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Tidore
Tidore
(Indonesian: Kota Tidore
Tidore
Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera. In the pre-colonial era, the Sultanate of Tidore
Tidore
was a major regional political and economic power, and a fierce rival of nearby Ternate, just to the north.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Administration 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Geography[edit] Tidore
Tidore
Island consists of a large stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor to an elevation of 1,730 m (5,676 ft) above sea level at the conical Kiematabu Peak on the south end of the island. The northern side of the island contains a caldera, Sabale, with two smaller volcanic cones within it. Soasio is Tidore's capital. It has its own port, Goto, and it lies on the eastern edge of the island. It has a mini bus terminal and a market. The sultan's palace was rebuilt with completion in 2010.[1] History[edit]

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Tidore
Tidore
was a spice-funded sultanate that was founded in 1409, and spent much of its history in the shadow of Ternate, another sultanate.[2] The sultans of Tidore
Tidore
ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of New Guinea. Tidore
Tidore
established an alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain
Spain
had several forts on the island. There was mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards but for the Tidorese the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting the incursions of the Ternateans and their ally, the Dutch, who had a fort on Ternate. For the Spanish, backing the Tidore
Tidore
state helped check the expansion of Dutch power that threatened their nearby Asia-Pacific interests, provided a useful base right next to the centre of Dutch power in the region and was a source of spices for trade. Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore
Tidore
and Ternate
Ternate
in 1663, the Tidore
Tidore
sultanate, although nominally part of the Spanish East Indies, established itself as one of the strongest and most independent states in the region. After the Spanish withdrawal it continued to resist direct control by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(the VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (r. 1657–1689), the Tidore
Tidore
court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional peripheral territories. As a result, he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on foreign military help for governing the kingdom, unlike Ternate
Ternate
which frequently relied upon Dutch military assistance. Tidore
Tidore
long remained an independent state, albeit with growing Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpatie) to proceed in its territories. This program, intended to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery. In 1781 Prince Nuku left Tidore
Tidore
and declared himself Sultan of the Papuan Islands. This was the beginning of a guerilla war which lasted for many years. The Papuans sided with the rebellious Prince Nuku. The British had sponsored Nuku as part of their campaign against the Dutch in the Moluccas. Captain Thomas Forrest was intimately connected with Nuku and represented the British as ambassador. The sultanate was abolished in the Sukarno
Sukarno
era and re-established in 1999 with the 36th sultan.[2] Tidore
Tidore
was largely spared from the sectarian conflict of 1999 across the Maluku Islands.[2] Administration[edit]

Tidore
Tidore
Island featured in 1,000-rupiah banknote.

The island constitutes a municipality (kotamadya) within the province of North Maluku. The municipality covers an area of 1,645.73 square kilometres (635.42 sq mi) and had an Census population of 90,055 in 2010, the mainland part (Oba) became the city of Sofifi, the new provincial capital. This leaves 53,836 as the population covering 127 km2 of land.[3] The municipality includes the island of Tidore, together with two small islands (Maitara and Mare), and the Oba section of Halmahera Island. It is divided into eight districts (kecamatan), of which four constitute the island of Tidore
Tidore
(including the two small islands) and the other four constitute the Oba area on the 'mainland' of Halmahera. These are tabulated below with their areas (in sq.km) and their populations at the 2010 Census.[4]

Name English name Area in sq.km Population Census 2010

Tidore ( Tidore
Tidore
town) 24.4 18,477

Tidore
Tidore
Selatan South Tidore 30.1 13,129

Tidore
Tidore
Utara North Tidore 42.1 14,573

Tidore
Tidore
Timur East Tidore 30.4 7,657

(totals on Tidore
Tidore
Island)

127.0 53,836

Oba Utara North Oba 332.4 13,331

Oba Tengah Central Oba 620.2 7,659

Oba Oba 430.7 10,337

Oba Selatan South Oba 173.7 4,892

(totals on Halmahera
Halmahera
Island)

1,557.0 36,219

Notes[edit]

^ Kompas ^ a b c Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 827–828. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.  ^ http://sp2010.bps.go.id/files/ebook/8272.pdf ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.

References[edit]

Andaya, Leonard Y. 1993. The world of Maluku: eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
in the early modern period. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1490-8.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Tidore.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tidore.

The History of the Spanish Presence in the Moluccas (Indonesia): the Spanish Forts in Tidore
Tidore
Island, Maluku, Indonesia
Indonesia
by Marco Ramerini "Tidore". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 

v t e

Regencies and cities of North Maluku

Capital: Sofifi

Regencies

Halmahera
Halmahera
Barat Halmahera
Halmahera
Selatan Halmahera
Halmahera
Tengah Halmahera
Halmahera
Timur Halmahera
Halmahera
Utara Morotai
Morotai
Island Sula Islands Taliabu
Taliabu
Island

Cities

Ternate Tidore

v t e

Islands of Maluku

North Maluku
North Maluku
province

Bacan Halmahera Kayoa Moti Makian Morotai Obi Sula Ternate Tidore

Maluku province

Ambelau Ambon Aru Boano Buru Babar Banda Damar Haruku Kai Kelang Leti Liran Manipa Manuk Nila Nusa Laut Romang Saparua Seram Serua Tanimbar Tayandu Watubela Wetar

v t e

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Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

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Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

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Economy

Currencies

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Trade

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Military

Armies

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Strategists

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Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

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Old World

Won

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Lost

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New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

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v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

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15th century

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1487–16th century Ouadane

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1489 Graciosa

16th century

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1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

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 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese disc

.