The Info List - Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
(July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American
justice. Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933. He established a private legal practice in Baltimore
before founding the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, and Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
appointed Marshall to United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years later, President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General. In 1967, Johnson successfully nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, and was succeeded by Clarence Thomas.


1 Early life 2 Law career

2.1 Chief Counsel for the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund 2.2 Court of Appeals and Solicitor General 2.3 U.S. Supreme Court

3 Death and legacy 4 Marriage and family 5 Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Award 6 Timeline 7 Books authored 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life

Henry Highland Garnet School (P.S. 103), where Marshall attended elementary school

Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908. He was descended from slaves on both sides of his family.[2][3] His original name was Thoroughgood, but he shortened it to Thurgood.[2] His father, William Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, and his mother Norma, as a teacher; they instilled in him an appreciation for the United States Constitution and the rule of law.[4] Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; they would later debate what they had seen. The family also debated current events after dinner. Marshall said that although his father never told him to became a lawyer, he “turned me into one. He did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made.” [5] Marshall attended Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
High School in Baltimore
and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, and placed in the top third of the class. He went to Lincoln University. It is commonly reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University,[6] Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes
and musician Cab Calloway. Initially he did not take his studies seriously, and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students.[7][8] He was not politically active at first, becoming a "star" of the debating team.[8] In his freshman year he opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university.[7] Hughes later described Marshall as "rough and ready, loud and wrong".[9] In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater. In that year, he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks.[10] His marriage to Vivien Burey in September 1929 encouraged him to take his studies seriously, and he graduated from Lincoln with honors (cum laude) Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy.[8] Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland
School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy. Marshall instead attended Howard University
Howard University
School of Law, where he worked harder than he had at Lincoln and his views on discrimination were heavily influenced by the dean Charles Hamilton Houston.[8] In 1933, he graduated first in his class at Howard.[11] Law career

Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
in 1936 at the beginning of his career with the NAACP

After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore. He began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP.[11] In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College
Amherst College
graduate with excellent credentials, who was denied admission to the University of Maryland
Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland
wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.[12] The Maryland
Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland
and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now."[13] Chief Counsel for the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund At the age of 32, Marshall won U.S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U.S. 227 (1940). That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund.[14] As the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them successfully, including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944); Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948); Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950); and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S. 637 (1950). His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established by Plessy v. Ferguson, was not applicable to public education because it could never be truly equal. In total, Marshall won 29 out of the 32 cases he argued before the Supreme Court. During the 1950s, Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
developed a friendly relationship with J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1956, for example, he privately praised Hoover's campaign to discredit T.R.M. Howard, a maverick civil rights leader from Mississippi. During a national speaking tour, Howard criticized the FBI's failure to seriously investigate cases such as the 1955 killers of George W. Lee and Emmett Till. In a private letter to Hoover, Marshall "attacked Howard as a 'rugged individualist' who did not speak for the NAACP."[15] Two years earlier Howard had arranged for Marshall to deliver a well-received speech at a rally of his Regional Council of Negro Leadership in Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Mound Bayou, Mississippi
only days before the Brown decision.[16] According to historians David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, "Marshall's disdain for Howard was almost visceral. [He] 'disliked Howard's militant tone and maverick stance' and 'was well aware that Hoover's attack served to take the heat off the NAACP
and provided opportunities for closer collaboration [between the NAACP
and the FBI] in civil rights.'"[15] Court of Appeals and Solicitor General President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1961 to a new seat created on May 19, 1961, by 75 Stat. 80. A group of Senators from the South, led by Mississippi's James Eastland, held up his confirmation, so he served for the first several months under a recess appointment. Marshall remained on that court until 1965, when President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him to be the United States Solicitor General, the first African American to hold the office.[17] At the time, this made him the highest-ranking black government official in American history, surpassing Robert C. Weaver, Johnson's first secretary of housing and urban development.[18] As Solicitor General, he won 14 out of the 19 cases that he argued for the government. U.S. Supreme Court

Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
photographed in 1967 in the Oval Office

On June 13, 1967, President Johnson nominated Marshall to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice Tom C. Clark, saying that this was "the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man and the right place." Marshall was confirmed as an Associate Justice by a Senate vote of 69–11 on August 30, 1967.[19] He was the 96th person to hold the position, and the first African American. Marshall once bluntly described his legal philosophy as this: "You do what you think is right and let the law catch up",[20] a statement which his conservative detractors argued was a sign of his embracement of judicial activism.[21][22] Marshall served on the Court for the next 24 years, compiling a liberal record that included strong support for Constitutional protection of individual rights, especially the rights of criminal suspects. His most frequent ally on the Court (the pair rarely voted at odds) was Justice William Brennan, who consistently joined him in supporting abortion rights and opposing the death penalty. Brennan and Marshall concluded in Furman v. Georgia
Furman v. Georgia
that the death penalty was, in all circumstances, unconstitutional, and never accepted the legitimacy of Gregg v. Georgia, which ruled four years later that the death penalty was constitutional in some circumstances. Thereafter, Brennan or Marshall dissented from every denial of certiorari in a capital case and from every decision upholding a sentence of death.[citation needed] In 1987, Marshall gave a controversial speech on the occasion of the bicentennial celebrations of the Constitution of the United States.[23] Marshall stated:

The government they devised was defective from the start, requiring several amendments, a civil war, and major social transformations to attain the system of constitutional government and its respect for the freedoms and individual rights, we hold as fundamental today.[24]

In conclusion Marshall stated:

Some may more quietly commemorate the suffering, struggle, and sacrifice that has triumphed over much of what was wrong with the original document, and observe the anniversary with hopes not realized and promises not fulfilled. I plan to celebrate the bicentennial of the Constitution as a living document, including the Bill of Rights and the other amendments protecting individual freedoms and human rights.[24]

Although best remembered for jurisprudence in the fields of civil rights and criminal procedure, Marshall made significant contributions to other areas of the law as well. In Teamsters v. Terry, he held that the Seventh Amendment entitled the plaintiff to a jury trial in a suit against a labor union for breach of duty of fair representation. In TSC Industries, Inc. v. Northway, Inc., he articulated a formulation for the standard of materiality in United States securities law that is still applied and used today. In Cottage Savings Association v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, he weighed in on the income tax consequences of the savings and loan crisis, permitting a savings and loan association to deduct a loss from an exchange of mortgage participation interests. In Personnel Administrator MA v. Feeney, Marshall wrote a dissent saying that a law that gave hiring preference to veterans over non-veterans was unconstitutional because of its inequitable impact on women. Among his many law clerks were attorneys who went on to become judges themselves, such as Judge Douglas Ginsburg
Douglas Ginsburg
of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals; Judge Ralph Winter of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit; Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan; as well as notable law professors Susan Low Bloch, Elizabeth Garrett
Elizabeth Garrett
(President of Cornell University), Paul Gewirtz, Dan Kahan, Randall L. Kennedy, Eben Moglen, Rick Pildes, Louis Michael Seidman,[25] Cass Sunstein, and Mark Tushnet (editor of Thurgood Marshall: His Speeches, Writings, Arguments, Opinions and Reminiscences); and law school deans Paul Mahoney of University of Virginia School of Law, Martha Minow
Martha Minow
of Harvard Law School, and Richard Revesz of New York University School of Law. Marshall retired from the Supreme Court in 1991 due to declining health. In his retirement press conference on June 28, 1991, he expressed his view that race should not be a factor in choosing his successor, and he denied circulating claims that he was retiring because of frustration or anger over the conservative direction in which the Court was heading."[26] He was reportedly unhappy that it would fall to President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
to name his replacement.[27] Bush nominated Clarence Thomas
Clarence Thomas
to replace Marshall. Death and legacy

Screening of Thurgood at the White House

Play media

Video commemorating Thurgood Marshall's life with the screening of Thurgood, a play starring Laurence Fishburne
Laurence Fishburne
at the White House
White House
as part of Black History Month
Black History Month
2011. The Video discusses Marshall's life and legacy.

Screening of Thurgood at the White House

Audio only version.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Marshall's grave at Arlington National Cemetery

U.S. circuit judges Robert A. Katzmann, Damon J. Keith, and Sonia Sotomayor (later Associate Justice) at a 2004 exhibit on the Fourteenth Amendment, Thurgood Marshall, and Brown v. Board of Education

U.S. Senator Ben Cardin
Ben Cardin
(left) and Maryland
Attorney General Doug Gansler talk in Lawyer's Mall, near a statue of Thurgood Marshall (October 2007).

Marshall died of heart failure at the National Naval Medical Center
National Naval Medical Center
in Bethesda, Maryland, at 2:58 pm on January 24, 1993, at the age of 84. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.[28] His second wife and their two sons survived him. Marshall left all his personal papers and notes to the Library of Congress. The Librarian of Congress, James H. Billington, opened Marshall's papers for immediate use by scholars, journalists and the public, insisting that this was Marshall's intent. The Marshall family and several of his close associates disputed this claim.[29] The decision to make the documents public was supported by the American Library Association.[30] A list of the archived manuscripts is available.[31] There are numerous memorials to Marshall. One, an eight-foot statue, stands in Lawyers Mall adjacent to the Maryland
State House. The statue, dedicated on October 22, 1996, depicts Marshall as a young lawyer and is placed just a few feet away from where the Old Maryland Supreme Court Building stood; the court where Marshall argued discrimination cases leading up to the Brown decision.[32] The primary office building for the federal court system, located on Capitol Hill in Washington D.C., is named in honor of Justice Marshall and contains a statue of him in the atrium. In 1976, Texas Southern University renamed its law school after the sitting justice.[33] In 1980, the University of Maryland
School of Law opened a new library which it named the Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Law Library.[34] In 2000, the historic Twelfth Street YMCA Building
Twelfth Street YMCA Building
located in the Shaw neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
was renamed the Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Center. The major airport serving Baltimore
and the Maryland
suburbs of Washington, DC, was renamed the Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport on October 1, 2005. The 2009 General Convention of the Episcopal Church added Marshall to the church's liturgical calendar of "Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints," designating May 17 as his feast day.[35] His membership of the Lincoln University fraternity Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
is to be memorialized by a sculpture by artist Alvin Pettit in 2013.[36] The University of California, San Diego, renamed its Third College after Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
in 1993.[37] Marshall Middle School in Olympia, Washington, is also named after Thurgood Marshall, as is Thurgood Marshall Academy in Washington, D.C. In 2006, Thurgood, a one-man play written by George Stevens, Jr., premiered at the Westport Country Playhouse, starring James Earl Jones and directed by Leonard Foglia.[38] Later it opened Broadway at the Booth Theatre
Booth Theatre
on April 30, 2008, starring Laurence Fishburne.[39] On February 24, 2011, HBO
screened a filmed version of the play which Fishburne performed at the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Center for the Performing Arts. The production was described by the Baltimore
Sun as "one of the most frank, informed and searing discussions of race you will ever see on TV.".[40] On February 16, 2011, a screening of the film was hosted by the White House
White House
as part of its celebrations of Black History Month[41][42] A painting of Justice Thurgood by Chaz Guest
Chaz Guest
has hung at the White House.[43][44] Marshall is portrayed by Chadwick Boseman
Chadwick Boseman
in a movie, Marshall, which revolves around the 1941 case of the State of Connecticut v. Joseph Spell. The movie was released October 2017.[45] Marriage and family Marshall was married twice. He married Vivien "Buster" Burey in 1929. After her death in February 1955, Marshall married Cecilia Suyat in December of that year. They were married until he died in 1993, having two sons together: Thurgood Marshall, Jr., a former top aide to President Bill Clinton; and John W. Marshall, a former United States Marshals Service Director and Virginia Secretary of Public Safety.[46] Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Award In 1993 The Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico
Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico
instituted[47] the annual Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Award, given to the top student in civil rights at each of Puerto Rico's four law schools. It includes a $500 monetary award. The awardees are selected by the Commonwealth's Attorney General. Timeline

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Marshall in 1957

1908 – Born July 2 at Baltimore, Maryland, United States. 1930 – Graduates cum laude from Lincoln University (Pennsylvania). 1934 – Receives law degree from Howard University
Howard University
(magna cum laude) and begins private practice in Baltimore, Maryland. 1934 – Begins to work for Baltimore
branch of NAACP. 1935 – Working with Charles Houston, wins first major civil rights case, Murray v. Pearson. 1936 – Becomes assistant special counsel for NAACP
in New York. 1940 – Wins Chambers v. Florida, the first of twenty-nine Supreme Court victories. 1943 – Won case for integration of schools in Hillburn, New York. 1944 – Successfully argues Smith v. Allwright, overthrowing the South's "white primary". 1946 – Awarded Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
from the NAACP.[48] 1948 – Wins Shelley v. Kraemer, in which Supreme Court strikes down legality of racially restrictive covenants. 1950 – Wins Supreme Court victories in two graduate-school integration cases, Sweatt v. Painter
Sweatt v. Painter
and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents. 1951 – Visits South Korea
South Korea
and Japan to investigate charges of racism in U.S. armed forces. He reported that the general practice was one of "rigid segregation." 1954 – Wins Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, landmark case that demolishes legal basis for segregation in America. 1956 – Wins Browder v. Gayle, ending the practice of segregation on buses and ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott. 1957 – Founds and becomes the first president-director counsel of the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., a nonprofit law firm separate and independent of the NAACP 1961 – Defends civil rights demonstrators, winning Supreme Court victory in Garner v. Louisiana; nominated to Second Circuit Court of Appeals by President John F. Kennedy. 1961 – Appointed circuit judge, makes 112 rulings, none of them reversed on certiorari by Supreme Court (1961–1965). 1965 – Appointed United States Solicitor General
United States Solicitor General
by President Lyndon B. Johnson; wins 14 of the 19 cases he argues for the government (1965–1967). 1967 – Becomes first African American named to U.S. Supreme Court (1967–1991). 1991 – Retires from the Supreme Court. 1991 – Received the Freedom medal[49] 1992 – Receives the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an annual award by Jefferson Awards.[50] 1992 – Receives the Liberty Medal
Liberty Medal
recognizing his long history of protecting individual rights under the Constitution. 1993 – Dies at age 84 in Bethesda, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. 1993 – Receives Presidential Medal of Freedom, posthumously, from President Bill Clinton.

Books authored

has original works written by or about: Thurgood Marshall

Marshall, Thurgood; Tushnet, Mark V. (Editor); and Kennedy, Randall (Forward by). (2001). Thurgood Marshall: His Speeches, Writings, Arguments, Opinions and Reminiscences. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, Incorporated – Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 978-1-55652-386-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

See also

Government of the United States portal Law portal Biography portal African American portal

List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court cases during the Warren Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court


^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ a b Lewis, Neil (June 28, 1991). "A Slave's Great-Grandson Who Used Law to Lead the Rights Revolution". The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2010.  ^ GMU. "Thurgood Marshall, Supreme Court Justice". Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ "A Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Timeline," A Deeper Shade of Black. ^ Ball, Howard (1998). A Defiant Life: Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
& the Persistence of Racism in America. Crown. p. 17. ISBN 0-517-59931-7.  ^ Gibson, Larry S. (2012). Young Thurgood: The Making of a Supreme Court Justice. Prometheus Books. p. 84. ISBN 9781616145712.  ^ a b Skocpol, Theda (February 18, 2011). "Foreword". In Hughey, Matthew Windust; Parks, Gregory. Black Greek-Letter Organizations 2.0: New Directions in the Study of African American Fraternities and Sororities [Hardcover] (1 ed.). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. pp. xiii, xiv, xvi. ISBN 1604739215.  ^ a b c d Starks, Glenn; Erik Brooks, F. (2012). Thurgood Marshall. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313349171. page 7 & 8 ^ Nazel, Joseph. Thurgood Marshall: Supreme Court Justice. Los Angeles: Melrose Square Pub, 1993. p. 57. ISBN 0870675842. Retrieved September 27, 2012.  ISBN 9780870675843 ^ Parks, Gregory S., Editor; Bradley, Stefan M. (2012). Alpha Phi Alpha: A Legacy of Greatness, The Demands of Transcendence. University of Kentucky Press. pp. xiv, 167, 233, 236, 1239, 256, 376. ISBN 978-0813134215. Retrieved September 27, 2012. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b "Biographies of the Robes: Thurgood Marshall". PBS. Retrieved 15 March 2014.  ^ Lomotey, Kofi (2010). Encyclopedia of African American Education. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-4050-4.  ^ Kluger, Richard (2004). Simple justice : the history of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's struggle for equality (1st Vintage Books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1400030613.  ^ "Biographies: NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., Teaching Judicial History, fjc.gov".  Missing or empty url= (help)http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/page/tu_bush_bio_naacp.html ^ a b Root, Damon (March 20, 2009) A Forgotten Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Hero, Reason ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T. R. M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights
Civil Rights
and Economic Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 132–35, 157–58. ^ " Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Giant and First Black Supreme Court Justice Honored on 2003 Black Heritage Series Stamp". United States Postal Service. August 7, 2002. Archived from the original on February 7, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.  ^ Williams, Juan (1998). Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary. New York: Times Books. p. 317. ISBN 0-8129-2028-7.  ^ Graham, Fred P. (August 31, 1967), "Senate Confirms Marshall As the First Negro Justice; 10 Southerners Oppose High Court Nominee in 69-to-11 Vote", New York Times. ^ "Kagan's Link to Marshall Cuts 2 Ways". The New York Times. May 13, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Bendavid, Naftali. " Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
in the Spotlight at Kagan Hearing". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ "Kagan Quizzed About Thurgood Marshall's Record". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Tinsley E. Yarbrough (2000). The Rehnquist Court and the Constitution. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. ISBN 978-0-19-510346-5. Retrieved May 1, 2009.  ^ a b ThurgoodMarshall.com, Speeches. Constitutional Speech, May 6, 1987. Retrieved on April 7, 2009. ^ "Profile Louis Seidman". Georgetown Law. Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ "Retirement of Justice Marshall". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Lee Epstein; Jeffrey Allan Segal (2005). Advice and Consent: the politics of judicial appointments. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. ISBN 978-0-19-530021-5. Retrieved August 13, 2009.  ^ See generally, "Christensen, George A. (1983) Here Lies the Supreme Court: Gravesites of the Justices, Yearbook". Archived from the original on September 3, 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  Supreme Court Historical Society. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (May 26, 1993). "Chief Justice Assails Library On Release of Marshall Papers". New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2007.  ^ "Conservation OnLine - CoOL". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Marshall, Thurgood. " Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
papers, 1949-1991". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ " Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Memorial". Maryland
Archives. Retrieved March 25, 2011.  ^ [1] Archived June 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Law Library, University of Maryland
School of Law ^ NEW YORK: St. Philip's celebrates Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
feast day, [2]. ^ " Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Monument". Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
Fraternity Incorporated, Nu Chapter. 2012. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2012.  ^ Schmidt, Steve (October 3, 1993). "UCSD ceremony dedicates Marshall College". San Diego Union-Tribune. p. B.1.5.7. Retrieved November 1, 2010.  ^ Rizzo, Frank (May 14, 2006). "Thurgood". Variety. Variety. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ BWW (October 24, 2007). " Laurence Fishburne
Laurence Fishburne
is 'Thurgood' on Broadway Spring 2008". broadwayworld.com. Retrieved March 9, 2008.  ^ Zurawik, David (February 18, 2011). "HBO's 'Thurgood' is an exceptional look at race and the law". The Baltimore
Sun. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ White House
White House
(February 24, 2011). " White House
White House
Screening of "Thurgood"". US Federal Government. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ McPeak, Joaquin (February 16, 2011). "City of Sacramento Press Release" (PDF). Office of Mayor Kevin Johnson, City of Sacramento. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ CBS News; Whitney Drolen reports. "Local Artist Has Painting Hanging In The White House, Chaz Guest
Chaz Guest
painted a portrait of the late Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
- VIDEO".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Mary Ann Akers. "Artist Paints Portrait of 'President Obama'".  ^ What to Know About the Real Case that Inspired the Movie Marshall, by Lily Rothman, TIME magazine, 13 October 2017 ^ "Marshall marries Cecilia "Cissy" Suyat". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ "Sistema de Información de Trámite Legislativo". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ " NAACP
Spingarn Medal". Archived from the original on May 5, 2014.  ^ Four Freedoms Award#Freedom Medal ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation". Retrieved December 18, 2016. 

Further reading

Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Bland, Randall W. (1993). Private Pressure on Public Law: The Legal Career of Justice Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
1934–1991. New York: University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-8736-4 Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.  Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-1377-9.  Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505835-2.  Hodges, Ruth A., Reference Librarian. Justice Thurgood Marshall: A Selected Bibliography, (Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Washington, DC, February 1993). James Jr, Rawn (2010). Root and Branch: Charles Hamilton Houston, Thurgood Marshall, and the Struggle to End Segregation. Bloomsbury Press.  Kallen, Stuart A., ed. (1993). Thurgood Marshall: A Dream of Justice for All. Abdo and Daughters. ISBN 1-56239-258-1.  Mack, Kenneth W., (2012). Representing the Race: The Creation of the Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Lawyer. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-04687-0. Marshall, Thurgood (1950). "Mr. Justice Murphy and Civil Rights." 48 Michigan Law Review
Michigan Law Review
745. Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.  Tushnet, Mark V. (1994). Making Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936–1961. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510468-4; Tushnet, Mark V. (1997). Making Constitutional Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1961–1991. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509314-3 pp., 256. Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-8153-1176-8.  Vile, John R., ed. (2003). Great American Judges: An Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC–CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-989-8. . Watson, Bradley C. S. (2003). "The Jurisprudence of William Joseph Brennan, Jr., and Thurgood Marshall". In Frost, Bryan-Paul; Sikkenga, Jeffrey. History of American Political Thought. Lexington: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0623-6.  White, G. Edward (2007), The American Judicial Tradition: Profiles of Leading American Judges (3rd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513962-4. Williams, Juan, Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary (New York: New York Times, 1998). Promotional site for book ISBN 0-8129-3299-4; ISBN 978-0-8129-3299-7. Woodward, Robert; Armstrong, Scott (1979). The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York. ISBN 978-0-7432-7402-9. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thurgood Marshall.

Appearances on C-SPAN

Booknotes interview with Hunter Clark and Michael Davis on Thurgood Marshall: Warrior at the Bar, Rebel on the Bench, January 3, 1993. Booknotes interview with Juan Williams
Juan Williams
on Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary, October 11, 1998.

Fox, John, Expanding Civil Rights, Biographies of the Robes, Thurgood Marshall. Public Broadcasting Service. Oyez, official Supreme Court media, Thurgood Marshall. Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
at Find a Grave Oral History Interview with Thurgood Marshall, from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library FBI file on Thurgood Marshall

Legal offices

New seat Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit 1961–1965 Succeeded by Wilfred Feinberg

Preceded by Archibald Cox Solicitor General of the United States 1965–1967 Succeeded by Erwin Griswold

Preceded by Tom Clark Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1967–1991 Succeeded by Clarence Thomas

v t e

Civil rights
Civil rights

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore


Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins


Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in movement Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides


Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement


Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House
White House
Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council


Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg




Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune


Jim Crow laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington Movement African-American
churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights
Civil Rights
National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights
Civil Rights

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

General Counsel

Houston Marshall Carter Jones Atkins Hankins Henderson (acting) Hayes Ciccolo (acting) Keenan Berry

v t e

United States Solicitors General

Bristow Phillips Goode Jenks Chapman Taft Aldrich Maxwell Conrad Richards Hoyt Bowers Lehmann Bullitt Davis King Frierson Beck Mitchell Hughes Thacher Biggs Reed Jackson Biddle Fahy McGrath Perlman Cummings Sobeloff Rankin Cox Marshall Griswold Bork McCree Lee Fried Starr Days Dellinger Waxman Underwood Olson Clement Garre Kneedler Kagan Katyal Verrilli Gershengorn Francisco Wall Francisco

Acting officeholders shown in italics

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7


Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Warren Court

Chief Justice: Earl Warren
Earl Warren


H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall

The Burger Court

Chief Justice: Warren Earl Burger (1969–1986)


H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall


H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun


Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr.


Wm. O. Douglas Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist


Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens


Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor

The Rehnquist Court

Chief Justice: William Hubbs Rehnquist (1986–2005)


Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia


Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia A. Kennedy


B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia A. Kennedy D. Souter

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 52492199 LCCN: n50040903 ISNI: 0000 0000 8232 2775 GND: 119117479 SUDOC: 033450625 BNF: cb12431462n (data) SN