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Abū ‘Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá as-Sulamī aḍ-Ḍarīr al-Būghī at-Tirmidhī (Arabic: أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى السلمي الضرير البوغي الترمذي‎; Persian: ترمذی‬‎, Termezī; 824 – 9 October 892), often referred to as Imām at-Termezī/Tirmidhī, was a Persian[1][2][3] Islamic scholar
Islamic scholar
and collector of hadith who wrote al-Jami` as-Sahih (known as Jami` at-Tirmidhi), one of the six canonical hadith compilations in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. He also wrote Shama'il Muhammadiyah (popularly known as Shama'il at-Tirmidhi), a compilation of hadiths concerning the person and character of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. At-Tirmidhi was also well versed in Arabic grammar, favoring the school of Kufa
Kufa
over Basra
Basra
due to the former's preservation of Arabic poetry
Arabic poetry
as a primary source.[4]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Name and lineage 1.2 Birth 1.3 Hadith
Hadith
studies 1.4 His Books

2 School of thought

2.1 Death

3 Early Islam
Islam
scholars 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Biography[edit] Name and lineage[edit] At-Tirmidhi's given name (ism) was "Muhammad" while his kunya was "Abu `Isa" ("father of `Isa"). His genealogy is uncertain; his nasab (patronymic) has variously been given as:

Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah (محمد بن عيسى بن سورة)‎[5] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsá ibn aḍ-Ḍaḥḥāk (محمد بن عيسى بن سورة بن موسى بن الضحاك)‎[6][7][8][9] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Shaddād (محمد بن عيسى بن سورة بن شداد)‎[10] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Shaddād ibn aḍ-Ḍaḥḥāk (محمد بن عيسى بن سورة بن شداد بن الضحاك)‎[11] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Shaddād ibn ‛Īsá (محمد بن عيسى بن سورة بن شداد بن عيسى)‎[9] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Yazīd ibn Sawrah ibn as-Sakan (محمد بن عيسى بن يزيد بن سورة بن السكن)‎[6][7][9] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sahl (محمد بن عيسى بن سهل)‎[12][13] Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sahl ibn Sawrah (محمد بن عيسى بن سهل بن سورة)‎[14]

He was also known by the laqab "ad-Darir" ("the Blind"). It has been said that he was born blind, but the majority of scholars agree that he became blind later in his life.[6][15] At-Tirmidhi's family belonged to the Arab tribe of Banu Sulaym (hence the nisbat "as-Sulami").[16] His grandfather was originally from Marw (Persian: Merv), but moved to Tirmidh.[6] Birth[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825).[16][17][18] Adh-Dhahabi only states that at-Tirmidhi was born near the year 210 AH (825/826),[6] thus some sources give his year of birth as 210 AH.[5][19] Some sources indicate that he was born in Mecca
Mecca
(Siddiqi says he was born in Mecca
Mecca
in 206 AH (821/822))[20] while others say he was born in Tirmidh
Tirmidh
(Persian: Termez), in what is now southern Uzbekistan.[16] The stronger opinion is that he was born in Tirmidh.[6] Specifically, he was born in one of its suburbs, the village of Bugh (hence the nisbats "at-Tirmidhi" and "al-Bughi").[17][19][21][22] Hadith
Hadith
studies[edit] At-Tirmidhi began the study of hadith at the age of 20. From the year 235 AH (849/850) he traveled widely in Khurasan, Iraq, and the Hijaz in order to collect hadith.[5][10][11] His teachers and those he narrated from included:

al-Bukhari[5][7][8][10][11][15][16][20] Abū Rajā’ Qutaybah ibn Sa‘īd al-Balkhī al-Baghlāni[7][8][11][16] ‘Alī ibn Ḥujr ibn Iyās as-Sa‘dī al-Marwazī[7][8][11][16] Muḥammad ibn Bashshār al-Baṣrī[8][11][16] ‘Abd Allāh ibn Mu‘āwiyah al-Jumaḥī al-Baṣrī[7] Abū Muṣ‘ab az-Zuhrī al-Madanī[7] Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mālik ibn Abī ash-Shawārib al-Umawī al-Baṣrī[7] Ismā‘īl ibn Mūsá al-Fazārī al-Kūfi[7] Muḥammad ibn Abī Ma‘shar as-Sindī al-Madanī[7] Abū Kurayb Muḥammad ibn al-‘Alā’ al-Kūfī[7][11] Hanād ibn al-Sarī al-Kūfī[7][11] Ibrāhīm ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Harawī[7] Suwayd ibn Naṣr ibn Suwayd al-Marwazī[7] Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Baṣrī[11] Zayd ibn Akhzam al-Baṣrī[15] al-‘Abbās al-‘Anbarī al-Baṣrī[15] Muḥammad ibn al-Muthanná al-Baṣrī[15] Muḥammad ibn Ma‘mar al-Baṣrī[15] ad-Darimi[11][16] Muslim[15][16][20] Abu Dawud[10][15][20]

At the time, Khurasan, at-Tirmidhi's native land, was a major center of learning, being home to a large number of muhaddiths. Other major centers of learning visited by at-Tirmidhi were the Iraqi cities of Kufa
Kufa
and Basra. At-Tirmidhi reported hadith from 42 Kufan teachers. In his Jami`, he used more reports from Kufan teachers than from teachers of any other town.[15] At-Tirmidhi was a pupil of al-Bukhari, who was based in Khurasan. Adh-Dhahabi wrote, "His knowledge of hadith came from al-Bukhari."[16] At-Tirmidhi mentioned al-Bukhari's name 114 times in his Jami`. He used al-Bukhari's Kitab at-Tarikh as a source when mentioning discrepancies in the text of a hadith or its transmitters, and praised al-Bukhari as being the most knowledgeable person in Iraq
Iraq
or Khurasan in the science of discrepancies of hadith. When mentioning the rulings of jurists, he followed al-Bukhari's practice of not mentioning the name of Abu Hanifah. Because he never received a reliabe chain of narrators to mention Abu Hanifa's decrees, he would instead attribute them to "some people of Kufa."[15] Al-Bukhari held at-Tirmidhi in high regard as well. He is reported to have told at-Tirmidhi, "I have profited more from you than you have from me," and in his Sahih he narrated two hadith from at-Tirmidhi.[15][16] At-Tirmidhi also narrated some hadiths from Abu Dawud, and one from Muslim.[15] Muslim also narrated one hadith from at-Tirmidhi in his own Sahih.[16] A.J. Wensinck mentions Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
as among at-Tirmidhi's teachers.[10][15] However, Hoosen states that according to the most reliable sources, at-Tirmidhi never went to Baghdad, nor did he attend any lectures of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Furthermore, at-Tirmidhi never directly narrates from Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
in his Jami`.[15] Several of at-Tirmidhi's teachers also taught al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and an-Nasa'i. His Books[edit]

Al-Jami` Al-Mukhtasar min As-Sunan `an Rasulillah, known as “Jami` At-Tirmidhi) Al-`Ilal As-Sughra Az-Zuhd Al-`Ilal Al-Kubra Ash-Shama’il An-Nabawiyyah wa Al-Fada’il Al-Mustafawiyyah Al-Asmaa’ wa Al-Kuna Kitab At-Tarikh

School of thought[edit] Imam Tirmidhi was very close to Imam Bukhari, Imam Tirmidhi was a Shaf'i or Hanbal. Conclusion was whether he was mujthaid or muqallid as he was close to Imam Bukhari some claim he followed his madhab. Death[edit] At-Tirmidhi was blind in the last two years of his life, according to adh-Dhahabi.[11] His blindness is said to have been the consequence of excessive weeping, either due to fear of God or over the death of al-Bukhari.[5][6][11][15][16] He died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, 8 October 892)[note 1] in Bugh.[8][11][15] At-Tirmidhi is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez
Termez
in Uzbekistan. In Termez
Termez
he is locally known as Abu Isa at-Termezi or " Termez
Termez
Ota" ("Father of Termez").[22] Early Islam
Islam
scholars[edit]

v t e

Early Islamic scholars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
(570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught Ali
Ali
(607-661) fourth caliph taught Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
(618-687) taught Zayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taught Umar
Umar
(579-644) second caliph taught Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
(603 – 681) taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught

 

Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
(626–680) taught Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(657-725) taught and raised by Aisha Urwah ibn Zubayr
Urwah ibn Zubayr
(died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taught Said ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taught Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
(614-693) taught Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught

 

 

Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught

 

 

 

 

Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taught Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taught Salim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar
Umar
taught Umar
Umar
ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir (676-733) taught Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
(699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh
Fiqh
Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni
Sunni
Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taught Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
(695-740) Ja'far bin Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taught Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
(711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni
Sunni
in Africa and taught

 

Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn Anas Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
(729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqh Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani (749–805)

 

 

 

Al-Shafi‘i
Al-Shafi‘i
(767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni
Sunni
and taught Ismail ibn Ibrahim

 

Ali
Ali
ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions

 

Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
(719-775) Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
(745-799)

 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni
Sunni
and hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
hadith books Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
(815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami` at-Tirmidhi
hadith books Al-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
(824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah
hadith book

 

Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
Hadith
Hadith
Book

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi
Kitab al-Kafi
hadith book followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari

 

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
(874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Babawayh
Ibn Babawayh
(923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
jurisprudence followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
(1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism

 

Rumi
Rumi
(1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
on Sufism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key: Some of Muhammad's Companions Key: Taught in Medina Key: Taught in Iraq Key: Worked in Syria Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
and compiled books of hadith Key: Worked in Iran

Notes[edit]

^ In the Islamic calendar, the weekday begins at sunset.

References[edit]

^ Frye, R.N., ed. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran:Volume 4 (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.  ^ Sultan, Sohaib (2007). The Qur'an and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad (saw): Selections Annotated and Explained. Woodstock, Vt: Skylight Paths Publishing. p. xxiii. ISBN 9781594732225.  ^ Ar-Raqib, Akil; Roche, Edward M. (2009). Virtual Worlds Real Terrorism. p. 263. ISBN 9780578032221.  ^ "Sibawayh, His Kitab, and the Schools of Basra
Basra
and Kufa." Taken from Changing Traditions: Al-Mubarrad's Refutation of Sībawayh and the Subsequent Reception of the Kitāb, p. 12. Volume 23 of Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics. Ed. Monique Bernards. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ISBN 9789004105959 ^ a b c d e Juynboll, G.H.A. "al-Tirmidhī". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online.  ^ a b c d e f g Abdul Mawjood, Salahuddin ʻ Ali
Ali
(2007). The Biography of Imām at-Tirmidhī. Translated by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
ibn Nasir (1st ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 9960983692.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Dhahabī (d. 1348) (2004). تذهيب تهذيب الكمال في أسماء الرجال (Tadhhīb tahdhīb al-kamāl fī asmā’ al-rijāl) (in Arabic). Cairo: al-Fārūq al-Hadīthah lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr. p. 248. ISBN 9773700100.  ^ a b c d e f Ibn Khallikan (1843) [Written 1274]. "At-Tirmidi the traditionist". Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary. Translated from Wafayāt al-a‘yān wa-anbā’ abnā’ az-zamān by Baron Mac Guckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. pp. 679–680.  ^ a b c Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
(d. 1373). " ثم دخلت سنة تسع وسبعين ومائتين [Then entered year 279]" (in Arabic). البداية والنهاية (al-Bidāyah wa-al-nihāyah). 11. Wikisource.  ^ a b c d e Wensinck, A.J. (1993). "al-Tirmidhī". Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936). 8. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 796–797.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robson, James (June 1954). "The Transmission of Tirmidhī's Jāmi'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. 16 (2): 258–270. doi:10.1017/S0041977X0010597X. JSTOR 609168.  ^ Lane, Andrew J. (2006). A Traditional Mu'tazilite Qur'an Commentary: The Kashshaf of Jar Allah al-Zamakhshari (d. 538/1144). Leiden: Brill. p. 385. ISBN 9004147004.  ^ Sezgin, Fuat (1991). تاريخ التراث العربي (Tārīkh al-turāth al-‘arabī) (in Arabic). 1. Translated by Mahmud Fahmi Hijazi. Part 4. p.209.  ^ Rushdī Abū Shabānah ʻAlī al-Rashīdī (2007). التضامن الدولي في النظام الإسلامي والنظم الوضعية : دراسة مقارنة (al-Taḍāmun al-dawlī fī al-niẓām al-Islāmī wa-al-nuẓum al-waḍʻīyah : dirāsah muqāranah) (1st ed.). Mansoura, Egypt: Dār al-Yaqīn. ISBN 9789773362409.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hoosen, Abdool Kader (1990). Imam Tirmidhi's contribution towards Hadith
Hadith
(1st ed.). Newcastle, South Africa: A.K. Hoosen. ISBN 9780620153140.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ali, Syed Bashir (2003). Scholars of Hadith. Skokie, IL: IQRAʼ International Educational Foundation. ISBN 1563162040.  ^ a b Banuri, Muhammad
Muhammad
Yusuf (April 1957). "الترمذي صاحب الجامع في السنن (al-Tirmidhī ṣaḥib al-jāmi' fī al-sunan)". Majallat al-Majmaʻ al-ʻIlmī al-ʻArabīyah (in Arabic). Damascus. 32: 308.  Cited by Hoosen, Abdool Kader (1990). Imam Tirmidhi's contribution towards Hadith
Hadith
(1st ed.). Newcastle, South Africa: A.K. Hoosen. ISBN 9780620153140.  ^ Nur al-Din Itr (1978). "تصدير Taṣdīr" [Preface]. In Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali. شرح علل الترمذي Sharḥ ‘Ilal al-Tirmidhī (in Arabic) (1st ed.). Dār al-Mallāḥ. p. 11.  ^ a b Wheeler, Brannon M., ed. (2002). "Glossary of Interpreters and Transmitters". Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran
Quran
and Muslim Exegesis. New York: Continuum. p. 358. ISBN 0826449565.  ^ a b c d Siddiqi, Muhammad
Muhammad
Zubayr. Hadith
Hadith
Literature: Its Origin, Development & Special
Special
Features. p. 64.  ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2009). Historical Dictionary of Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 307. ISBN 9780810861619.  ^ a b "Termez". www.uzbek-travel.com. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Al-Tirmidhi.

Biography of Imam al-Tirmidhi at Sunnah.org Biography of al-Tirmidhee at theclearpath.com

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76600419 LCCN: n81062199 ISNI: 0000 0000 7846 6522 GND: 118997599 SELIBR: 33868 BNF:

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