Tønder (German: Tondern) is a town in the Region of Southern Denmark.
With a population of 7,595 (as of 1 January 2014), it is the main
town and the administrative seat of the
4 Notable people from Tønder
5 See also
7 External links
The first mention of
Tønder might have been in the mid-12th century,
when the Arab geographer
Muhammad al-Idrisi mentioned the landmark
Tu(r)ndira, which might have been a reference to either Tønder, or
the nearby town of Møgeltønder.
Tønder was granted port privileges by the
Hanseatic League in 1243,
making it Denmark's oldest privileged market town. In 1532 it was hit
by severe floods, with water levels reaching 1.8 m in St Laurent's
church, 5.3 m above sea level. In the 1550s, Tønder's port lost
direct access to the sea due to dykes being built to the west of town
at the direction of Duke Hans the Elder of
Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev, the son of Frederick I of Denmark.
The town center is dominated by houses from the late 17th and early
18th century, when the town experienced rapid growth as a result of
its lace industry. Prior to 1864,
Tønder was situated in the Duchy of
Schleswig, so its history is intertwined with the contentious history
of Schleswig-Holstein. In the 1920s, when the Schleswig Plebiscite
Northern Schleswig into Denmark, 76.5% of Tønder's
inhabitants voted to remain part of Germany and 23.5% voted to join
During World War I, a
Zeppelin base was operated in
Tønder by the
Imperial German Navy. The base was attacked by the British on 19 July
1918, in what is known as the Tondern raid. Seven
Sopwith Camels from
the aircraft carrier HMS Furious bombed the base, hitting two of
the three airship hangars. The Zeppelins L.54 and L.60 inside one
hangar were destroyed and a balloon inside the other was damaged.
Tønder was abandoned as an active airship base, and was
used only as an emergency landing site. A wartime aircraft hangar
survives, as do some of the ancillary buildings, but only the
foundations remain of the large airship hangars. The site now houses a
museum, named the
Zeppelin and Garrison Museum Tønder.
After the First World War,
Tønder was detached from Germany in spite
of the majority of its population casting a pro-German vote in the
Schleswig Plebiscites - as
Tønder was included in Zone I, which as a
whole had a strong pro-Danish majority. In the years that followed,
German political parties enjoyed a majority in the city council, and
until 1945, the city was officially bilingual.
After the end of the German occupation of Denmark, the political
influence of the German population dwindled considerably. In spite of
the improvement in cross-border traffic, the location of the town
continued to hamper industrial growth through the late 20th century,
although some companies did set up businesses. Tourism has grown in
importance. In 1989,
Tønder Seminarium, the oldest teacher training
college in Scandinavia, established in 1788, was closed.
Every August, the
Tønder Festival offers visitors a wide variety of
traditional and modern folk music. The Scouts of
Tønder are twinned
with Hemyock, in Devon, England, and make exchange trips between the
countries every few years.
In the last few years,
Tønder has been growing into a notable wedding
marriages per year. This is in part due to Denmark's liberal marriage
laws, especially between to non-European/European couples. Compared to
three months administration time in Germany,
Denmark instead requires
just around a week, fewer documents and the vows can be done in
languages other than Danish.
Notable people from Tønder
H.W. von Gerstenberg, 1793
Poul Schluter, 2005
Oluf Gerhard Tychsen (1734-1815) a German Orientalist and Hebrew
scholar, a founding father of
Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg
Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (1737–1823) a German poet  and
Johan Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) a Danish zoologist,
specialising in "Insecta", arthropods: insects, arachnids and
Nicolai Andresen (1781–1861) a Norwegian merchant, banker and member
Geskel Saloman (1821–1902) a Danish–Swedish portrait and genre
Julius Bahnsen (1830–1881) a German philosopher, originator of
Gustav Adolf Neuber
Gustav Adolf Neuber (1850–1932) a German surgeon
Jannik Petersen Bjerrum (1851–1920) a Danish ophthalmologist from
Skærbæk, did pathogenetic research of glaucoma
Bernhard M. Jacobsen
Bernhard M. Jacobsen (1862–1936) emigrated in 1876, became a U.S.
Representative from Iowa
Max Valentiner (1883–1949) a German U-boat commander during
World War I
Svend Wiig Hansen (1922–1997) a Danish sculptor and painter from
Poul Schlüter (born 1929) a Danish politician, Prime Minister of
Henning Munk Jensen
Henning Munk Jensen (born 1947) a Danish former association football
player, played 392 games for AaB and 62 matches for the Denmark
national football team 1966-1978, 24 of these as team captain.
Jan Beyer Schmidt-Sørensen (born 1958) a Danish economist and
Director of Business Development at
Jakob Michelsen (born 1980) a Danish unattached football manager.
Concerning the Friary in Tønder
^ "Population 1. January by urban areas (DISCONTINUED) - StatBank
Denmark - data and statistics". Statistikbanken.dk. Retrieved 15
^ "Nach der Volksabstimmung" (in German). Deutsches Historisches
Museum. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
Zeppelin base in Tønder".
Zeppelin and Garrison Museum
Tønder. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
^ "03c04-Oestergade63.html". Museum-sonderjylland.dk. Retrieved 15
^ Saeed, Saim. "Love me Tønder: Europe's quickie wedding
destination". Politico Europe. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 11, Gerstenberg, Heinrich
Wilhelm von retrieved 23 March 2018
Media related to
Tønder at Wikimedia Commons
Municipal seats of Denmark
Dragør and Store Magleby
Hammel and Hvorslev
Ringkøbing and Skjern
Hobro and Hadsund