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Timoleon
Timoleon
(Greek: Τιμολέων), son of Timodemus, of Corinth
Corinth
(c. 411–337 BC) was a Greek statesman and general. As the champion of Greece
Greece
against Carthage he is closely connected with the history of Sicily, especially Syracuse.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Sicily 3 Ruler of Syracuse 4 Retirement 5 Tyrant or democrat? 6 Notes 7 Sources

7.1 Primary sources 7.2 Secondary sources

8 Further reading

Early life[edit] In the mid 360s BC, Timophanes, the brother of Timoleon
Timoleon
took possession of the acropolis of Corinth
Corinth
and effectively made himself tyrant of the city. In response, Timoleon, who had earlier saved his brother's life in battle, became involved in the assassination of Timophanes.[1] Public opinion approved his conduct as patriotic; however the curses of his mother and the indignation of some of his kinsfolk drove him into an early retirement for twenty years.[2] Sicily[edit]

Sicily
Sicily
431 BC

Because of the political problems facing Syracuse and the threat from Sparta, a group of Syracusans sent an appeal for help to Corinth
Corinth
which reached the city state in 344 BC.[3] Corinth
Corinth
could not refuse help, though her chief citizens declined to accept responsibility for attempting to establish a stable government in fractious and turbulent Syracuse.[2] Timoleon, being named by an unknown voice in the Corinthian popular assembly, was chosen by a unanimous vote to undertake the mission, and set sail for Sicily
Sicily
with seven ships, a few of the leading citizens of Corinth
Corinth
and 700 Greek mercenaries.[1] He eluded a Carthaginian squadron and landed at Tauromenium
Tauromenium
(now Taormina) in 344 BC, where he met with a friendly reception. At this time Hicetas, tyrant of Leontini, was master of Syracuse, with the exception of the island of Ortygia, which was occupied by Dionysius, still nominally tyrant. Hicetas was defeated by Timoleon
Timoleon
at Adranum, an inland town, and driven back to Syracuse. Timoleon
Timoleon
was sent reinforcements from Corinth and some north-western Greek states.[1] During the siege of Syracuse, Dionysius surrendered Ortygia
Ortygia
in 343 BC on the condition of his being granted a safe conduct to Corinth. This was agreed and Dionysius was sent to exile in Corinth.[2] Hicetas now received help from Carthage (60,000 men), but ill-success roused mutual suspicion; the Carthaginians abandoned Hicetas, who was besieged in Leontini, and who was then compelled to surrender. Timoleon
Timoleon
was thus master of Syracuse.[2] He at once began the work of restoration, bringing new settlers from the mother-city and from Greece
Greece
generally, and establishing a popular government on the basis of the democratic laws of Diocles. The citadel was razed to the ground, and a court of justice erected on its site. The amphipolos, or priest of Olympian Zeus
Zeus
(ἀμφίπολος Διὸς Ὀλυμπίου),[4] who was chosen annually by lot out of three clans, was invested with the chief magistracy. The impress of Timoleon's reforms seems to have lasted to the days of Augustus.[2] Hicetas was able to persuade Carthage to send (340–339 BC) a great army (70,000 men), which landed at Lilybaeum (now Marsala). With a miscellaneous levy of about 12,000 men, most of them mercenaries, Timoleon
Timoleon
marched westwards across the island to the neighbourhood of Selinus
Selinus
and won a great and decisive victory on the Crimissus. Timoleon
Timoleon
led his infantry, and the enemy's discomfiture was completed by a blinding storm of rain and hail.[2] Carthage made one more effort and despatched some mercenaries to prolong the conflict between Timoleon
Timoleon
and the tyrants. But it ended in the defeat of Hicetas, who was taken prisoner and put to death. Carthage then agreed to a treaty in 338 BC by which Carthage was confined in Sicily
Sicily
to the west of the Halycus (Platani) and undertook to give no further help to the Sicilian tyrants. Most of the remaining tyrants were killed or expelled.[5] This treaty gave the Greeks of Sicily
Sicily
many years of peace and safety from Carthage. Ruler of Syracuse[edit] Timoleon
Timoleon
established a new Syracusan constitution. It was described at the time as democratic. However, he did have wide powers equivalent to a supreme commander. He invited settlers from mainland Greece
Greece
to assist in the re-population of Syracuse and other Sicilian cities. During this period, Greek Sicily
Sicily
enjoyed a recovery in its economy and its culture.[1] Retirement[edit] Timoleon
Timoleon
retired into private life, possibly on becoming blind, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted.[5] He was buried at the cost of the citizens of Syracuse, who erected a monument to his memory in their market-place, afterwards surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.[2] Tyrant or democrat?[edit] The ancient historian Timaeus gave Timoleon
Timoleon
high accolades in his work. However, Polybius criticized Timaeus for bias in favour of Timoleon
Timoleon
and many modern historians have sided with Polybius.[6] Peter Green shares this scepticism but thinks it has gone too far. While he concedes that Timoleon
Timoleon
tended to play the democrat while using the methods of a tyrant (albeit benevolently), he did make an effort to maintain the outward forms of democracy. Further, he reformed Syracuse in a democratic direction and demolished the stronghold of the island that had been so useful to tyrants in the past.[7] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Tony (2000). Who's Who in the Classical World. New York: Oxford Paperback Reference. p. 403. ISBN 0192801074.  ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm 1911. ^ History of Greece, George Grote, vol. 7 pp. 575-6. ^ ἀμφίπολος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. ^ a b Historians History of the World, Editor: Henry Smith Williams vol 4 p207 ^ Peter Green, Alexander to Actium p. 219. ^ Peter Green, Alexander to Actium, pp. 219-20.

Sources[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Plutarch, Life of Timoleon. Cornelius Nepos, Timoleon. Diod. Sic., Historical Library, xvi.65–90.

Secondary sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Timoleon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Westlake, H.D. Timoleon
Timoleon
and His Relations With Tyrants. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1952 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7190-1217-1). Bicknell, P.J. "The Date of Timoleon's Crossing to Italy and the Comet of 361 B.C.", The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 34, No. 1. (1984), pp. 130–134. Talbert, R.J.A. Timoleon
Timoleon
and the Revival of Greek Sicily, 344–317 B.C. (Cambridge Classical Studies). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-20419-4); 2008 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-03413-2).

Preceded by: Dionysius the Younger Tyrant of Syracuse 345–337 BC Succeeded by: oligarchy position next held by Agathocles in 317 BC

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The works of Plutarch

Works

Parallel Lives Moralia Pseudo-Plutarch

Lives

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Coriolanus1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Julius Caesar Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon
/ Artaxerxes and Galba
Galba
/ Otho2 Aristides
Aristides
and Cato the Elder1 Crassus and Nicias1 Demetrius and Antony1 Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and Cicero1 Dion and Brutus1 Fabius and Pericles1 Lucullus
Lucullus
and Cimon1 Lysander
Lysander
and Sulla1 Numa and Lycurgus1 Pelopidas
Pelopidas
and Marcellus1 Philopoemen
Philopoemen
and Flamininus1 Phocion
Phocion
and Cato the Younger Pompey
Pompey
and Agesilaus1 Poplicola and Solon1 Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius Romulus
Romulus
and Theseus1 Sertorius and Eumenes1 Agis / Cleomenes1 and Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus
/ Gaius Gracchus Timoleon
Timoleon
and Aemilius Paulus1 Themistocles
Themistocles
and Camillus

Translators and editors

Jacques Amyot Arthur Hugh Clough John Dryden Philemon Holland Thomas North

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89497

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