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Timur[2] (Persian: تیمور‎ Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir
Amir
Timur
Timur
and Tamerlane[3] (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
in Persia
Persia
and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.[4] According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur's background was Iranized and not steppe nomadic.[5] Born into the Barlas
Barlas
confederation in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur
Timur
gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
by 1370. From that base he led military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and southern Russia, and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim
Muslim
world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, and the declining Delhi Sultanate.[6] From these conquests he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death. Timur
Timur
was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires
Gunpowder Empires
in the 1500s and 1600s.[7][8]:1 Timur
Timur
envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(died 1227). According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He justified his Iranian, Mamluk, and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers."[9] To legitimize his conquests, Timur
Timur
relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", and patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin
Borjigin
leaders to Islam
Islam
during his lifetime. "Temur, a non-Chinggisid, tried to build a double legitimacy based on his role as both guardian and restorer of the Mongol Empire."[10] Timur
Timur
also decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi.[11]:91 By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde, and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in China. Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe,[11] sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste.[12] Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.[13][14] He was the grandfather of the renowned Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia
Central Asia
from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur
Babur
(1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia
South Asia
for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857.[15][16] Timur
Timur
is also recognized[by whom?] as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with Muslim
Muslim
intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
and Hafiz-i Abru.[11]:341–2

Contents

1 Early life 2 Personality 3 Military leader 4 Rise to power 5 Legitimization of Timur's rule 6 Period of expansion 7 Conquest of Persia

7.1 Tokhtamysh– Timur
Timur
war 7.2 Ismailis

8 Campaign against the Tughlaq Dynasty

8.1 Capture of Delhi (1398)

9 Campaigns in the Levant 10 Attempts to attack the Ming dynasty 11 Death 12 Succession 13 Exchanges with Europe 14 Legacy

14.1 Historical sources

14.1.1 Malfuzat-i Timuri

14.2 European views 14.3 Exhumation
Exhumation
and alleged curse 14.4 In the arts

15 Gallery 16 Consorts 17 Descendants of Timur

17.1 Sons of Timur 17.2 Daughters of Timur 17.3 Sons of Jahangir 17.4 Sons of Umar Shaikh Mirza I 17.5 Sons of Miran Shah 17.6 Sons of Shahrukh Mirza

18 See also 19 Notes 20 References 21 External links

Early life

Emir Timur
Timur
feasts in the gardens of Samarkand.

Timur
Timur
was born in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
near the city of Kesh (modern Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan) some 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Samarkand, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate.[17] His father, Taraqai, was a minor noble of the Barlas,[17] a Mongolian tribe[18][19] that had been turkified in many aspects.[20][21][22] According to Gérard Chaliand, Timur
Timur
was a Muslim,[23] and he saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir.[23] Though not a Borjigid or a descendent of Genghis Khan,[24] he clearly sought to invoke the legacy of Genghis Khan's conquests during his lifetime.[25] His name Temur means "Iron" in the Chaghatay language, Timur's mother-tongue (cf. Uzbek Temir, Turkish Demir). Later Timurid dynastic histories claim that he was born on April 8, 1336, but most sources from his lifetime give ages that are consistent with a birthdate in the late 1320s. Historian Beatrice Forbes Manz suspects the 1336 date was designed to tie Timur
Timur
to the legacy of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, the last ruler of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
descended from Hulagu Khan, who died in that year.[26] At the age of eight or nine, Timur
Timur
and his mother and brothers were carried as prisoners to Samarkand
Samarkand
by an invading Mongol army. In his childhood, Timur
Timur
and a small band of followers raided travelers for goods, especially animals such as sheep, horses, and cattle.[26]:116 In around 1363, it is believed that Timur
Timur
tried to steal a sheep from a shepherd but was shot by two arrows, one in his right leg and another in his right hand, where he lost two fingers. Both injuries crippled him for life. Some believe that Timur
Timur
suffered his crippling injuries while serving as a mercenary to the khan of Sistan
Sistan
in Khorasan in what is today the Dashti Margo
Dashti Margo
in southwest Afghanistan. Timur's injuries have given him the names of Timur
Timur
the Lame and Tamerlane
Tamerlane
by Europeans.[11]:31 Timur
Timur
was a Muslim, possibly belonging to the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
school of Sufism, which was influential in Transoxiana.[27] However, his chief official religious counsellor and adviser was the Hanafi
Hanafi
scholar 'Abdu 'l-Jabbar Khwarazmi. In Tirmidh, he had come under the influence of his spiritual mentor Sayyid Baraka, a leader from Balkh
Balkh
who is buried alongside Timur
Timur
in Gur-e-Amir.[28][29][30] Timur
Timur
was known to hold Ali and the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
in high regard and has been noted by various scholars for his "pro-Alid" stance. Despite this, Timur
Timur
was noted for attacking the Shia with Sunni apologism, while at other times he attacked Sunnis on religious ground as well.[31] In contrast, Timur held the Seljuk Sultan
Sultan
Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
in high regard for attacking the Ismailis at Alamut, while Timur's own attack on Ismailis at Anjudan was equally brutal.[31] Personality

Timur
Timur
facial reconstruction from skull

Timur
Timur
is regarded as a military genius, and as a brilliant tactician with an uncanny ability to work within a highly fluid political structure to win and maintain a loyal following of nomads during his rule in Central Asia. He was also considered extraordinarily intelligent – not only intuitively but also intellectually.[8]:16 In Samarkand
Samarkand
and his many travels, Timur, under the guidance of distinguished scholars, was able to learn the Persian, Mongolian, and Turkish languages.[11]:9 (according to Ahmad ibn Arabshah, Timur
Timur
didn't know Arabic)[32] More importantly, Timur
Timur
was characterized as an opportunist. Taking advantage of his Turco-Mongolian heritage, Timur
Timur
frequently used either the Islamic religion or the law and traditions of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
to achieve his military goals or domestic political aims.[11] Timur, mostly considered a barbarian, in fact was a well learned king, and did enjoy the company of scholars —he was tolerant and generous to them against his nature. Once Persian poet Hafez
Hafez
wrote a ghazal whose verse says if this Turk accept his homage: —For the black mole on his cheek I would give the cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara Timur
Timur
upbraided him for this verse and said; "By the blows of my well tempered sword I have conquered the greater part of the world to enlarge Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara, my capitals and residences; and you pitiful creature would exchange these two cities for a mole". Hafez replied "O Sovereign
Sovereign
of the world, it is by the state of similar generosity that I have been reduced, as you see my present state of poverty." It is reported that the King was amazed by the witty answer and the poet departed with magnificent gifts.[33] Timur
Timur
used Persian expressions in his conversations often, and his motto was the Persian phrase rāstī rustī (راستی رستی, meaning "truth is safety" or "veritas salus").[32] Military leader

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About 1360 Timur
Timur
gained prominence as a military leader whose troops were mostly Turkic tribesmen of the region.[23] He took part in campaigns in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
with the Khan of the Chagatai Khanate. Allying himself both in cause and by family connection with Kurgan, the dethroner and destroyer of Volga
Volga
Bulgaria, he invaded Khorasan[34] at the head of a thousand horsemen. This was the second military expedition that he led, and its success led to further operations, among them the subjugation of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
and Urgench. Following Kurgan's murder, disputes arose among the many claimants to sovereign power. Khan of Eastern Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
Tughlugh Timur
Tughlugh Timur
of Kashgar, another descendant of Genghis Khan, invaded, interrupting this infighting. Timur
Timur
was sent to negotiate with the invader but joined with him instead and was rewarded with Transoxania. At about this time his father died and Timur
Timur
became chief of the Berlas as well. Tughlugh then attempted to set his son Ilyas Khoja over Transoxania, but Timur
Timur
repelled this invasion with a smaller force.[34] Rise to power

Timur
Timur
commanding the Siege of Balkh

It was in this period that Timur
Timur
reduced the Chagatai khans to the position of figureheads while he ruled in their name. Also during this period, Timur
Timur
and his brother-in-law Husayn, who were at first fellow fugitives and wanderers in joint adventures, became rivals and antagonists. The relationship between them began to become strained after Husayn abandoned efforts to carry out Timur's orders to finish off Ilya Khoja (former governor of Mawarannah) close to Tishnet.[11]:40 Timur
Timur
began to gain a following of people in Balkh, consisting of merchants, fellow tribesmen, Muslim
Muslim
clergy, aristocracy and agricultural workers, because of his kindness in sharing his belongings with them. This contrasted Timur's behavior with that of Husayn, who alienated these people, took many possessions from them via his heavy tax laws and selfishly spent the tax money building elaborate structures.[11]:41–2 At around 1370 Husayn surrendered to Timur
Timur
and was later assassinated, which allowed Timur
Timur
to be formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh. He married Husayn's wife Saray Mulk Khanum, a descendant of Genghis Khan, allowing him to become imperial ruler of the Chaghatay tribe.[11] One day Aksak Temür spoke thusly:

"Khan Züdei (in China) rules over the city. We now number fifty to sixty men, so let us elect a leader." So they drove a stake into the ground and said: "We shall run thither and he among us who is the first to reach the stake, may he become our leader". So they ran and Aksak Timur, as he was lame, lagged behind, but before the others reached the stake he threw his cap onto it. Those who arrived first said: "We are the leaders." ["But,"] Aksak Timur
Timur
said: "My head came in first, I am the leader." Meanwhile, an old man arrived and said: "The leadership should belong to Aksak Timur; your feet have arrived but, before then, his head reached the goal." So they made Aksak Timur their prince.[35][36]

Legitimization of Timur's rule

Map of the Timurid Empire

Timur's Turco-Mongolian heritage provided opportunities and challenges as he sought to rule the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and the Muslim
Muslim
world. According to the Mongol traditions, Timur
Timur
could not claim the title of khan or rule the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
because he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan. Therefore, Timur
Timur
set up a puppet Chaghatay Khan, Suyurghatmish, as the nominal ruler of Balkh
Balkh
as he pretended to act as a "protector of the member of a Chinggisid line, that of Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi".[37] As a result, Timur
Timur
never used the title of khan because the name khan could only be used by those who come from the same lineage as Genghis Khan himself. Timur
Timur
instead used the title of amir meaning general, and acting in the name of the Chagatai ruler of Transoxania.[26]:106 To reinforce his position in the Mongol Empire, Timur
Timur
managed to acquire the royal title of son-in-law when he married a princess of Chinggisid descent.[8]:14 Likewise, Timur
Timur
could not claim the supreme title of the Islamic world, caliph, because the "office was limited to the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad". Therefore, Timur
Timur
reacted to the challenge by creating a myth and image of himself as a "supernatural personal power" ordained by God.[37] Since Timur
Timur
had a successful career as a conqueror, it was easy to justify his rule as ordained and favored by God since no ordinary man could be a possessor of such good fortune that resistance would be seen as opposing the will of God. Moreover, the Islamic notion that military and political success was the result of Allah's favor had long been successfully exploited by earlier rulers. Therefore, Timur's assertions would not have seemed unbelievable to fellow Islamic people. Period of expansion Timur
Timur
spent the next 35 years in various wars and expeditions. He not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjugation of his foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates. His conquests to the west and northwest led him to the lands near the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and to the banks of the Ural and the Volga. Conquests in the south and south-West encompassed almost every province in Persia, including Baghdad, Karbala
Karbala
and Northern Iraq. One of the most formidable of Timur's opponents was another Mongol ruler, a descendant of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
named Tokhtamysh. After having been a refugee in Timur's court, Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
became ruler both of the eastern Kipchak and the Golden Horde. After his accession, he quarreled with Timur
Timur
over the possession of Khwarizm and Azerbaijan. However, Timur
Timur
still supported him against the Russians and in 1382 Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
invaded the Muscovite dominion and burned Moscow.[38] In 1395 Tamerlane
Tamerlane
reached the frontier of Principality of Ryazan, took Elets
Elets
and advancing towards Moscow
Moscow
came near the banks of the Don River. Great Prince Vasily I of Moscow
Moscow
went with an army to Kolomna and halted at the banks of the Oka River. The clergy brought the famed Theotokos of Vladimir
Theotokos of Vladimir
icon from Vladimir to Moscow. Along the way people prayed kneeling: “O Mother of God, save the land of Russia!” Suddenly, Tamerlane's armies retreated. In memory of this miraculous deliverance of the Russian Land from Tamerlane
Tamerlane
on August 26, the all-Russian celebration in honor of the Meeting of the Vladimir Icon of the Most Holy Mother of God was established[39]. Conquest of Persia

Timur
Timur
besieges the historic city of Urganj.

Timur
Timur
orders campaign against Georgia.

Emir Timur's army attacks the survivors of the town of Nerges, in Georgia, in the spring of 1396.

After the death of Abu Sa'id, ruler of the Ilkhanate, in 1335, there was a power vacuum in Persia. In the end Persia
Persia
was split amongst the Muzaffarids, Kartids, Eretnids, Chobanids, Injuids, Jalayirids, and Sarbadars. In 1383, Timur
Timur
started his lengthy military conquest of Persia, though he already ruled over much of Persian Khorasan by 1381, after Khwaja Mas'ud, of the Sarbadar
Sarbadar
dynasty surrendered. Timur
Timur
began his Persian campaign with Herat, capital of the Kartid dynasty. When Herat
Herat
did not surrender he reduced the city to rubble and massacred most of its citizens; it remained in ruins until Shahrukh Mirza ordered its reconstruction.[40] Timur
Timur
sent a General to capture rebellious Kandahar. With the capture of Herat
Herat
the Kartid kingdom surrendered and became vassals of Timur, but it would later be annexed in 1389 by Timur's son Miran Shah. Timur
Timur
then headed west to capture the Zagros Mountains, passing through Mazandaran. During his travel through the north of Persia, he captured the then town of Tehran, which surrendered and was thus treated mercifully. He laid siege to Soltaniyeh
Soltaniyeh
in 1384. Khorasan revolted one year later, so Timur
Timur
destroyed Isfizar, and the prisoners were cemented into the walls alive. The next year the kingdom of Sistan, under the Mihrabanid dynasty, was ravaged, and its capital at Zaranj
Zaranj
was destroyed. Timur
Timur
then returned to his capital of Samarkand, where he began planning for his Georgian campaign and Golden Horde invasion. In 1386 Timur
Timur
passed through Mazandaran
Mazandaran
as he had when trying to capture the Zagros. He went near the city of Soltaniyeh, which he had previously captured but instead turned north and captured Tabriz
Tabriz
with little resistance, along with Maragha. He ordered heavy taxation of the people, which was collected by Adil Aqa, who was also given control over Soltaniyeh. Adil was later executed because Timur suspected him of corruption. Timur
Timur
then went north to begin his Georgian and Golden Horde campaigns, pausing his full-scale invasion of Persia. When he returned he found his generals had done well in protecting the cities and lands he had conquered in Persia. Though many rebelled, and his son Miran Shah, who may have been regent, was forced to annex rebellious vassal dynasties, his holdings remained. So he proceeded to capture the rest of Persia, specifically the two major southern cities of Isfahan
Isfahan
and Shiraz. When he arrived with his army at Isfahan
Isfahan
in 1387, the city immediately surrendered; he treated it with relative mercy as he normally did with cities that surrendered (unlike Herat). However, after Isfahan
Isfahan
revolted against Timur's taxes by killing the tax collectors and some of Timur's soldiers, he ordered the massacre of the city's citizens; the death toll is reckoned at between 100,000 and 200,000.[41] An eye-witness counted more than 28 towers constructed of about 1,500 heads each.[42] This has been described as a "systematic use of terror against towns...an integral element of Tamerlane's strategic element", which he viewed as preventing bloodshed by discouraging resistance. His massacres were selective and he spared the artistic and educated.[41] This would later influence the next great Persian conqueror: Nader Shah. Timur
Timur
then began a five-year campaign to the west in 1392, attacking Persian Kurdistan. In 1393, Shiraz
Shiraz
was captured after surrendering, and the Muzaffarids became vassals to Timur, though prince Shah Mansur rebelled but was defeated, and the Muzafarids
Muzafarids
were annexed. Shortly after Georgia was devastated so that the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
could not use it to threaten northern Iran. In the same year Timur
Timur
caught Baghdad
Baghdad
by surprise in August by marching there in only eight days from Shiraz. Sultan
Sultan
Ahmad Jalayir fled to Syria, where the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
Barquq protected him and killed Timur’s envoys. Timur
Timur
left the Sarbadar prince Khwaja Mas'ud to govern Baghdad, but he was driven out when Ahmad Jalayir returned. Ahmad was unpopular but got some dangerous help from Qara Yusuf of the Kara Koyunlu; he fled again in 1399, this time to the Ottomans. Tokhtamysh– Timur
Timur
war In the meantime Tokhtamysh, now khan of the Golden Horde, turned against his patron and in 1385 invaded Azerbaijan. The inevitable response by Timur
Timur
resulted in the Tokhtamysh– Timur
Timur
war. In the initial stage of the war Timur
Timur
won a victory at the Battle of the Kondurcha River. After the battle Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
and some of his army were allowed to escape. After Tokhtamysh's initial defeat Timur
Timur
invaded Muscovy to the north of Tokhtamysh's holdings. Timur's army burned Ryazan
Ryazan
and advanced on Moscow. He was pulled away before reaching the Oka River
Oka River
by Tokhtamysh's renewed campaign in the south.[43] In the first phase of the conflict with Tokhtamysh, Timur
Timur
led an army of over 100,000 men north for more than 700 miles into the steppe. He then rode west about 1,000 miles advancing in a front more than 10 miles wide. During this advance Timur's army got far enough north to be in a region of very long summer days causing complaints by his Muslim
Muslim
soldiers about keeping a long schedule of prayers. It was then that Tokhtamysh's army was boxed in against the east bank of the Volga River in the Orenburg
Orenburg
region and destroyed at the Battle of the Kondurcha River, in 1391. In the second phase of the conflict Timur
Timur
took a different route against the enemy by invading the realm of Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
via the Caucasus region. In 1395 Timur
Timur
defeated Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
in the Battle of the Terek River, concluding the struggle between the two monarchs. Tokhtamysh was unable to restore his power or prestige, and he was killed about a decade later in the area of present-day Tyumen. During the course of Timur's campaigns his army destroyed Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, and Astrakhan, subsequently disrupting the Golden Horde's Silk Road. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
no longer held power after their losses to Timur. Ismailis In May 1393 Timur's army invaded the Anjudan, crippling the Ismaili village only a year after his assault on the Ismailis in Mazandaran. The village was prepared for the attack, evidenced by its fortress and system of underground tunnels. Undeterred, Timur's soldiers flooded the tunnels by cutting into a channel overhead. Timur's reasons for attacking this village are not yet well understood. However, it has been suggested that his religious persuasions and view of himself as an executor of divine will may have contributed to his motivations.[44] The Persian historian Khwandamir explains that an Ismaili
Ismaili
presence was growing more politically powerful in Persian Iraq. A group of locals in the region was dissatisfied with this and, Khwandamir writes, these locals assembled and brought up their complaint with Timur, possibly provoking his attack on the Ismailis there.[44] Campaign against the Tughlaq Dynasty

Timur
Timur
defeats the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi, Nasir Al-Din Mahmud Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.

In 1398, Timur
Timur
invaded northern India, attacking the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Sultan
Sultan
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
of the Tughlaq Dynasty. He was opposed by Ahirs
Ahirs
and Jats
Jats
but the Sultanate at Delhi did nothing to stop him.[45] After crossing the Indus river
Indus river
on 30 September 1398, he sacked Tulamba
Tulamba
and massacred its inhabitants.[46] Then he advanced and captured Multan
Multan
by October.[47] Timur
Timur
crossed the Indus River at Attock
Attock
(now in Pakistan) on 24 September 1398. His invasion did not go unopposed and he encountered resistance by the Governor of Meerut
Meerut
during the march to Delhi. Timur was still able to continue his approach to Delhi, arriving in 1398, to fight the armies of Sultan
Sultan
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, which had already been weakened by a succession struggle within the royal family. Capture of Delhi (1398)

Delhi after sack of Timur
Timur
Lang, 1398

The battle took place on 17 December 1398. Sultan
Sultan
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq and the army of Mallu Iqbal[48] had war elephants armored with chain mail and poison on their tusks.[11]:267 As his Tatar
Tatar
forces were afraid of the elephants, Timur
Timur
ordered his men to dig a trench in front of their positions. Timur
Timur
then loaded his camels with as much wood and hay as they could carry. When the war elephants charged, Timur
Timur
set the hay on fire and prodded the camels with iron sticks, causing them to charge at the elephants howling in pain: Timur
Timur
had understood that elephants were easily panicked. Faced with the strange spectacle of camels flying straight at them with flames leaping from their backs, the elephants turned around and stampeded back toward their own lines. Timur
Timur
capitalized on the subsequent disruption in the forces of Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, securing an easy victory. Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
fled with remnants of his forces. Delhi was sacked and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed 100,000 captives.[16] The capture of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
was one of Timur's greatest victories, arguably surpassing the likes of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
because of the harsh conditions of the journey and the achievement of taking down one of the richest cities at the time. After Delhi fell to Timur's army, uprisings by its citizens against the Turkic- Mongols
Mongols
began to occur, causing a retaliatory bloody massacre within the city walls. After three days of citizens uprising within Delhi, it was said that the city reeked of the decomposing bodies of its citizens with their heads being erected like structures and the bodies left as food for the birds by Timur's soldiers. Timur's invasion and destruction of Delhi continued the chaos that was still consuming India, and the city would not be able to recover from the great loss it suffered for almost a century.[11]:269–274 Campaigns in the Levant

Timur
Timur
defeating the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
Nasir-ad-Din Faraj of Egypt

Bayezid I
Bayezid I
being held captive by Timur

Before the end of 1399, Timur
Timur
started a war with Bayezid I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan of Egypt
Egypt
Nasir-ad-Din Faraj. Bayezid began annexing the territory of Turkmen and Muslim
Muslim
rulers in Anatolia. As Timur
Timur
claimed sovereignty over the Turkmen rulers, they took refuge behind him. In 1400 Timur
Timur
invaded Christian Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia. Of the surviving population, more than 60,000 of the local people were captured as slaves, and many districts were depopulated.[49] Then Timur
Timur
turned his attention to Syria, sacking Aleppo[50][51] and Damascus.[52][53][54][55] The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand. Timur
Timur
cited the killing of Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
by Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I and the killing of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
by Yazid I
Yazid I
as the reason for his massacre of the inhabitants of Damascus. Timur
Timur
invaded Baghdad
Baghdad
in June 1401. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur
Timur
ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him. When they ran out of men to kill, many warriors killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign, and when they ran out of prisoners to kill, many resorted to beheading their own wives.[56] In the meantime, years of insulting letters had passed between Timur and Bayezid. Finally, Timur
Timur
invaded Anatolia
Anatolia
and defeated Bayezid in the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
on 20 July 1402. Bayezid was captured in battle and subsequently died in captivity, initiating the twelve-year Ottoman Interregnum period. Timur's stated motivation for attacking Bayezid and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was the restoration of Seljuq authority. Timur saw the Seljuks as the rightful rulers of Anatolia
Anatolia
as they had been granted rule by Mongol conquerors, illustrating again Timur's interest with Genghizid legitimacy. After the Ankara
Ankara
victory, Timur's army ravaged Western Anatolia, with Muslim
Muslim
writers complaining that the Timurid army acted more like a horde of savages than that of a civilized conqueror.[citation needed] But Timur
Timur
did besiege and take the city of Smyrna, a stronghold of the Christian Knights Hospitalers, thus he referred to himself as ghazi or "Warrior of Islam". A mass beheading was carried out in Smyrna
Smyrna
by Timur's soldiers.[57][58][59][60] Timur
Timur
was furious at the Genoese and Venetians whose ships ferried the Ottoman army to safety in Thrace. As Lord Kinross
Lord Kinross
reported in The Ottoman Centuries, the Italians preferred the enemy they could handle to the one they could not.

Shakh-i Zindeh mosque, Samarkand

While Timur
Timur
invaded Anatolia, Qara Yusuf assaulted Baghdad
Baghdad
and captured it in 1402. Timur
Timur
returned to Persia
Persia
from Anatolia
Anatolia
and sent his grandson Abu Bakr ibn Miran Shah
Miran Shah
to reconquer Baghdad, which he proceeded to do. Timur
Timur
then spent some time in Ardabil, where he gave Ali
Ali
Safavi, leader of the Safaviyya, a number of captives. Subsequently, he marched to Khorasan and then to Samarkhand, where he spent nine months celebrating and preparing to invade Mongolia
Mongolia
and China.[61] He ruled over an empire that, in modern times, extends from southeastern Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, through Central Asia encompassing part of Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and even approaches Kashgar
Kashgar
in China. The conquests of Timur
Timur
are claimed to have caused the deaths of up to 17 million people, an assertion impossible to verify.[62] Of Timur's four sons, two ( Jahangir
Jahangir
and Umar Shaikh) predeceased him. His third son, Miran Shah, died soon after Timur, leaving the youngest son, Shah Rukh. Although his designated successor was his grandson Pir Muhammad b. Jahangir, Timur
Timur
was ultimately succeeded in power by his son Shah Rukh. His most illustrious descendant Babur
Babur
founded the Islamic Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and ruled over most of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and North India. Babur's descendants Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and Aurangzeb, expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to most of the Indian subcontinent. Markham, in his introduction to the narrative of Clavijo's embassy, states that after Timur
Timur
died, his body "was embalmed with musk and rose water, wrapped in linen, laid in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried". His tomb, the Gur-e Amir, still stands in Samarkand, though it has been heavily restored in recent years. Attempts to attack the Ming dynasty

Timur
Timur
had aligned himself with the remnants of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in his attempts to conquer Ming China.

The fortress at Jiayu Pass
Jiayu Pass
was strengthened due to fear of an invasion by Timur.[63]

By 1368, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
forces had driven the Mongols
Mongols
out of China. The first of the new Ming dynasty's emperors, the Hongwu Emperor, and his son, the Yongle Emperor, produced tributary states of many Central Asian countries. The suzerain-vassal relationship between Ming empire and Timurid existed for a long time. In 1394 Hongwu's ambassadors eventually presented Timur
Timur
with a letter addressing him as a subject. He had the ambassadors Fu An, Guo Ji, and Liu Wei detained.[64] Neither Hongwu's next ambassador, Chen Dewen (1397), nor the delegation announcing the accession of the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
fared any better.[64] Timur
Timur
eventually planned to invade China. To this end Timur
Timur
made an alliance with surviving Mongol tribes based in Mongolia
Mongolia
and prepared all the way to Bukhara. Engke Khan sent his grandson Öljei Temür Khan, also known as "Buyanshir Khan" after he converted to Islam
Islam
while at the court of Timur
Timur
in Samarkand.[65] Death

Timur's mausoleum is located in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Timur
Timur
preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign. In December 1404, Timur
Timur
began military campaigns against Ming China and detained a Ming envoy. He suffered illness while encamped on the farther side of the Syr Daria and died at Farab
Farab
on February 17, 1405,[66] before ever reaching the Chinese border.[67] After his death the Ming envoys such as Fu An and the remaining entourage were released[64] by his grandson Khalil Sultan. Timur
Timur
was buried in Gur-e-Amir, his mausoleum in Samarkand. Succession Main article: Timurid Empire

The Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
at Timur's death in 1405

Just before his death, Timur
Timur
designated his grandson Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir
Jahangir
as his successor. However, his other descendants did not abide by this wish, and spent the next fifteen years engaged in violent infighting. His son Shahrukh Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
and grandson Khalil Sultan struggled for control until Shahrukh won. Exchanges with Europe Main article: Timurid relations with Europe

Letter of Timur
Timur
to Charles VI of France, 1402, a witness to Timurid relations with Europe. Archives Nationales, Paris.

Timur
Timur
had numerous epistolary and diplomatic exchanges with various European states, especially Spain and France. Relations between the court of Henry III of Castile
Henry III of Castile
and that of Timur
Timur
played an important part in medieval Castilian diplomacy. In 1402, the time of the Battle of Ankara, two Spanish ambassadors were already with Timur: Pelayo de Sotomayor and Fernando de Palazuelos. Later, Timur
Timur
sent to the court of the Kingdom of León and Castile a Chagatai ambassador named Hajji Muhammad al-Qazi with letters and gifts. In return, Henry III of Castile
Henry III of Castile
sent a famous embassy to Timur's court in Samarkand
Samarkand
in 1403–06, led by Ruy González de Clavijo, with two other ambassadors, Alfonso Paez and Gomez de Salazar. On their return, Timur
Timur
affirmed that he regarded the king of Castile "as his very own son". According to Clavijo, Timur's good treatment of the Spanish delegation contrasted with the disdain shown by his host toward the envoys of the "lord of Cathay" (i.e., the Yongle Emperor), the Chinese ruler. Clavijo's visit to Samarkand
Samarkand
allowed him to report to the European audience on the news from Cathay
Cathay
(China), which few Europeans had been able to visit directly in the century that had passed since the travels of Marco Polo. The French archives preserve:

A 30 July 1402 letter from Timur
Timur
to Charles VI of France, suggesting that he send traders to Asia. It is written in Persian.[68] A May 1403 letter. This is a Latin transcription of a letter from Timur
Timur
to Charles VI, and another from Miran Shah, his son, to the Christian princes, announcing their victory over Bayezid I
Bayezid I
at Smyrna.[69]

A copy has been kept of the answer of Charles VI to Timur, dated 15 June 1403.[70] Legacy

Inside the mausoleum – deep niches and diverse muqarnas decorate the inside of the Gur-e Amir.

Timur's legacy is a mixed one. While Central Asia
Central Asia
blossomed under his reign, other places such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi and other Arab, Georgian, Persian, and Indian cities were sacked and destroyed and their populations massacred. He was responsible for the effective destruction of the Nestorian Christian Church of the East
Church of the East
in much of Asia. Thus, while Timur
Timur
still retains a positive image in Muslim Central Asia, he is vilified by many in Arabia, Iraq, Persia, and India, where some of his greatest atrocities were carried out. However, Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
praises Timur
Timur
for having unified much of the Muslim world
Muslim world
when other conquerors of the time could not.[71] The next great conqueror of the Middle East, Nader Shah, was greatly influenced by Timur
Timur
and almost re-enacted Timur's conquests and battle strategies in his own campaigns. Like Timur, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
conquered most of Caucasia, Persia, and Central Asia
Central Asia
along with also sacking Delhi. Timur's short-lived empire also melded the Turko-Persian tradition
Turko-Persian tradition
in Transoxiana, and in most of the territories which he incorporated into his fiefdom, Persian became the primary language of administration and literary culture (diwan), regardless of ethnicity.[72] In addition, during his reign, some contributions to Turkic literature were penned, with Turkic cultural influence expanding and flourishing as a result. A literary form of Chagatai Turkic came into use alongside Persian as both a cultural and an official language.[73]

Emir Timur
Timur
and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.

Tamerlane
Tamerlane
virtually exterminated the Church of the East, which had previously been a major branch of Christianity but afterwards became largely confined to a small area now known as the Assyrian Triangle.[74] Timur
Timur
became a relatively popular figure in Europe for centuries after his death, mainly because of his victory over the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid. The Ottoman armies were at the time invading Eastern Europe and Timur
Timur
was ironically seen as an ally. Timur
Timur
has now been officially recognized as a national hero in Uzbekistan. His monument in Tashkent
Tashkent
now occupies the place where Karl Marx's statue once stood. Muhammad Iqbal, a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement,[75][better source needed] composed a notable poem entitled Dream of Timur, the poem itself was inspired by a prayer of the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II:[citation needed]

The Sharif of the Hijaz
Hijaz
suffers due to the divisive sectarian schisms of his faith, And lo! that young Tatar
Tatar
(Timur) has boldly re-envisioned magnanimous victories of overwhelming conquest.

In 1794, Sake Dean Mahomed
Sake Dean Mahomed
published his travel book, The Travels of Dean Mahomet. The book begins with the praise of Genghis Khan, Timur, and particularly the first Mughal emperor, Babur. He also gives important details on the then incumbent Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II. Historical sources

Ahmad ibn Arabshah's work on the Life of Timur

The earliest known history of his reign was Nizam ad-Din Shami's Zafarnama, which was written during Timur's lifetime. Between 1424 and 1428, Sharaf ad-Din Ali
Ali
Yazdi wrote a second Zafarnama drawing heavily on Shami's earlier work. Ahmad ibn Arabshah
Ahmad ibn Arabshah
wrote a much less favorable history in Arabic. Arabshah's history was translated into Latin by the Dutch Orientalist Jacobus Golius in 1636. As Timurid-sponsored histories, the two Zafarnamas present a dramatically different picture from Arabshah's chronicle. William Jones remarked that the former presented Timur
Timur
as a "liberal, benevolent and illustrious prince" while the latter painted him as "deformed and impious, of a low birth and detestable principles".[citation needed] Malfuzat-i Timuri The Malfuzat-i Timurī and the appended Tuzūk-i Tīmūrī, supposedly Timur's own autobiography, are almost certainly 17th-century fabrications.[16][76] The scholar Abu Taleb Hosayni presented the texts to the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Shah Jahan, a distant descendant of Timur, in 1637–38, supposedly after discovering the Chagatai language originals in the library of a Yemeni ruler. Due to the distance between Yemen
Yemen
and Timur's base in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and the lack of any other evidence of the originals, most historians consider the story highly implausible, and suspect Hosayni of inventing both the text and its origin story.[76] European views Timur
Timur
arguably had a significant impact on the Renaissance
Renaissance
culture and early modern Europe.[77] His achievements both fascinated and horrified Europeans from the fifteenth century to the early nineteenth century. European views of Timur
Timur
were mixed throughout the fifteenth century, with some European countries calling him an ally and others seeing him as a threat to Europe because of his rapid expansion and brutality.[78]:341 When Timur
Timur
captured the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Bayezid at Ankara, he was often praised and seen as a trusted ally by European rulers such as Charles VI of France and Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England
because they believed he was saving Christianity from the Turkish Empire in the Middle East. Those two kings also praised him because his victory at Ankara
Ankara
allowed Christian merchants to remain in the Middle East and allowed for their safe return home to both France and England. Timur
Timur
was also praised because it was believed that he helped restore the right of passage for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land.[78]:341–44 Other Europeans viewed Timur
Timur
as a barbaric enemy who presented a threat to both European culture and the religion of Christianity. His rise to power moved many leaders, such as Henry III of Castile, to send embassies to Samarkand
Samarkand
to scout out Timur, learn about his people, make alliances with him, and try to convince him to convert to Christianity in order to avoid war.[78]:348–49 In the introduction to a 1723 translation of Yazdi's Zafarnama, the translator wrote:[79]

[M. Petis de la Croix] tells us, that there are calumnies and impostures, which have been published by authors of romances, and Turkish writers who were his enemies, and envious at his glory: among whom is Ahmed Bin Arabschah...As Timur-Bec had conquered the Turks and Arabians of Syria, and had even taken the Sultan
Sultan
Bajazet prisoner, it is no wonder that he has been misrepresented by the historians of those nations, who, in despite of truth, and against the dignity of history, have fallen into great excesses on this subject.

Exhumation
Exhumation
and alleged curse

Statue of Timur

Timur's body was exhumed from his tomb on 19 June 1941 and his remains examined by the Soviet anthropologist Mikhail M. Gerasimov, Lev V. Oshanin and V. Ia. Zezenkova. It was determined that Timur
Timur
was a tall and broad-chested man with strong cheek bones. At 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 meters), Timur
Timur
was tall for his era. The examinations confirmed that Timur
Timur
was lame and had a withered right arm due to his injuries. His right thighbone had knitted together with his kneecap, and the configuration of the knee joint suggests that he had kept his leg bent at all times and therefore would have had a pronounced limp.[80][81] Gerasimov reconstructed the likeness of Timur from his skull and found that Timur's facial characteristics displayed Mongoloid features with some Caucasoid admixture. Oshanin also concluded that Timur's cranium showed predominately the characteristics of a South Siberian Mongoloid type.[81] It is alleged that Timur's tomb was inscribed with the words, "When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble." It is also said that when Gerasimov exhumed the body, an additional inscription inside the casket was found, which read, "Whomsoever opens my tomb shall unleash an invader more terrible than I."[82] In any case, three days after Gerasimov began the exhumation, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
launched Operation Barbarossa, the largest military invasion of all time, upon the Soviet Union.[83] Timur
Timur
was re-buried with full Islamic ritual in November 1942 just before the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad.[84] In the arts

Tamburlaine
Tamburlaine
the Great, Parts I and II (English, 1563–1594): play by Christopher Marlowe Tamerlane
Tamerlane
(1701): play by Nicholas Rowe (English) Tamerlano
Tamerlano
(1724): opera by George Frideric Handel, in Italian, based on the 1675 play Tamerlan ou la mort de Bajazet by Jacques Pradon. Bajazet (1735): opera by Antonio Vivaldi, portrays the capture of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
by Timur Il gran Tamerlano
Tamerlano
(1772): opera by Josef Mysliveček
Josef Mysliveček
that also portrays the capture of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
by Timur Tamerlane: first published poem of Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
(American, 1809–1849). Timur
Timur
is the deposed, blind former King of Tartary and father of the protagonist Calaf in the opera Turandot
Turandot
(1924) by Giacomo Puccini, libretto by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni. Tamerlane
Tamerlane
(1928): historical novel by Harold Lamb. Timour appears in the story Lord of Samarkand
Samarkand
by Robert E. Howard. Tamerlan: novel by Colombian writer Enrique Serrano
Enrique Serrano
in Spanish[85] Tamburlaine: Shadow of God: a BBC Radio 3 play by John Fletcher, broadcast 2008, is a fictitious account of an encounter between Tamburlaine, Ibn Khaldun, and Hafez.

Gallery

Geometric courtyard surrounding the tomb showing the Iwan, and dome.

View of the Registan.

Timurid Mosque in Herat.

Goharshad Mosque, Timurid architecture

Green Mosque (Balkh)
Green Mosque (Balkh)
is a Timurid mosque that inspired Shah Jahan.

Bibi-Khanym Mosque

Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, a prime example of Timurid architecture.

Consorts Timur
Timur
had eighteen wives and twenty four concubines:

Turmish Agha, mother of Jihangir Mirza; Oljay Turkhan Agha (m. 1357/58), daughter of Amir
Amir
Mashlah and granddaughter of Amir
Amir
Kurgen; Saray Mulk Khanum
Saray Mulk Khanum
(m. 1367), widow of Emir Husain, and daughter of Khazan Khan; Islam
Islam
Agha (m. 1367), widow of Emir Husain, and daughter of Amir
Amir
Bayan Salduz; Ulus Agha (m. 1367), widow of Emir Husain, and daughter of Amir
Amir
Khizr Yasuri; Dilshad Agha (m. 1374), daughter of Shams ed-Din and his wife Bujan Agha; Touman Agha (m. 1377), daughter of Emir Musa and his wife Arzu Mulk Agha, daughter of Amir
Amir
Bayezid Jalayir; Chulpan Mulk Agha, daughter of Haji Beg of Jetah; Tukal Khanum (m. 1395), daughter of Mongol Khan Khizr Khawaja Aglen; Tolun Agha, concubine, and mother of Umar Shaikh Mirza I; Mengli Agha, concubine, and mother of Miran Shah
Miran Shah
ibn Timur; Toghay Turkhan Agha, lady from the Kara Khitai, widow of Emir Husain, and mother of Shahrukh Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
ibn Timur; Tughdi Bey Agha, daughter of Aq Sufi Kong-Kirat;

His other wives and concubines included: Dawlat Tarkan Agha, Sultan Agha, Burhan Agha, Jani Beg Agha, Tini Beg Agha, Munduz Agha, Bakht Sultan
Sultan
Agha, Nowruz Agha, Jahan Bakht Agha, Nigar Agha, Ruhparwar Agha, Dil Beg Agha, Dilshad Agha, Murad Beg Agha, Piruzbakht Agha, Khoshkeldi Agha, Dilkhosh Agha, Barat Bey Agha, Sevinch Malik Agha, Arzu Bey Agha, Khan Malik Agha, Yadgar Sultan
Sultan
Agha, Khudadad Agha, Bakht Nigar Agha, Qutlu Bey Agha, Nigar Agha, Sultan
Sultan
Aray Agha Nukuz, and Malikanshah Agha Filuni. Descendants of Timur Sons of Timur

Jahangir
Jahangir
Mirza ibn Timur
Timur
– with Turmish Agha; Umar Shaikh Mirza I – with Tolun Agha; Miran Shah
Miran Shah
ibn Timur
Timur
– with Mengli Agha; Shahrukh Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
ibn Timur
Timur
– with Toghay Turkhan Agha; Khalil Sultan
Khalil Sultan
ibn Timur
Timur
– with Saray Mulk Khanum.

Daughters of Timur

Akia Beghi, married to Mohammad Bey, son of Amir
Amir
Musa – mother unknown; unknown, married to Solyman Mirza – mother unknown; unknown, married to Cumaleza Mirza – mother unknown; Sultan
Sultan
Bakht Begum, married firstly Mohammed Mireke, married secondly, 1389/90, Soliman Shah- with Aljaz Turkhan Agha.

Sons of Jahangir

Muhammad Sultan
Sultan
bin Jahangir
Jahangir
Mirza Pir Muhammad bin Jahangir
Jahangir
Mirza

Sons of Umar Shaikh Mirza I

Pir Muhammad ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I Iskandar ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I Rustam ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I Bayqarah ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I

Mansur ibn Bayqarah

Husayn ibn Mansur bin Bayqarah

Badi' al-Zaman

Muhammed Mu'min

Muzaffar Hussein Ibrahim Hussein

Sons of Miran Shah

Khalil Sultan
Khalil Sultan
ibn Miran Shah Abu Bakr ibn Miran Shah Muhammad ibn Miran Shah

Abu Sa'id Mirza

Umar Shaikh Mirza II

Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur

the Mughals

Jahangir
Jahangir
Mirza II

Sons of Shahrukh Mirza

Mirza Muhammad Taraghay – better known as Ulugh Beg

Abdul-Latif

Ghiyath-al-Din Baysonqor

Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza ibn Baysonqor

Ibrahim Mirza

Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad ibn Baysonqor

Yadigar Muhammad

Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur
Babur
ibn Baysonqor

Sultan
Sultan
Ibrahim Mirza

Abdullah Mirza

Mirza Soyurghatmïsh Khan Mirza Mohammed Juki

See also

Ahmad Jalayir Global Empire Harold Lamb, author of the historical novel Tamerlane
Tamerlane
(1928) List of the Muslim
Muslim
Empires Muslim
Muslim
conquest in the Indian subcontinent Tamburlaine
Tamburlaine
(play) Tamerlane
Tamerlane
chess Timurid dynasty Timurlengia

Notes

^ a b Muntakhab-ul-Lubab, Khafi Khan Nizam-ul-Mulk, Vol I, p. 49. Printed in Lahore, 1985 ^ /tɪˈmʊər/ ^ /ˈtæmərleɪn/ ^ Josef W. Meri (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization. Routledge. p. 812.  ^ J. J. Saunders (March 2001). The History of the Mongol Conquests. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 173–. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.  ^ "Counterview: Taimur's actions were uniquely horrific in Indian history".  ^ Darwin, John (2008). After Tamerlane: the rise and fall of global empires, 1400–2000. Bloomsbury Press. pp. 29, 92. ISBN 978-1-59691-760-6.  ^ a b c Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1989). The rise and rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Forbes Manz, Beatrice (April 1998). "Temür and the Problem of a Conqueror's Legacy". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third. 8 (1): 25. JSTOR 25183464.  ^ Biran, Michal (October 2002). "The Chaghadaids and Islam: The Conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331–34)". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 122 (4): 742–752. doi:10.2307/3217613.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, conqueror of the world. HarperCollins.  ^ Matthew White: Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements, Canongate Books, 2011, ISBN 9780857861252, section "Timur" ^ "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane". Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999.  ^ J.J. Saunders, The history of the Mongol conquests (page 174), Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1971, ISBN 0812217667 ^ "Timur". Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition. 2007.  ^ a b c Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2nd ed.). Brill. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ a b "Tamerlane". AsianHistory. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ "Central Asia, history of Timur", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. (Quotation:"Under his leadership, Timur
Timur
united the Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers.") ^ "Islamic world", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Quotation: " Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) was of Mongol descent and he aimed to restore Mongol power." ^ Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History, Oxford University Press, 2005, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-517726-8, p. 101. ^ G. R. Garthwaite, The Persians, Malden, ISBN 978-1-55786-860-2, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2007. (p.148) Quotation: "Timur's tribe, the Barlas, had Mongol origins but had become Turkic-speaking ... However, the Barlus tribe is considered one of the original Mongol tribes and there are "Barlus Ovogton" people who belong to Barlus tribe in modern Mongolia." ^ M.S. Asimov & Clifford Edmund Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO
UNESCO
Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "One of his followers was [...] Timur of the Barlas
Barlas
tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled [...] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania ..." ^ a b c Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia
Mongolia
to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. translated by A.M. Berrett. Transaction Publishers, p.75. ISBN 0-7658-0204-X. Limited preview at Google Books. p. 75., ISBN 0-7658-0204-X, p.75., " Timur
Timur
Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336–1405) was a Muslim
Muslim
Turk. He aspired to recreate the empire of his ancestors. He was a military genius who loved to play chess in his spare time to improve his military tactics and skill. And although he wielded absolute power, he never called himself more than an emir.", " Timur
Timur
Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336–1405) was a Muslim
Muslim
Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir." ^ Justin Marozzi (2006). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Da Capo Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-306-81465-5.  ^ Richard C. Martin, Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim
Muslim
World A-L, Macmillan Reference USA, 2004, ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5, p. 134. ^ a b c Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1988). " Tamerlane
Tamerlane
and the symbolism of sovereignty". Iranian Studies. 21 (1-2): 105–122. doi:10.1080/00210868808701711. JSTOR 4310596.  ^ Beatrice Forbes Manz (25 March 1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-521-63384-0.  ^ "The Descendants of Sayyid Ata and the Rank of Naqīb in Central Asia" by Devin DeWeese Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1995), pp. 612–634 ^ Four studies on the history of Central Asia, Volume 1 By Vasilij Vladimirovič Bartold p.19 ^ Islamic art By Barbara Brend p.130 ^ a b Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p. 114. ^ a b Walter Joseph Fischel, Ibn Khaldūn in Egypt: His Public Functions and His Historical Research, 1382–1406; a Study in Islamic Historiography, University of California Press, 1967, page 51, footnote ^ Holden, Edward S. (2004) [1895]. The Mogul Emperors of Hindustan (1398–1707 A.D). New Delhi, India: Westminster, Archibald Constable and Co. pp. 47–48. ISBN 81-206-1883-1.  ^ a b Ian C. Hannah (1900). A brief history of eastern Asia. T.F. Unwin. p. 92. Retrieved 30 December 2015.  ^ Sinor, D., "XIV The Making of a Great Khan", page 242, Studies in Medieval Inner Asia, Variorum, 1997. ISBN 0-86078-632-3 ^ Radloff, W., Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen stämme Süd-Sibiriens, IV. St Petersburg, page 308 ^ a b Manz, Beatrice Forbes (2002). "Tamerlane's Career and Its Uses". Journal of World History. 13: 3. doi:10.1353/jwh.2002.0017.  ^ Nicholas V. Raisanovsky; Mark D. Steinberg: A History of Russia Seventh Edition, pg 93 ^ Commemoration of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God and the deliverance of Moscow
Moscow
from the Invasion of Tamerlane ^ "Mughal Gardens". google.ca.  ^ a b Chaliand, Gerard; Arnaud Blin (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. University of California Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-520-24709-3.  ^ Fisher, W.B.; Jackson, P.; Lockhart, L.; Boyle, J.A. : The Cambridge History of Iran, p55. ^ Nicholas V. Raisanovsky; Mark D. Steinberg: A History of Russia Seventh Edition, pg 94 ^ a b Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p. 116. ^ Singh, Raj Pal. Rise of the Jat power. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1909). "The Indian Empire: Timur's invasion 1398". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 2. p. 366.  ^ Mallu, who later received the title of Iqbal Khan, was a noble in Siri and an ally of Muqarrab Khan, but later on betrayed him and Nusrat Khan, and allied with Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah. History Of Medieval India; V.D. Mahajan p.205 ^ "The Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
Invasions". Rbedrosian.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ Aleppo:the Ottoman Empire's caravan city, Bruce Masters, The Ottoman City Between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir, and Istanbul, ed. Edhem Eldem, Daniel Goffman, Bruce Master, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 20. ^ "Shlama – Aleppo
Aleppo
– BELIEVING IN ALEPPO".  ^ Margaret Meserve, Empires of Islam
Islam
in Renaissance
Renaissance
Historical Thought, (Harvard University Press, 2008), 207. ^ " Tamerlane
Tamerlane
in Damascus".  ^ "The Sack of Damascus
Damascus
– History Today".  ^ "تيمور لنك..بشار الأسد..لافرق! – نور سورية".  ^ Ibn Arabshah, Timur
Timur
the Great Amir, p. 168 ^ Kevin Reilly (2012). The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction to World History. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-1-4422-1384-5.  ^ Henry Cabot Lodge (1913). The History of Nations. P.F.Collier. pp. 51–.  ^ Marina Belozerskaya (4 September 2012). Medusas Gaze: The Extraordinary Journey of the Tazza Farnese. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-0-19-987642-6.  ^ Vertot (abbé de) (1856). The History of the Knights Hospitallers
Hospitallers
of St. John of Jerusalem: Styled Afterwards, the Knights of Rhodes, and at Present, the Knights of Malta. J.W. Leonard & Company. pp. 104–.  ^ Stevens, John. The history of Persia. Containing, the lives and memorable actions of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact Description of all its Dominions; a curious Account of India, China, Tartary, Kermon, Arabia, Nixabur, and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all Cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bokara, &c. Manners and Customs of those People, Persian Worshippers of Fire; Plants, Beasts, Product, and Trade. With many instructive and pleasant digressions, being remarkable Stories or Passages, occasionally occurring, as Strange Burials; Burning of the Dead; Liquors of several Countries; Hunting; Fishing; Practice of Physick; famous Physicians in the East; Actions of Tamerlan, &c. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history written in Arabick, by Mirkond, a famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz, by Torunxa, King of that Island, both of them translated into Spanish, by Antony Teixeira, who liv'd several Years in Persia
Persia
and India; and now render'd into English. ^ Graziella Caselli, Gillaume Wunsch, Jacques Vallin (2005). "Demography: Analysis and Synthesis, Four Volume Set: A Treatise in Population". Academic Press. p.34. ISBN 0-12-765660-X ^ Turnbull, Stephen (30 January 2007). The Great Wall of China 221 BC-1644 AD. Osprey Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84603-004-8. Retrieved 2010-03-26.  ^ a b c Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (2002), Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle (2 ed.), University of Washington Press, pp. 188–189, ISBN 0-295-98124-5  ^ C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol Empire, see: Northern Yuan Dynasty ^ Adela C.Y. Lee. " Tamerlane
Tamerlane
(1336–1405) – ''The Last Great Nomad Power''". Silkroad Foundation. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ Tsia 2002, p. 161 ^ Document preserved at Le Musée de l'Histoire de France, code AE III 204. Mentioned Dossier II, 7, J936 ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 bis ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 ter ^ Frances Carney Gies (September–October 1978). "The Man Who Met Tamerlane". Saudi Aramco World. 29 (5).  ^ Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p. 109. ISBN 0-521-63384-2. Limited preview at Google Books. p. 109. "In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy as solely civil or the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. In fact, it is difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussing the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled 'diwan' was Persian and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy." ^ Roy, Olivier (2007). The new Central Asia. I. B. Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 1-84511-552-X.  ^ "History of the Nestorians".  ^ "Iqbal'S Hindu Relations". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 30 June 2007.  ^ a b Hameed ud-Din (2011). "Abū Ṭāleb Ḥosaynī". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Milwright, Marcus (2006). "So Despicable a Vessel: Representations of Tamerlane
Tamerlane
in Printed Books of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries". Muqarnas. 23: 317. doi:10.1163/22118993-90000105.  ^ a b c Knobler, Adam (November 1995). "The Rise of Timur
Timur
and Western Diplomatic Response, 1390–1405". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. 5 (3). doi:10.1017/s135618630000660x.  ^ The History of Timur-Bec. 1. 1723. pp. xii–ix.  Punctuation and spelling modernized. ^ Mikhail Mikhaĭlovich Gerasimov (1971). The face finder. Hutchinson. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-09-105510-3.  ^ a b Lev Vasilʹevich Oshanin (1964). Anthropological composition of the population of Central Asia: and the ethnogenesis of its peoples. 2. Peabody Museum. p. 39.  ^ "Uzbekistan: On the bloody trail of Tamerlane". The Independent. London. 9 July 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Mark & Ruth Dickens. "Timurid Architecture in Samarkand". Oxuscom.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ Marozzi 2004 ^ Enrique Serrano
Enrique Serrano
(2011-01-02). Tamerlan (Biblioteca Breve) (Spanish Edition). ISBN 9789584205407. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 

References

Knobler, Adam (1995). "The Rise of Tīmūr and Western Diplomatic Response, 1390–1405". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series). 5 (3): 341–349.  Knobler, Adam (2001). " Timur
Timur
the (Terrible/Tartar) Trope: a Case of Repositioning in Popular Literature and History". Medieval Encounters. 7 (1): 101–112.  May, Timothy. " Timur
Timur
("the Lame")(1336–1405)". The Encyclopedia of War.  Marozzi, Justin, Tamerlane: sword of Islam, conqueror of the world, London: HarperCollins, 2004 Marozzi, Justin, "Tamerlane", in: The Art of War: great commanders of the ancient and medieval world, Andrew Roberts (editor), London: Quercus Military History, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84724-259-4 Beatrice Forbes Manz, "Temür and the Problem of a Conqueror's Legacy," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Apr., 1998) Abazov, Rafis. " Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) and the Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
in Central Asia." The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia. Palgrave Macmillan US, 2008. 56–57. YÜKSEL, Musa Şamil. "Timur’un Yükselişi ve Batı’nın Diplomatik Cevabı, 1390–1405." Selçuk
Selçuk
Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi 1.18 (2005): 231–243. Shterenshis, Michael V. "Approach to Tamerlane: Tradition and Innovation." Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
2 (2000). Marlowe, Christopher: Tamburlaine
Tamburlaine
the Great. Ed. J. S. Cunningham. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1981. Novosel'tsev, A. P. "On the Historical Evaluation of Tamerlane." Soviet studies in history 12.3 (1973): 37–70. Sykes, P. M. "Tamerlane." Journal of the Central Asian Society 2.1 (1915): 17–33.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Timūr". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Timur

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Timur.

Timur
Timur
at Encyclopædia Britannica Forbes, Andrew, & Henley, David: Timur's Legacy: The Architecture of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand
Samarkand
(CPA Media) Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D.1403-6 – Full text at Google Books. Ruy González de Clavijo, Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403–1406, translated by Guy Le Strange, with a new Introduction by Caroline Stone (Hardinge Simpole, 2009). Nationality or Religion: Views of Central Asian Islam

Timur Timurid dynasty

Preceded by None Timurid Empire 1370–1405 Succeeded by Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir and Khalil Sultan

v t e

Timurid Empire

Emperors

Timur Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir Khalil Sultan Shah Rukh Ulugh Beg Abdal-Latif Mirza Abdallah Mirza Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad bin Baysonqor Abul-Qasim Babur
Babur
Mirza Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed Mirza Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud Mirza Mirza Shah Mahmud Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah Abu Sa'id Mirza Sultan
Sultan
Husayn Mirza Bayqara Yadgar Muhammad Mirza Badi' al-Zaman Mirza

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
(1402) Battle of Ab Darrah Pass
Battle of Ab Darrah Pass
(1511) Battle of Akhsi
Battle of Akhsi
(1502-03) Battle of Algami Canal (1402) Battle of Bajaur (1519) Battle of Damghan (1447) Battle of Farhadgerd
Battle of Farhadgerd
(1449) Battle of Ghazdewan
Battle of Ghazdewan
(1512) Battle of Nakhchivan (1406) Battle of Nishapur (1447) Battle of Qalat-i-Ghilzai (1505) Battle of Qara-Derrah Pass (1395) Battle of Qarabagh(1469) Battle of Sar-e-Pul
Battle of Sar-e-Pul
(1501) Battle of Sarakhs (1459) Battle of Tarnab (1448) Battle of the Chirciq River
Battle of the Chirciq River
(1488) Battle of the Kondurcha River (1391) Battle of the Terek River(1395) Siege of Balkh
Balkh
(1370) Siege of Balkh
Balkh
(1447) Siege of Herat
Herat
(1448) Siege of Kabul (1504) Siege of Samarkand
Samarkand
(1494) Siege of Samarkand
Samarkand
(1497) Siege of Samarkand
Samarkand
(1501) Siege of Shahrukhiya
Siege of Shahrukhiya
(1461) Timurid Civil Wars

Battle of Damghan (1447) Battle of Nishapur (1447) Battle of Tarnab (1448) Occupation of Balkh
Balkh
(1447) Revolt of Abdal-Latif Mirza (1449) Siege of Balkh
Balkh
(1447) Siege of Herat
Herat
(1448) Urdu Bazar Revolt (1447)

Architecture

Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi Bibi-Khanym Mosque

See also

Turko-Persian tradition Timurid dynasty

family tree

v t e

Ottoman Interregnum

Background

Rise of the Ottoman Empire Murad I Bayezid I Siege of Constantinople (1394–1402) Crusade of Nicopolis Timur Battle of Ankara

Events

Siege of Smyrna Battle of Tripolje Treaty of Gallipoli Battle of Ermeni-beli Battle of Ulubad Battle of Karasi Battle of Kosmidion Battle of Edirne Siege of Constantinople (1411) Treaty of Selymbria Battle of İnceğiz Battle of Çamurlu

Ottoman princes and leaders

Mehmed I Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi Çandarlı Ali
Ali
Pasha Imamzade Halil Pasha Bayezid Pasha Evrenos Pasha Yiğit Bey Mihaloğlu Mehmed Bey Turahan Bey Sheikh Bedreddin

Neighbouring rulers and leaders

Junayd Bey (Aydın) Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(Byzantine Empire) John VII Palaiologos
John VII Palaiologos
(Byzantine Empire) Demetrios Laskaris Leontares (Byzantine Empire) Nasireddin Mehmed Bey (Dulkadir) Yakup II (Germiyan) Philibert de Naillac
Philibert de Naillac
(Hospitallers) İsfendiyar Bey Mehmed II
Mehmed II
(Karaman) Stefan Lazarević
Stefan Lazarević
(Serbia) Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
(Serbia) Mircea I (Wallachia)

v t e

Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Ancestor Qutalmish Founder Suleyman I Capital İznik, then Konya

Important centers and extension

Konya Kayseri Sivas
Sivas
(1175) Malatya
Malatya
(1178) Alanya Antalya

Dynasty

Suleyman I (1077–1086) Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
(1092–1107) Melikshah (1107–1116) Mesud I
Mesud I
(1116–1156) Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
(1156–1192) Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(1192–1196) Süleymanshah II (1196–1204) Kilij Arslan III (1204–1205) Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(2nd reign) (1205–1211) Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
(1211–1220) Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
(1220–1237) Kaykhusraw II
Kaykhusraw II
(1237–1246) Kaykaus II (1246–1260) Kilij Arslan IV (1248–1265) Kayqubad II (1249–1257) Kaykhusraw III (1265–1282) Mesud II
Mesud II
(1282–1284) Kayqubad III (1284) Mesud II
Mesud II
(2nd reign) (1284–1293) Kayqubad III (2nd reign) (1293–1294) Mesud II
Mesud II
(3rd reign) (1294–1301) Kayqubad III (3rd reign) (1301–1303) Mesud II
Mesud II
(4th reign) (1303–1307) Mesud III (1307)

Chronology

1243 Gradually vassalized to the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after the defeat suffered in the Battle of Köse Dağ 1307 Taken over by the Karamanids

Palaces and castles

Seljuk Palace in Konya
Konya
(1190–1220) Kubadabad Palace in Beyşehir
Beyşehir
(1220–1230) Keykubadiye Palace in Kayseri
Kayseri
(1220–1230) Alanya
Alanya
Kızıl Kule
Kızıl Kule
(Red Tower) and Shipyard constructions and widescale extension of Alanya
Alanya
Castle

Külliye
Külliye
("complexes") and dar al-shifa (hospitals) and medrese (schools) and mosques:

Gevher Nesibe Külliye
Külliye
with Medical Center and Medical School and Mosque in Kayseri
Kayseri
(1204–1210) Battal Gazi Külliye
Külliye
in Seyitgazi
Seyitgazi
(1208) Karatay Medrese in Konya
Konya
(1225) Ince Minaret Medrese
Ince Minaret Medrese
in Konya
Konya
(1258–1279) Atabeg Ferruh Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Çankırı
Çankırı
(1236) Alâeddin Keykubad I Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Konya
Konya
(1237) Torumtay Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Amasya
Amasya
(1266) Izzeddin Keykavus I
Izzeddin Keykavus I
Şifaiye Medrese
Şifaiye Medrese
and Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Sivas
Sivas
(1218) Gökmedrese
Gökmedrese
in Sivas
Sivas
(1271) Çifte Minaret Medrese in Sivas
Sivas
(1271) Alaeddin Mosque
Alaeddin Mosque
in Konya
Konya
(1220) Alâeddin Mosque in Niğde
Niğde
(1220) Great Mosque of Malatya
Malatya
in Eskimalatya
Eskimalatya
(Battalgazi) (1224) Hüsameddin Temurlu castle, caravanseai and medrese in Kalehisar, Alaca
Alaca
(~1250) Havadan Külliye
Külliye
in Develi
Develi
(~1300)

Caravanserais

Ağzıkara Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(1237) Ak Han caravanserai near Denizli
Denizli
(1254) Alaca
Alaca
Han caravanserai in Alacahan (~1280) Alara Han caravanserai near Manavgat Alay Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(1190) Altınapa Han caravanserai between Beyşehir
Beyşehir
and Konya
Konya
(1201) Angit Han caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Akşehir
Akşehir
(1201) Burma Han caravanserai in Divriği
Divriği
(13th century) Çakallı Han caravanserai near Samsun
Samsun
(~1250) Çardak Han
Çardak Han
(Hanabad) caravanserai in Çardak
Çardak
(1230) Çay Han
Çay Han
caravanserai in Çay
Çay
(1279) Dokuzun Han caravanserai in Konya
Konya
(1210) Eğirdir
Eğirdir
Han caravanserai in Eğirdir
Eğirdir
(1238) Ertokuş Han caravanserai near Eğirdir
Eğirdir
(1224) Eshab-i Kehf Han caravanserai near Afşin– Elbistan
Elbistan
(~1225) Evdir Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1224) Ezinepazar Han caravanserai near Amasya
Amasya
(1246) Goncalı Akhan caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Aksaray Hatun Han caravanserai between Amasya
Amasya
and Tokat Hekim Han
Hekim Han
caravanserai in Hekimhan
Hekimhan
(1220) Horozlu Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1249) Incir Han caravanserai near Bucak (1239) Kadın Han
Kadın Han
caravanserai in Kadınhanı
Kadınhanı
(1223) Karatay Han caravanserai near Pınarbaşı (1241) Kargı Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1246) Kesikköprü Han caravanserai near Kırşehir
Kırşehir
(1268) Kırkgöz Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1246) Kızılören Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1206) Kuruçeşme Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1210) Melleç Han caravanserai near Anamur
Anamur
(13th century) Mirçinge Han caravanserai near Divriği
Divriği
(13th century) Obruk Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1230) Öresin Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(~1275) Pazar Han caravanserai near Tokat
Tokat
(1239) Zazadın Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1236) Şarapsa Han caravanserai near Alanya
Alanya
(1246) Sarı Han caravanserai near Ürgüp
Ürgüp
(1249) Sevserek Han caravanserai between Malatya
Malatya
and Pötürge
Pötürge
(13th century) Sultan
Sultan
Han caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Aksaray
Aksaray
(1229) Sultan
Sultan
Han caravanserai near Bünyan
Bünyan
between Kayseri
Kayseri
and Sivas
Sivas
(1236) Susuz Han caravanserai near Bucak (1246)

Anatolian beyliks

Tzachas
Tzachas
(1081 - 1092)

Founder Tzachas Capital İzmir

Chronology

1082 Submitted to the Seljuks of Turkey

Important centers and extension:

Ephesus Lesbos Chios

Shah-Armens
Shah-Armens
(1100–1207)

Founder Sökmen el Kutbi Capital Ahlat

Chronology

1207 Submitted to the Ayyoubids

Important centers and extension:

Silvan Malazgirt Erciş Adilcevaz Başkale Eleşkirt Van Tatvan Bitlis Muş Hani

Dynasty:

Sökmen el Kutbi (1100–1112) Ibrahim bin Sökmen (? - ?) Ahmed bin Ibrahim (? - ?) Sökmen the Second (1128–1185) Seyfeddin Begtimur (1185–1193) Aksungur (1193–1197) Muhammed bin Begtimur (1185–1207)

Important works:

Ahlat
Ahlat
Tombs

Artuqids
Artuqids
(1102 - )

Ancestors Eksük and his son Artuk, from Döğer Oghuz Türkmen clan Founder Muinüddin Sökmen Bey Capitals Three branches in Hasankeyf, Mardin
Mardin
and Harput

Important centers and extension:

Diyarbakır Hasankeyf Silvan Mardin Midyat Harput Palu Aleppo
Aleppo
(temporarily in 1117)

Hasankeyf
Hasankeyf
Dynasty
Dynasty
or Sökmenli Dynasty:

Müinüddin Sökmen Bey (1102–1104) Sökmenli Ibrahim Bey (1104–1131)

Mardin
Mardin
Dynasty
Dynasty
or Ilgazi Dynasty:

Necmeddin Ilgazi (1106–1122) Hüsameddin Timurtaş (1122–1154) Necmeddin Alp (1154–1176)

Harput
Harput
Dynasty:

Belek Bey (1112–1124) Nureddin Muhammed (? - ?) Sökmen the Second (? - ?)

Important works:

Artuqid Palace in Diyarbakır Widescale extension of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
City Walls Malabadi Bridge Hasankeyf
Hasankeyf
Bridge Sökmenli Nasirüddevle Bîmaristan-ı Farukî Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Silvan (1108) Emineddin (brother of Ilgazi) Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Mardin (built between 1122) Great Mosque of Silvan Great Mosque of Mardin Older Great Mosque of Midyat
Midyat
(Cami-i Kebir) Great Mosque of Kızıltepe Great Mosque of Harput Artuqid Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Mardin Ibrahim Shah Caravanserai
Caravanserai
near Keban
Keban
between Elazığ
Elazığ
and Çemişgezek

Danishmends
Danishmends
(1071–1178)

Founder Danishmend Gazi Capitals Sivas Niksar

Chronology

1175 Capital city of Sivas
Sivas
incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum 1178 Malatya
Malatya
branch incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate

Important centers and extension:

Sivas Niksar Malatya Kayseri Tokat Amasya Kastamonu Ankara

Dynasty:

Danishmend Gazi
Danishmend Gazi
(1071–1105) Emir Gazi Gümüştekin (1105–1134) Melik Mehmed (1134–1146) Yağıbasan (1146–1164) Melik Ismail (1164–1175)

Important works:

Great Mosque of Niksar Great Mosque of Kayseri Kayseri
Kayseri
Kölük Mosque Danishmend Gazi
Danishmend Gazi
Tomb (Melik Gazi Tomb) in Niksar Denishmend Melik Mehmed Gazi Tomb in Kayseri

Mengujekids
Mengujekids
(1071–1277)

Founder Mengücek Bey Capitals Erzincan, later also Divriği

Important centers and extension:

Erzincan Divriği Kemah Şebinkarahisar

Dynasty:

Mengücek Bey (1071–1118) Mengücekli Ishak Bey (1118–1120) 1120–1142 Temporarily incorporated into the Beylik of Danishmends

Erzincan
Erzincan
and Kemah Branch

Mengücekli Davud Shah (1142- ?) 1228 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Divriği
Divriği
Branch

Mengücekli Süleyman Shah (1142- ?) 1277 Beylik destroyed by Abaka

Important works:

Divriği
Divriği
Great Mosque and Divriği
Divriği
Turan Melek Sultan
Sultan
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1229) Kale Mosque in Divriği

Saltukids
Saltukids
(1072–1202)

Founder Saltuk Bey Capital Erzurum

Chronology

1202 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Important centers and extension:

Erzurum Tercan

Dynasty:

Saltuk Bey (1072–1102) Ali
Ali
bin Ebu'l-Kâsım (1102 - ~1124) Ziyâüddin Gazi (~1124–1132) Izzeddin Saltuk (1132–1168) Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168–1191) Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
(1191–1200) Melikshah bin Muhammed (1200–1202)

Important works:

Great Mosque of Erzurum Emir Saltuk Tomb in Erzurum Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Tercan Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
Tomb in Tercan Kale Mosque in Erzurum Erzurum
Erzurum
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1147)

Aydinids
Aydinids
(1307–1425)

Founder Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey Capitals Birgi, later Ayasluğ

Important centers and extension:

Tire İzmir Alaşehir Aydın Sakız/ Chios
Chios
(between 1336–1344)

Dynasty:

Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey (1307–1334) Umur Beg
Umur Beg
(1334–1348) Aydınoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) Aydınoğlu Isa Bey (- 1390)

Events

1390 First period of incorporation (by marriage) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik reconstituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Aydınoğlu Musa Bey (1402–1403) Aydınoğlu Umur Bey (1403–1405) İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey (1405–1425 with intervals) 1425 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Isabey Mosque
Isabey Mosque
in Selçuk
Selçuk
(1375)

Isfendiyarids
Isfendiyarids
(~1300–1461)

Founder Şemseddin Yaman Candar, commander of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Capital Kastamonu

Chronology

1392 Incorporation (by conquest) of Kastamonu
Kastamonu
branch into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I

Important centers and extension:

Sinop Eflani Çankırı Kalecik Tosya Araç Samsun
Samsun
(temporarily)

Dynasty:

Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha (1309 - ~1340) Candaroğlu Ibrahim Bey (1340–1345) Candaroğlu Adil Bey (1340–1361) Celaleddin Bayezid (1361–1385) Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha the Second (1384–1392)

Sinop Dynasty
Dynasty
or Isfendiyarid Dynasty :

Isfendiyar Bey (1385–1440) Taceddin Ibrahim Bey (1440–1443) Kemaleddin Ismail Bey (1443–1461)

Chronology

1461 Incorporation (by surrender) of Sinop branch into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II

Chobanids
Chobanids
(1227–1309)

Founder Hüsamettin Çoban Bey, commander from Kayı Oghuz clan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Capital Kastamonu

Chronology

1309 Incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids

Important centers and extension:

Kastamonu Taşköprü

Dynasty:

Hüsamettin Çoban Bey (1309 - ?) Alp Yürek (? - ?) Muzafferüddin Yavlak Arslan (? - ?) Çobanoğlu Mahmud Bey (? - 1309)

Dulkadirids (1348- ~1525)

Ancestor Hasan Dulkadir Founder Zeyneddin Karaca Bey Capital Elbistan

Chronology

1443–1525 Increasingly tributary and gradually incorporated into the Ottoman Empire

Important centers and extension:

Maraş Malatya Harput Kayseri Antep

Dynasty:

Zeyneddin Karaca Bey (1348–1348) Dulkadiroğlu Halil Bey (1348–1386) Sûli Bey (1386–1396) Nâsıreddin Mehmed Bey (1396–1443) Dulkadiroğlu Süleyman Bey (1443–1454) Melik Arslan (?-?) Shah Budak (?-1492) Şahsuvar (?-?) Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey (1492–1507) Şahsuvaroğlu Ali
Ali
Bey (1507- ~1525)

Eretnids
Eretnids
(1328–1381)

Founder Eretna Bey, brother-in-law of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
governor for Anatolia, Timurtash Capital Sivas, later Kayseri

Chronology

1326 Beylik replaced by Mehmed Bey's chancellor Kadı Burhaneddin

Important centers and extension:

Sivas Kayseri Niğde Tokat Amasya Erzincan Şebinkarahisar Niksar

Dynasty:

Eretna Bey (1328–1352) Gıyasüddin Mehmed Bey (1352–1365) Alâeddin Ali
Ali
Bey (1365–1380) Mehmed Bey the Second (1380–1381)

Eshrefids
Eshrefids
(1288–1326)

Founder Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey, regent to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Capital Beyşehir

Chronology

1326 Beylik destroyed by Demirtaş, the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
governor for Anatolia

Important centers and extension:

Beyşehir Akşehir Bolvadin

Dynasty:

Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1288–1302) Eşrefoğlu Mehmed Bey (1302–1320) Eşrefoğlu Süleyman Bey the Second (1320–1326)

Important works:

Eşrefoğlu Mosque
Eşrefoğlu Mosque
in Beyşehir
Beyşehir
(1299)

Germiyanids
Germiyanids
(1300–1429)

Ancestor Kerimüddin Alişir Founder Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First Capital Kütahya

Important centers and extension:

Kula (District), Manisa Simav Yenicekent Yenicekent
Yenicekent
( Beylik of Lâdik
Beylik of Lâdik
between 1300–1368)

Dynasty:

Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First (1300–1340) Germiyanlı Mehmed Bey (1340–1361) Germiyanlı Süleyman Shah (1361–1387)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second (1402–1429) 1414 Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty by Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second under Mehmed I 1429 Second and last incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Hamidids
Hamidids
(~1280–1374)

Ancestors Hamid and his son Ilyas Bey, frontier rulers under Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Founder Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey Capital Isparta

Chronology

1374 Incorporation (by sale of territories) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Murad I
Murad I
and also partially to the Karamanid dynasty.

Important centers and extension:

Eğirdir Uluborlu Gölhisar Korkuteli
Korkuteli
and Antalya
Antalya
transferred in 1301 to Dündar Bey's brother Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey

Dynasty:

Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey (~1280–1324) Hamidoğlu Hızır Bey (1324–1330) Hamidoğlu Necmeddin Ishak Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Muzafferüddin Mustafa Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Hüsameddin Ilyas Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey (? - 1391)

Karamanids
Karamanids
(~1250–1487)

Ancestor Nure Sûfi from Afshar Oghuz clan Founder Kerimeddin Karaman
Karaman
Bey Capitals successively Ereğli Ermenek Larende
Larende
(Karaman) Konya Mut

Chronology

1398–1402 First incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Bayezid I 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane 1414–1487 Gradual second incorporation into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Mehmed I, Murad II
Murad II
and Mehmed II.

Dynasty:

Kerîmeddin Karaman
Karaman
(1256–1261) Mehmet I (1261–1283) Güneri (1283–1300) Bedreddin Mahmut (1300–1308) Yahşı Han (1308–1312) Bedreddin Ibrahim I (1312–1333) Alâeddin Halil Mirza (1333–1348) Bedreddin Ibrahim I, 2nd reign (1348–1349) Fahreddin Ahmed (1349–1350) Şemseddin (1350–1351) Burhaneddin Musa (1351–1356) Seyfeddin Süleyman (1356–1357) Alâeddin Ali
Ali
(1357–1398) Nasreddin Mehmed Bey (1398–1399) Sultanzâde Mehmet II (1398–1399, 1402–1420, 1421–1423) Bengi Alâeddin Ali
Ali
(1418–1424) Ibrahim II (1424–1464) Sultanzâde Ishak (1464) Sultanzâde Pîr Ahmed (1464–1469) Kasım (1469–1483) Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483–1487)

Karasids
Karasids
(1303–1360)

Ancestor Melik Danişmend Gazi Founder Karesi Bey Capital Balıkesir

Chronology

1374 Incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Beylik under Orhan
Orhan
and Murad I

Important centers and extension:

Aydıncık Bergama Edremit Bigadiç Ezine

Dynasty:

Karesi Bey (1307–1328) Demir Han (1328–1345) Yahşı Han (1328–1345) Süleyman Bey (1345–1360)

Ladik (~1300–1368)

Ancestor Germiyanlı Ali
Ali
Bey Founder Inanç Bey Capital Denizli

Chronology

1368 Re-incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Germiyan

Important centers and extension:

Denizli

Dynasty:

Inanç Bey (~1300 - ~1314) Murad Arslan (~1314 - ?) Inançoğlu Ishak Bey (? - ~1360) Süleyman Bey (1345–1368)

Menteshe
Menteshe
(~1261–1424)

Founder Menteshe
Menteshe
Bey Capitals Beçin castle and nearby Milas, later also Balat

Important centers and extension

present-day Muğla
Muğla
Province Muğla Finike Kaş Çameli Acıpayam Tavas Bozdoğan Çine temporarily Aydın
Aydın
and Güzelhisar, also Rhodes
Rhodes
between 1300–1314

Dynasty:

Menteshe
Menteshe
Bey (~1261 - ~1282) Mesut (~1282 - ~1320) Orhan
Orhan
(~1320 - ~1340) Ibrahim (~1340 - ~1360)

Chronology

1360 Division between the three sons of Ibrahim Bey: Musa, Mehmed, Ahmed 1390 First incorporation into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1414 Beylik reconstituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Ilyas Bey 1414 Recognition of Ottoman suzereignty under Mehmed I 1424 Final incorporation into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Firuz Bey Mosque in Milas İlyas Bey Mosque in Didim Great Mosque of Muğla
Muğla
(1344) Vakıflar Hamam (Turkish bath) in Muğla
Muğla
(1334)

Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
(1261–1322)

Ancestor Mühezzibeddin Ali
Ali
Kâşî (vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum) Founder Süleyman Pervâne Capital Sinop

Chronology

1516 Incorporation into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids

Important centers and extension:

Sinop

Dynasty:

Süleyman Pervâne
Pervâne
(1261–1277) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Mehmed Bey (1277–1296) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Mesud Bey (1296–1300) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Gazi Çelebi (1300–1326)

Important works

Muîneddin Pervâne
Pervâne
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Tokat
Tokat
(1276) Pervâne
Pervâne
Medrese in Sinop Durağan
Durağan
Han caravanserai in Durağan
Durağan
(1266) Eğret Han caravanserai near İhsaniye
İhsaniye
(1278) Pervâne
Pervâne
Bey Medrese in Closed Bazaar in Kayseri Mosque in Merzifon

Ramadanids
Ramadanids
(1352–1516)

Founder Ramazan Bey from Yüreğir
Yüreğir
Oghuz clan Capitals Adana

Chronology

1516 Icorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Selim I 1516–1608 Dynasty
Dynasty
members as Beys of Ottoman sanjak of Adana
Adana
until 1608.

Important centers and extension:

Adana Tarsus

Dynasty:

Ibrahim Bey (1344-?) Ahmed Bey (?-1416) Ibrahim Bey (1416–1417) Hamza Bey (1417–1427) Mehmed Bey (1427-?) Eyluk Bey (? - ?) Dündar Bey (? - ?) Omer Bey (?-1490) Giyas al-Din Halil Bey (1490–1511) Hahmud Bey (1511–1516) Selim Bey (?-?) Kubad Bey (1517-?)

Sahib Ataids
Sahib Ataids
(1275–1341)

Founder Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali, vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Capital Afyonkarahisar

Chronology

1341 Incorporation into the Beylik of Germiyan

Important centers and extension:

Akşehir Beyşehir Sandıklı Denizli

Dynasty

Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali
Ali
(1275–1288) and sons Nusreddin Ahmed (1288–1341)

Important works:

Sâhib Ata Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Sultandağı

Sarukhanids
Sarukhanids
(1302–1410)

Founder Saruhan Bey Capital Manisa

Important centers and extension:

Demirci Nif (Kemalpaşa) Akhisar Gördes Menemen

Dynasty

Saruhan Bey (1302–1345) Fahreddin Ilyas Bey Muzafferuddin Ishak Bey (-1388) Hızır Shah (1388–1390)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1410 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Saruhanoğlu Orhan Bey (1402–1403) Hızır Shah (1403–1410) 1410 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Mehmed I

Teke (1301–1423)

Ancestors Hamidoğlu dynasty Founder Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey Capitals Antalya Korkuteli

Important centers and extension:

Antalya
Antalya
(lost to the Kingdom of Cyprus
Kingdom of Cyprus
between 1361–1373) Teke Peninsula

Dynasty:

Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey (1301-?) Tekeoğlu Mehmud Bey (?-1327) Tekeoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) Tekeoğlu Dadı Bey (?-?) Zincirkıran Mehmed Bey (~1360 - ~1375) Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (~1375–1390)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1423 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (1402–1423) 1423 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Yivli Minare Mosque in Antalya
Antalya
(~1375)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 63984707 LCCN: n50015000 ISNI: 0000 0001 2136 280X GND: 118622803 SELIBR: 259304 SUDOC: 027333868 BNF: cb11939835h (data) NDL: 00621564 BNE: XX1289

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