Protestant city officials tried to limit the influx of Catholics into the city, as Catholics ( Jesuits
Jesuits
and Dominican friars) already controlled most of the churches, leaving only St. Mary's to Protestant citizens. In 1677 the Prussian historian and educator Christoph Hartknoch
Christoph Hartknoch
was invited to be director of the Thorn Gymnasium, a post which he held until his death in 1687. Hartknoch wrote histories of Prussia, including the cities of Royal Prussia. During the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–21), the city was besieged by Swedish troops. The restoration of Augustus the Strong
Augustus the Strong
as King of Poland
Poland
was prepared in the town in the Treaty of Thorn (1709)
Treaty of Thorn (1709)
by Russian Tsar Peter the Great. In the second half of the 17th century, tensions between Catholics and Protestants grew, similarly to religious wars throughout Europe. In the early 18th century about 50 percent of the populace, especially the gentry and middle class, were German-speaking Protestants, while the other 50 percent were Polish-speaking Roman Catholics.[17] Protestant influence was subsequently pushed back after the Tumult of Thorn
Tumult of Thorn
of 1724. After the Second Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1793, the city was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
(it was briefly regained by Poles as part of the Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
in years 1807-1815). In 1809 Toruń
Toruń
was successfully defended by the Poles against the Austrians. In 1875 Towarzystwo Naukowe w Toruniu ( Toruń
Toruń
Scientific Society), a major Polish institution in the Prussian Partition
Prussian Partition
of Poland, was founded. In 1976 it was awarded the Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta, one of highest Polish decorations. After World War I, Poland
Poland
declared independence and regained control over the city. In interwar Poland
Poland
Toruń
Toruń
was capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Sights[edit]

Toruń
Toruń
Cathedral

City walls and the Leaning Tower

Saint Catherine of Alexandria church in Toruń
Toruń
- a perfect example of Toruń's Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
architecture

Listed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
since 1997, Toruń has many monuments of architecture dating back to the Middle Ages. The city is famous for having preserved almost intact its medieval spatial layout and many Gothic buildings, all built from brick, including monumental churches, the Town Hall and many burgher houses. The most interesting monuments are: Gothic architecture[edit] Toruń
Toruń
has the largest number of preserved Gothic houses in Poland, many with Gothic wall paintings or wood-beam ceilings from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

The Cathedral of SS. John the Evangelist and John the Baptist, an aisled hall church built in the 14th century and extended in the 15th century; outstanding Gothic sculptures and paintings inside (Moses, St. Mary Magdalene, gravestone of Johann von Soest), Renaissance and Baroque epitaphs and altars (among them the epitaph of Copernicus from 1580), as well as the Tuba Dei, the largest medieval church bell in Poland
Poland
and one of the largest in Europe St. Mary's church, a formerly Franciscan
Franciscan
aisled hall built in the 14th century St. James's church (often mistakenly called St Jacob's), a basilica from the 14th century, with monumental wall paintings and Gothic stalls The Old Town Hall was inaugurated in 1274, than extended and rebuilt between 1391 and 1399, and extended again at the end of the 16th century; considered one of the most monumental town halls in Central Europe City fortifications, begun in the 13th century, extended between the 14th and 15th centuries, mostly demolished in the 19th century, but partially preserved with a few city gates and watchtowers (among them the so-called Leaning Tower) from the Vistula
Vistula
side. See also: Toruń Fortress A 15th-century Gothic house (now a museum) where Copernicus was reputedly born Ruins of 13th-century Teutonic Knights' castle House at the sign of the Star (Polish: Kamienica Pod Gwiazdą), previously Gothic, briefly owned by Filip Callimachus, then rebuilt in the 16th century and in 1697, with a richly decorated stucco façade and wooden spiral stairs.

Toruń, unlike many other historic cities in Poland, escaped substantial destruction in World War II. Particularly left intact was the Old Town, all of whose important architectural monuments are originals, not reconstructions. Major renovation projects have been undertaken in recent years to improve the condition and external presentation of the Old Town. Besides the renovation of various buildings, projects such as the reconstruction of the pavement of the streets and squares (reversing them to their historical appearance), and the introduction of new plants, trees and objects of 'small architecture', are underway. Numerous buildings and other constructions, including the city walls along the boulevard, are illuminated at night, creating an impressive effect - probably unique among Polish cities with respect to the size of Toruń's Old Town and the scale of the illumination project itself. Districts[edit]

Old Town centre

Toruń
Toruń
is divided into 24 administrative districts (dzielnica) or boroughs, each with a degree of autonomy within its own municipal government. The Districts include: Barbarka, Bielany, Bielawy, Bydgoskie Przedmieście, Chełmińskie Przedmieście, Czerniewice, Glinki, Grębocin nad Strugą, Jakubskie Przedmieście, Kaszczorek, Katarzynka, Koniuchy, Mokre, Na Skarpie, Piaski, Podgórz, Rubinkowo, Rudak, Rybaki, Stare Miasto (Old Town), Starotoruńskie Przedmieście, Stawki, Winnica, Wrzosy. Demographics[edit] The most recent statistics show a decrease in the population of the city, to 205,934 in the middle of 2009. This is mainly because quite a large number of citizens have been moving to nearby communities, adjacent to the formal administrative area of Toruń, but still outside it. As a result, Toruń
Toruń
is surrounded by a belt of densely populated settlements, whose inhabitants work, shop and entertain in the city proper, but do not officially live there.

Dąmbski Palace - a baroque residence located on Żeglarska Street

In recent years, a discussion has been taking place as to whether or not these surrounding communities should be incorporated into the city's administrative area. This seems rather inevitable in the longer term, though many say Toruń
Toruń
has almost reached the limit of its development within the city's boundary. Inside the city itself, most of the population is concentrated on the right (northern) bank of the Vistula
Vistula
river. Two of the most densely populated areas are Rubinkowo and Na Skarpie, housing projects built mostly in the 1970s and 1980s, located between the central and easternmost districts; their total population is about 70,000. The Bydgoszcz–Toruń
Bydgoszcz–Toruń
metro area of Toruń
Toruń
and Bydgoszcz, their counties, and a number of smaller towns, may in total have a population of as much as 800,000. Thus the area contains about one third of the population of the Kuyavia-Pomerania region (which has about 2.1 million inhabitants).[citation needed] Transport[edit] The transport network in the city itself has been a subject of much criticism for years. Although the city proper is not very large, the underdeveloped street and road network is a source of problems. It has to deal not only with a traffic generated by Toruń
Toruń
itself, but also with heavy transit and metropolitan traffic. Even the construction of new wide avenues, both by reconstructing existing streets and by construction of others from scratch, has not been enough. The most serious problem, however, is that only a single car traffic bridge crosses the Vistula
Vistula
river inside the city's boundaries.

Main Bus Station in Toruń

The construction of beltways, and thus the reduction of the inflow of vehicles into the city, has helped significantly, but still the existence of only one downtown bridge causes serious transportation difficulties, especially traffic jams. The construction of another bridge, located 4 km (2.49 mi) east of the existing one, has been prepared and was to start in 2009, and most of the necessary funds were to be secured by the end of 2008. Yet, political rivalries and technical difficulties prevented constructions to go on as planned. The construction of the new bridge began in spring 2011 and was completed on 4 July 2013. The city's public transport system comprises five tram lines and about 40 bus routes, covering the city and some of the neighboring communities.

Toruń
Toruń
Wschodni train station

Toruń
Toruń
is situated at a major road junction, one of the most important in Poland. The A1 highway reaches Toruń, and a southern beltway surrounds the city. Besides these, the European route E75
European route E75
and a number of domestic roads (numbered 10, 15, and 80) run through the city. With three main railway stations ( Toruń
Toruń
Główny, Toruń
Toruń
Miasto and Toruń
Toruń
Wschodni), the city is a major rail junction, with two important lines crossing there (Warszawa– Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
and Wrocław–Olsztyn). Two other lines stem from Toruń, toward Malbork and Sierpc.

Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
Bridge over the Vistula
Vistula
river - the older of the two road bridges in Toruń

The rail connection with Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
is run under a name "BiT City" as a "metropolitan rail". Its main purpose is to allow traveling between and within these cities using one ticket. A joint venture of Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Solec Kujawski
Solec Kujawski
and the voivodeship, it is considered as important in integrating Bydgoszcz-Toruń
Bydgoszcz-Toruń
metropolitan area. A major modernization of BiT City railroute, as well as a purchase of completely new vehicles to serve the line, is planned for 2008 and 2009. Technically, it will allow to travel between Toruń-East and Bydgoszcz-Airport stations at a speed of 120 km/h (75 mph) in a time of approximately half an hour. In a few years' time "BiT City" will be integrated with local transportation systems of Toruń and Bydgoszcz, thus creating a uniform metropolitan transportation network - with all necessary funds having been secured in 2008. Since September 2008, the "one-ticket" solution has been introduced also as regards a rail connection with Włocławek, as a "regional ticket". The same is planned for connection with Grudziądz. Two bus depots serve to connect the city with other towns and cities in Poland. As of 2008[update], a small sport airfield exists in Toruń; however, a modernization of the airport is seriously considered with a number of investors interested in it. Independently of this, Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport, located about 50 kilometres (31 miles) from Toruń
Toruń
city centre, serves the whole Bydgoszcz-Toruń
Bydgoszcz-Toruń
metropolitan area, with a number of regular flights to European cities. Economy[edit]

Toruń's Technology Park

Although a medium-sized city, Toruń
Toruń
is the site of headquarters of some of the largest and most influential companies in Poland, or at least of their subsidiaries. The official unemployment rate, as of September 2008, is 5.4%. In 2006, construction of new plants owned by Sharp Corporation and other companies of mainly Japanese origin has started in the neighboring community of Łysomice
Łysomice
- about 10 kilometres (6 miles) from city centre. The facilities under construction are located in a newly created special economic zone. As a result of cooperation of the companies mentioned above, a vast high-tech complex is to be constructed in the next few years, providing as many as 10,000 jobs (a prediction for 2010) at the cost of about 450 million euros. As of 2008[update], the creation of another special economic zone is being considered, this time inside city limits.

Toruń's city centre incorporates a large commercial district

Thanks to its architectural heritage Toruń
Toruń
is visited by more than 1.5 million tourists a year (1.6 million in 2007). This makes tourism an important branch of the local economy, although time spent in the city by individual tourists or the number of hotels, which can serve them, are still not considered satisfactory. Major investments in renovation of the city's monuments, building new hotels (including high-standard ones), improvement in promotion, as well as launching new cultural and scientific events and facilities, give very good prospects for Toruń's tourism.

Toruń's typical renovated Old Town street - Małe Garbary

In recent years Toruń
Toruń
has been a site of intense building construction investments, mainly residential and in its transportation network. The latter has been possible partly due to the use of European Union funds assigned for new member states. Toruń
Toruń
city county generates by far the highest number of new dwellings built each year among all Kuyavian-Pomeranian counties, both relative to its population as well as in absolute values. It has led to almost complete rebuilding of some districts. As of 2008[update], many major constructions are either under development or are to be launched soon - the value of some of them exceeding 100 million euros. They include a new speedway stadium, major shopping and entertainment centres, a commercial complex popularly called a "New Centre of Toruń", a music theater, a centre of contemporary art, hotels, office buildings, facilities for the Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
University, roads and tram routes, sewage and fresh water delivery systems, residential projects, the possibility of a new bridge over the Vistula, and more. Construction of the A1 motorway and the BiT City fast metropolitan railway also directly affects the city. About 25,000 local firms are registered in Toruń. Culture[edit]

Toruń's main stage, the Wilam Horzyca Theatre

Toruń
Toruń
has two drama theatres (Teatr im. Wilama Horzycy with three stages and Teatr Wiczy), two children's theatres (Baj Pomorski and Zaczarowany Świat), two music theatres (Mała Rewia, Studencki Teatr Tańca), and numerous other theatre groups. The city hosts, among others events, the international theatre festival, "Kontakt", annually in May A building called Baj Pomorski has recently been completely reconstructed. It is now one of the most modern cultural facilities in the city, with its front elevation in the shape of a gigantic chest of drawers. It is located at the south-east edge of the Old Town. Toruń has two cinemas including a Cinema City, which has over 2,000 seats. Over ten major museums document the history of Toruń
Toruń
and the region. Among others, the "House of Kopernik" and the accompanying museum commemorate Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
and his revolutionary work, the university museum reveals the history of the city's academic past.

Toruń
Toruń
planetarium

Toruń
Toruń
gingerbread

The Tony Halik
Tony Halik
Travelers' Museum (Muzeum Podróżników im.Tony Halika) was established in 2003 after Elżbieta Dzikowska
Elżbieta Dzikowska
donated to citizens of Toruń
Toruń
a collection of objects from various countries and cultures following the death of her husband, famous explorer and writer Tony Halik. The Centre of Contemporary Art (Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej - CSW) opened in June 2008 and is one of the most important cultural facilities of this kind in Poland. The modern building is located in the very centre of the city, adjacent to the Old Town. The Toruń Symphonic Orchestra (formerly the Toruń
Toruń
Chamber Orchestra) is well-rooted in the Toruń
Toruń
cultural landscape. Toruń
Toruń
is home to a planetarium (located downtown) and an astronomical observatory (located in nearby community of Piwnice). The latter boasts the largest radio telescope in the Eastern part of Central Europe with a diameter of 32 m (104.99 ft), second only to the Effelsberg
Effelsberg
100 m (328.08 ft) radio telescope. Toruń
Toruń
is well known for Toruń
Toruń
gingerbread, a type of pierniki often made in elaborate moulds. Muzeum Piernika in Toruń
Toruń
is the only museum dedicated to gingerbread in Europe.[18] Education[edit]

Collegium Maximum of the Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
University in Toruń

Over thirty elementary and primary schools and over ten high schools make up the educational base of Toruń. Besides these, students can also attend a handful of private schools. The largest institution of higher education in Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Toruń
serves over 40 thousand students and was founded in 1945, based on the Toruń
Toruń
Scientific Society, Stefan Batory University in Wilno, and Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv. The existence of a high-ranked and high-profiled university with so many students plays a great role the city's position and importance in general, as well as in creating an image of Toruń's streets and clubs filled with crowds of young people. It also has a serious influence on local economy.

Miasteczko uniwersyteckie (University City)

Other public institutions of higher education:

Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne (a section of the Theological Faculty of the Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
University) The Teacher Training College - Nauczycielskie Kolegium Języków Obcych (affiliated to the Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
University) College of Fashion (Kolegium Mody) University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
- Faculty of Geodesy and Land Management Department in Toruń College of Social Work - Kolegium Pracowników Służb Społecznych University of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
- College of Language

There are also a number of private higher education facilities:

WSB Universities
WSB Universities
- WSB University in Toruń[19] The University of Social & Medial Culture in Toruń
Toruń
- Wyższa Szkoła Kultury Społecznej i Medialnej (affiliate to the Radio Maryja) Toruńska Szkoła Wyższa Wyższa Szkoła Filologii Hebrajskiej (Higher School of Hebrew Philology) Toruń
Toruń
School of Entrepreneurship - Toruńska Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości

Healthcare[edit]

Municipal children's hospital

Six hospitals of various specializations provide medical service for Toruń
Toruń
itself, its surrounding area and to the region in general. The two largest of these hospitals, recently run by the voivodeship, are to be taken over by Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
University and run as its clinical units. At least one of them is to change its status in 2008, with the formal procedures being very advanced. In addition, there are a number of other healthcare facilities in the city. Media[edit]

Press

daily newspapers: Nasz Dziennik, Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza Toruń, Gazeta Pomorska, Nowości, Metro Weekly magazines: Niedziela, City Toruń, Teraz Toruń, Other: Undergrunt, Immuniet, Ilustrator, Poza Toruń

Radio Stations:

Polskie Radio
Polskie Radio
Pomorza i Kujaw, Radio ESKA, - which plays international hits, along with Polish music. Radio GRA, Radio ZET Gold, Radio Sfera, WAWA, RMF FM Radio Maryja
Radio Maryja
- a radio station that broadcasts religious observances such as mass and prayer in Polish

TV Stations:

TVN/ TVN24
TVN24
- regional office, TVP Info
TVP Info
- Oddział w Bydgoszczy, Redakcja Terenowa w Toruniu,[20] Telewizja Trwam Podróże TV, Telewizja Kablowa Toruń Telewizja TAT Studio Region , Telewizja Petrus

Sports[edit]

Toruń's motoarena is one of world's newest speedway stadia

Toruń
Toruń
Arena

Unibax Toruń
Toruń
- motorcycle speedway who ride in the Speedway Ekstraliga, Polish Champions four times Toruński Klub Piłkarski (former ZKS Elana Toruń) - football (3rd division in Poland) Angels Toruń [2] - American football - Polish American Football League First Division Nesta Toruń
Toruń
- ice hockey (collapse of the financial) Pomorzanin Toruń
Toruń
- field hockey (premier league in Poland), football (4th division in Poland), box Nestle-Pacyfic - cycling Toruński Klub Bowlingowy - bowling Katarzynki Energa Toruń
Toruń
- basketball (women premier league in Poland) TKS-T Budowlani Toruń
Toruń
- volleyball (women premier league in Poland) Twarde Perniki Polski Cukier Toruń
Toruń
- basketball (men premier league in Poland) UKS Budowlanka Toruń
Toruń
- volleyball Municipal Stadium (Toruń) Moto Park Toruń Toruński KS - defunct Polish football club, co-founders of the Polish football league

Notable residents[edit] Further information: Category:People from Toruń International relations[edit] Honouring Toruń's sister relationship with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Bulwar Filadelfijski ( Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Boulevard), a 2 km (1.2 mi) long street running mostly between Vistula River and walls of the Old Town and the boulevard itself, bears its name.

Toruń's twin cities

The Ślimak Getyński is one of the lanes connecting Piłsudski Bridge / John Paul II Avenue with Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Boulevard at their downtown interchange. It honours the relationship with Göttingen, its name derived from the street's half-circular shape (Polish word ślimak meaning "snail"). Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Toruń
Toruń
is twinned with:[21]

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, since 1977[21] Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany, since 1978[21] Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands, since 1988[21] Hämeenlinna, Finland, since 1989[21]

Kaliningrad, Russian Federation, since 1995[21] Čadca, Slovakia, since 1996[21] Swindon, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom, since 2003 [21][22][23] Novo Mesto, Slovenia, since 2005[21] Lutsk, Ukraine, since 2008[21] Guilin, China, since 2010[21]

Gallery[edit]

Old Town Hall

House Under the Star

Holy Spirit Church

Artus Court

Caesar's Arch Tenement
Tenement
House

Gothic St. George Guildhall

St. James Church

Historic tenement houses along Warszawska Street

Former Police Station Building

City tram line

Main Post Office

Baj Pomorski Theatre

Szeroka Street

Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
Monument

Gen. Elżbieta Zawacka
Elżbieta Zawacka
Bridge

Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
Bridge over the Vistula
Vistula
River

St. Mary's Church

Castle tower and mill

See also[edit]

Tourism in Poland Gingerbread Museum

Notes[edit]

^ "Population in Poland. Size and structure by territorial division (ASPX) (in Polish)". stat.gov.pl. stat.gov.pl. 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "History of Toruń". www.torun.pl. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ Witosławska, Agata. "Torun - the city of many nations". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Maria Bogucka, Miasto i mieszczanin w społeczeństwie Polski nowożytnej XVI-XVIII w., Warsaw
Warsaw
2009 ^ Development, JW Web. "VisitTorun: Torun Guide - Home". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Witosławska, Agata. "Medieval Town of Toruń". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ "Jakość życia w polskich miastach - ranking - Urbnews.pl". 2 December 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Hypothetical reconstruction of a Lusatian culture
Lusatian culture
settlement, built using bronze age tools: Wola Radziszowska, Poland, part of a study by scientists from the Jagiellonian University's Institute Of Archaeology. ^ Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN Warsaw
Warsaw
1976 ^ "Krzyżacy - założyciele Torunia" ( Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
— the founders of Thorn). (Internet Archive) Urząd Miasta Torunia. "The foundation charter for Thorn was signed on 28th December 1233 by the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
and the National Master for Prussia
Prussia
and the Slavonic Lands Hermann Balka. In that way Thorn was founded by the Teutonic Order and managed by the Knights until 1454." Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ Max Töppen Historisch-comparative Geographie von Preussen: Nach den Quellen, namentlich auch archivalischen, J. Perthes, 1858; PDF ^ F. Kiryk, J. Ryś, Wielka Historia polski, t. II, 1320-1506, Kraków 1997, p. 160-161. ^ Torun.pl (2017). "Ruiny Zamku Krzyżackiego" [Remnants of the Teutonic Castle]. Toruńskie Serwisy Miejskie. Urząd Miasta Torunia. Retrieved 12 March 2017.  ^ Urząd Miasta Torunia (2012). "Krzyżacy - założyciele Torunia" [Teutonic Nights – the founders of town]. Gotyk na dotyk. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Polska Encyklopedia Szlachecka, t. I, Warsaw
Warsaw
1935, p. 42. ^ Władysław Konopczyński, Chronologia sejmów polskich 1493-1793. ^ Bahlcke, Joachim (2008). Daniel Ernst Jablonski; Religion, Wissenschaft und Politik um 1700 (in German). p. 227. ISBN 978-3-447-05793-6.  ^ "The Living Museum of Gingerbread". Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ WSB University in Toruń
Toruń
- WSB Universities ^ "Tvp Bydgoszcz". Ww6.tvp.pl. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń
Toruń
Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 22 August 2013.  ^ "Heritage Twin Towns". © 2003-2009 Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council. Retrieved 16 February 2009.  ^ "Torun - Twin Town in Poland". www.swindon.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toruń.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Thorn (town).

Municipal website Torun travel guide from Wikivoyage

Links to related articles

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Counties of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

City counties

Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
(governor's seat) Toruń
Toruń
(assembly seat) Grudziądz Włocławek

Land counties

Aleksandrów Brodnica Bydgoszcz Chełmno Golub-Dobrzyń Grudziądz Inowrocław Lipno Mogilno Nakło Radziejów Rypin Sępólno Świecie Toruń Tuchola Wąbrzeźno Włocławek Żnin

v t e

Toruń
Toruń
County

Seat (not part of the county): Toruń

Urban gmina:

Chełmża

Rural gminas

Gmina Chełmża Gmina Czernikowo Gmina Łubianka Gmina Lubicz Gmina Łysomice Gmina Obrowo Gmina Wielka Nieszawka Gmina Zławieś Wielka

v t e

World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in Poland

Auschwitz-Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945) Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
/ Belovezhskaya Pushcha (with Belarus) Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork Centennial Hall, Wrocław Churches of Peace
Churches of Peace
in Jawor and Świdnica Cracow's Historic Centre Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park Medieval Town of Toruń Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski (with Germany) Old City of Zamość Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine and its Underground Water Management System Historic Centre of Warsaw Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines Wooden churches of Southern Lesser Poland Wooden tserkvas of the Carpathian region in Poland
Poland
and Ukraine

Coordinates: 53°01′N 18°37′E / 53.017°N 18.617°E / 53.017; 18.617

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149128

.