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Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
under Presidents George Washington
George Washington
and John Adams. He also represented Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in both houses of Congress as a member of the Federalist Party. Born in Salem, Massachusetts, Pickering began a legal career after graduating from Harvard University. He won election to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Court and served as a county judge. He also became an officer in the colonial militia and served in the Siege of Boston
Boston
during the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. Served as Adjutant General and Quartermaster General of the Continental Army
Continental Army
during the war. After the war, Pickering moved to the Wyoming Valley
Wyoming Valley
and took part in Pennsylvania's 1787 ratifying convention for the United States
United States
Constitution. President Washington appointed Pickering to the position of Postmaster General in 1791. After briefly serving as Secretary of War, Pickering became the Secretary of State in 1795, and remained in that office after President Adams was inaugurated. As Secretary of State, Pickering favored close relations with Britain. President Adams dismissed him in 1800 due to Pickering's opposition to peace with France
France
during the Quasi-War. Pickering won election to represent Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the United States Senate in 1803, becoming an ardent opponent of the Embargo Act
Embargo Act
of 1807. He continued to support Britain in the Napoleonic Wars, famously describing the country as "The World's last hope - Britain's Fast-anchored Isle."[1] He left the Senate in 1811 but served in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from 1813 to 1817. During the War of 1812
War of 1812
he became a leader of the New England
New England
secession movement and helped organize the Hartford Convention. The fallout from the convention ended Pickering's political career. He lived as a farmer in Salem until his death in 1829.

Contents

1 Early life 2 American Revolutionary War

2.1 Salem Incident 2.2 Adjutant General

3 Rise to power 4 Cabinet member 5 Middle years

5.1 Violation of Logan Act 5.2 Member of Congress

6 Later years and Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit] Pickering was born in Salem, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to Deacon Timothy and Mary Wingate Pickering. He was one of nine children and the younger brother of John Pickering (not to be confused with the New Hampshire judge) who would eventually serve as Speaker of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
House of Representatives.[2] He attended grammar school in Salem and graduated from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1763. Salem minister William Bentley
William Bentley
noted on Pickering: "From his youth his townsmen proclaim him assuming, turbulent, & headstrong." [3] After graduating from Harvard, Pickering returned to Salem where he began working for John Higginson, the town clerk and Essex County register of deeds. Pickering was admitted to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bar in 1768 and, in 1774, he succeeded Higginson as register of deeds. Soon after, he was elected to represent Salem in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Court and served as a justice in the Essex County Court of Common Pleas. On April 8, 1776, he married Rebecca White of Salem.[4] In January 1766, Pickering was commissioned a lieutenant in the Essex County militia. He was promoted to captain three years later. In 1769, he published his ideas on drilling soldiers in the Essex Gazette. These were published in 1775 as "An Easy Plan for a Militia."[5] The manual was used as the Continental Army
Continental Army
drill book until replaced by Baron von Steuben's Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States[6] American Revolutionary War[edit] Salem Incident[edit] On February 26, 1775 men under Pickering's command were involved in one of the earliest military engagements in the American Revolution, a confrontation locally referred to as "Leslie's Retreat." A detachment of British regulars under British Army Lt. Colonel Alexander Leslie was dispatched from Boston
Boston
to search North Salem for contraband artillery. Leslie's men were thwarted from crossing the North River bridge and searching the outlying farms by Pickering's militia and citizens of Salem. Many of these "citizens" were members of Salem's North Church, which was just a short distance from the North Bridge. Col. Leslie chose a Sunday morning to raid Salem knowing that her citizens would be attending church. They were, of course, but the Rev. Thomas Barnard Jr. of the North Church famously left his pulpit that morning to meet the British troops at the bridge. A fast rider from Marblehead had ridden ahead of the British to warn Rev. Barnard. Barnard is credited with convincing Col. Leslie to retreat in peace. If he had not, Pickering's troops would have fired the "shot heard 'round the world" and started the war. Two months later, Pickering's troops marched to take part in the Battles of Lexington and Concord but arrived too late to play a major role. They then became part of the New England
New England
army assembling outside Boston
Boston
to lay siege to the city. Adjutant General[edit] In December 1776, he led a well-drilled regiment of the Essex County militia to New York, where General George Washington
George Washington
took notice and offered Pickering the position of adjutant general of the Continental Army in 1777. In this capacity he oversaw the building of the Great chain which was forged at the Stirling Iron Works. The chain blocked the Royal Navy from proceeding up the Hudson River past West Point and protected that important fort from attack for the duration of the conflict. He was widely praised for his work in supplying the troops during the remainder of the conflict. In August 1780, the Continental Congress elected Pickering Quartermaster General.[7]

Letter from Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
to Major General Lord Sterling, 1777

Rise to power[edit] After the end of the American Revolution, Pickering made several failed attempts at financial success. In 1783, he embarked on a mercantile partnership with Samuel Hodgdon that failed two years later. In 1786, he moved to the Wyoming Valley
Wyoming Valley
in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
where he assumed a series of offices at the head of Luzerne County. When he attempted to settle a controversy generated by John Armstrong with Connecticut
Connecticut
settlers living in the area, Pickering was captured and held hostage for nineteen days. In 1787, he was part of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
convention held to consider ratification of the United States Constitution.[8] After the first of Pickering's two successful attempts to make money speculating in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
frontier land, President Washington appointed him commissioner to the Iroquois
Iroquois
Indians; and Pickering represented the United States
United States
in the negotiation of the Treaty of Canandaigua with the Iroquois
Iroquois
in 1794. Cabinet member[edit] Washington brought Pickering into the government as Postmaster General in 1791. He remained in Washington's cabinet and then that of John Adams for nine years, serving as postmaster general until 1795, Secretary of War for a brief time in 1795, then Secretary of State from 1795 to 1800. As Secretary of State he is most remembered for his strong Federalist Party
Federalist Party
attachments to British causes, even willingness to wage war with France
France
in service of these causes during the Adams administration. In 1799 Pickering hired Joseph Dennie
Joseph Dennie
as his private secretary.[9] Middle years[edit] After a quarrel with President John Adams
John Adams
over Adams's plan to make peace with France, Pickering was dismissed from office in May 1800. In 1802, Pickering and a band of Federalists, agitated at the lack of support for Federalists, attempted to gain support for the secession of New England
New England
from the Jeffersonian United States. The irony of a Federalist moving against the national government was not lost among his dissenters. He was named to the United States Senate
United States Senate
as a senator from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in 1803 as a member of the Federalist Party. Pickering opposed the American seizure and annexation of Spanish West Florida in 1810, which he believed was both unconstitutional and an act of aggression against a friendly power.[10] Violation of Logan Act[edit] Near the end of his only term as a Senator, Pickering challenged Jefferson's Embargo Act
Embargo Act
and held several conferences with special British envoy George Rose and proposed the creation of a pro-British party in New England
New England
and urged Rose to persuade British foreign secretary George Canning
George Canning
to maintain his hard line against America with the hopes that Jefferson would resort to even more extreme measures which would ultimately effect a political suicide for the Republicans. These undertakings placed Pickering in violation of the Logan Act
Logan Act
and he was thus charged. Pickering also published his open letter to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Republican Governor, a letter he refused to even read, containing harsh criticism of the Embargo act claiming Jefferson had presented no real arguments for its enactment and called for its nullification by the state legislators.[11] Pickering was charged with reading confidential documents in an open Senate session before an injunction of secrecy had been removed. In response to that charge the Senate censured Pickering by a majority vote of 20-7 on January 2, 1811.[12] Member of Congress[edit] Pickering was later elected to the United States
United States
House of Representatives in the 1812 election, where he remained until 1817. His congressional career is best remembered for his leadership of the New England
New England
secession movement (see Essex Junto
Essex Junto
and the Hartford Convention). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1815.[13] Later years and Legacy[edit] After Pickering was denied re-election in 1816, he retired to Salem, where he lived as a farmer until his death in 1829, aged 83. In 1942, a United States
United States
Liberty ship
Liberty ship
named the SS Timothy Pickering was launched. She was lost off Sicily
Sicily
in 1943. Until the 1990s, Pickering's ancestral home, the circa 1651 Pickering House, was the oldest house in the United States
United States
to be owned by the same family continually. See also[edit]

France– United States
United States
relations Federalist Party List of United States
United States
Senators expelled or censured

References[edit]

^ Clarfield. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the American Republic p.246 ^ Mary Pickering, sister of Timothy, was married to Salem Congregational minister Dudley Leavitt, for whom Salem's Leavitt Street is named. A Harvard-educated native of Stratham, New Hampshire, Leavitt died an untimely death in 1762 at age 42. Mary Pickering Leavitt remarried Nathaniel Peaselee Sargeant of Haverhill, Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. Mary Pickering's daughter Elizabeth Pickering Leavitt married Salem merchant William Pickman.[1] ^ The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts, 4 vols. (Gloucester, Mass.: Smith, 1962), 3:352. ^ Octavius Pickering and Charles W. Upham, The Life of Timothy Pickering, 4 vols. (Boston: Little Brown, 1867-73), 1:7-15, 31. ^ Pickering and Upham, Life of Timothy Pickering, 1:85. ^ Garry Wills
Garry Wills
(2003). "Before 1800". Negro President: Jefferson and the Slave Power. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 20–21. ISBN 0-618-34398-9.  ^ Pickering and Upham, Life of Timothy Pickering, 1:34-139, 251-522; 2:69-508; Gerard H. Clarfield, Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the American Republic (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980), 47-144; Edward Hake Phillips, "Salem, Timothy Pickering, and the American Revolution," Essex Institute Historical Collections 111, 1 (1975): 65-78; David McLean, Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the Age of the American Revolution (New York: Arno Press, 1982). ^ Pickering and Upham, Life of Timothy Pickering, 1:532-35; 2:140-73, 182-325, 369-445; Clarfield, Pickering and the Republic, 85-115; Jeffrey Paul Brown, “ Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the Northwest Territory,” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 53, 4 (1982): 117-32. ^ Clapp, William Warland (1880). Joseph Dennie: Editor of "The Port Folio," and author of "The Lay Preacher.". John Wilson and Son. p. 32.  ^ Clarfield. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the American Republic p.246-247 ^ McDonald,1976, pp. 147-148 ^ "U.S. Senate: Expulsion and Censure". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter P" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

United States
United States
Congress. " Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(id: P000324)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  Clarfield, Gerard H. "Postscript to the Jay Treaty: Timothy Pickering and Anglo-American Relations, 1795-1797," William and Mary Quarterly 3d ser., 23, 1 (1966): 106-20. Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and American Diplomacy, 1795-1800. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969. Clarfield, Gerard. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the American Republic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980. Clarfield, Gerard H. " Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and French Diplomacy, 1795-1796." Essex Institute Historical Collections 104, 1 (1965): 58-74. Clarfield, Gerard H. "Victory in the West: A Study of the Role of Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
in the Successful Consummation of Pinckney‘s Treaty," Essex Institute Historical Collections 101, 4 (1965): 333-53. Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography, vol. 17, "Pickering, Timothy". New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Guidorizzi, Richard Peter. "Timothy Pickering: Opposition Politics in the Early Years of the Republic" Ph.D. diss, St. John’s University, 1968. Hickey, Donald R. " Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the Haitian Slave Revolt: A Letter to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
in 1806," Essex Institute Historical Collections 120, 3 (1984): 149-63. McCurdy, John Gilbert. "'Your Affectionate Brother': Complementary Manhoods in the Letters of John and Timothy Pickering." Early American Studies 4, 2 (Fall 2006): 512-545. McLean, David. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the Age of the American Revolution. New York: Arno Press, 1982. Pickering, Octavius, and Charles W. Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering. 4 vols. Boston: Little Brown, 1867-73. Phillips, Edward Hake. "The Public Career of Timothy Pickering, Federalist, 1745-1802." Ph.D. diss, Harvard University, 1952. Phillips, Edward Hake. "Salem, Timothy Pickering, and the American Revolution." Essex Institute Historical Collections 111, 1 (1975): 65-78. Phillips, Edward Hake. " Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
at His Best: Indian Commissioner, 1790-1794." Essex Institute Historical Collections 102, 3 (1966): 163-202. Prentiss, Harvey Pittman. Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
as the Leader of New England Federalism, 1800-1815. New York: DaCapo Press, 1972. Wilbur, William Allan. "Crisis in Leadership: Alexander Hamilton, Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
and the Politics of Federalism, 1795-1804." Ph.D. diss, Syracuse University, 1969. Wilbur, W. Allan. "Timothy Pickering: Federalist, Politician, An Historical Perspective," Historian 34, 2 (1972): 278-92. Wilentz, Sean "The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln" W.W. Norton. New York. 2005.

External links[edit]

United States
United States
Congress. " Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(id: P000324)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Timothy Pickering.

Biography and portrait at Quartermaster-Generals Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
at Find a Grave

Military offices

Preceded by Morgan Connor Adjutant Generals of the Army 1777–1778 Succeeded by Alexander Scammell

Political offices

Preceded by Samuel Osgood United States
United States
Postmaster General 1791–1795 Succeeded by Joseph Habersham

Preceded by Henry Knox United States
United States
Secretary of War 1795 Succeeded by James McHenry

Preceded by Edmund Randolph United States
United States
Secretary of State 1795–1800 Succeeded by John Marshall

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Dwight Foster U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts 1803–1811 Served alongside: John Quincy Adams, James Lloyd Succeeded by Joseph Varnum

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Leonard White Member of the U.S. House of Representatives Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district 1813–1815 Succeeded by Jeremiah Nelson

Preceded by William Reed Member of the U.S. House of Representatives Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district 1815–1817 Succeeded by Nathaniel Silsbee

v t e

United States
United States
Postmasters General

Confederal

Franklin Bache Hazard

Federal

Osgood Pickering Habersham G. Granger Meigs McLean

Cabinet level Post Office Department

Barry Kendall Niles F. Granger Wickliffe Johnson Collamer Hall Hubbard Campbell A. Brown Holt King Blair Dennison Randall Creswell Marshall Jewell Tyner Key Maynard James Howe Gresham Hatton Vilas Dickinson Wanamaker Bissell Wilson Gary Smith Payne Wynne Cortelyou Meyer Hitchcock Burleson Hays Work New W. Brown Farley Walker Hannegan Donaldson Summerfield Day Gronouski O'Brien Watson Blount

U.S. Postal Service

Blount Klassen Bailar Bolger Carlin Casey Tisch Frank Runyon Henderson Potter Donahoe Brennan

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of War and the Army

Department of War (1789–1947)

Secretaries of War

B. Lincoln Knox Pickering McHenry Dexter Dearborn Eustis Armstrong Monroe W. Crawford Calhoun Barbour P. Porter Eaton Cass Poinsett Bell Spencer J. Porter Wilkins Marcy G. Crawford Conrad J. Davis Floyd Holt S. Cameron Stanton Schofield Rawlins Belknap A. Taft J. Cameron McCrary Ramsey R. Lincoln Endicott Proctor Elkins Lamont Alger Root W. Taft Wright Dickinson Stimson Garrison Baker Weeks D. Davis Good Hurley Dern Woodring Stimson Patterson Royall

Assistant Secretaries of War

Scott Watson Tucker Wolcott Dana Eckert Grant Doe Meiklejohn Sanger Oliver Breckinridge Ingraham Crowell Williams Wainwright D. Davis MacNider Robbins Hurley Payne Woodring L. Johnson Patterson McCloy Petersen

Under Secretaries of War

Patterson Royall Draper

Department of the Army (1947–present)

Secretaries of the Army

Royall Gray Pace Stevens Brucker Stahr Vance Ailes Resor Froehlke Callaway Hoffmann C. Alexander Marsh Stone West Caldera White Harvey Geren McHugh Fanning Esper

Under Secretaries of the Army

Draper Gray Voorhees A. Alexander Bendetsen E. Johnson Slezak Finucane Milton Ailes Ignatius Resor McGiffert Beal BeLieu Staudt Augustine LaBerge Ambrose Stone Shannon Reeder Walker Rostker Dahlberg Brownlee Geren Ford Westphal Carson Murphy McCarthy

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Massachusetts

Class 1

Dalton Cabot Goodhue Mason Adams Lloyd Gore Ashmun Mellen Mills Webster Choate Webster Winthrop Rantoul Sumner Washburn Dawes Lodge, Sr. Butler Walsh Lodge J. Kennedy Smith E. Kennedy Kirk Brown Warren

Class 2

Strong Sedgwick Dexter Foster Pickering Varnum Otis Lloyd Silsbee Davis Bates Davis Everett Rockwell Wilson Boutwell Hoar Crane J. Weeks Walsh Gillett Coolidge Lodge S. Weeks Saltonstall Brooke Tsongas Kerry Cowan Markey

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln

At-large

Cobb

v t e

Cabinet of President George Washington
George Washington
(1789–97)

Secretary of Foreign Affairs

John Jay
John Jay
(1789)

Secretary of State

John Jay
John Jay
(1789–1790) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1790–93) Edmund Randolph
Edmund Randolph
(1794–95) Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(1795–97)

Secretary of the Treasury

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(1789–95) Oliver Wolcott Jr.
Oliver Wolcott Jr.
(1795–97)

Secretary of War

Henry Knox
Henry Knox
(1789–94) Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(1795) James McHenry
James McHenry
(1796–97)

Attorney General

Edmund Randolph
Edmund Randolph
(1789–94) William Bradford (1794–95) Charles Lee (1795–97)

Postmaster General

Samuel Osgood
Samuel Osgood
(1789–91) Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(1791–95) Joseph Habersham
Joseph Habersham
(1795–97)

v t e

Cabinet of President John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801)

Secretary of State

Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(1797–1800) John Marshall
John Marshall
(1800–01)

Secretary of the Treasury

Oliver Wolcott Jr.
Oliver Wolcott Jr.
(1797–1801) Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter
(1801)

Secretary of War

James McHenry
James McHenry
(1796–1800) Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter
(1800–01)

Attorney General

Charles Lee (1797–1801)

Postmaster General

Joseph Habersham
Joseph Habersham
(1797–1801)

Secretary of the Navy

Benjamin Stoddert
Benjamin Stoddert
(1798–1801)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3759568 LCCN: n79129088 ISNI: 0000 0000 8194 5700 GND: 155596845 SUDOC: 127644431 BNF: cb145801831 (data) US Congress: P000324 SN

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