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The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
(1974) is a historical novel by Michael Shaara that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
in 1975. The book tells the story of the four days of the Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
in the American Civil War: June 30, 1863, as the troops of both the Union and the Confederacy move into battle around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and July 1, July 2, and July 3, when the battle was fought. The story is character-driven and told from the perspective of various protagonists. A film adaptation of the novel, titled Gettysburg, was released in 1993.

Contents

1 Plot introduction

1.1 Layout

2 Characters 3 Publication 4 Literary significance 5 Awards and nominations 6 Other media 7 References 8 Further reading

Plot introduction[edit] The title: J.L. Chamberlain, a major character, remembers reciting to his father the speech from Hamlet: "What a piece of work is man...in action how like an angel!" Chamberlain's father comments, "Well, boy, if he's an angel, he's sure a murderin' angel." In late June 1863, General Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
leads his army into Pennsylvania. By threatening Washington, D.C., he hopes to draw the Union army into battle and inflict a crushing defeat, which will bring an end to the war. Harrison, a spy, tells General James Longstreet, Lee's friend, that the Union army is drawing near. They go to Lee, who is reluctant to trust a spy, but has to, because his usual source of intelligence, Jeb Stuart's cavalry, is out of touch. He sets out to meet the enemy. At the road junction of Gettysburg, Confederate infantry encounters the Union cavalry of General John Buford. He seizes the high ground and holds it against a Confederate attack at dawn on July 1. Troops of General John Reynolds come to support Buford. Reynolds is killed and the Union troops are pushed back, but at nightfall they entrench on high ground while the Confederates celebrate what appears to them to be another Lee victory. Longstreet is filled with foreboding. On July 2, he tries to persuade Lee that the Union position is too strong. He urges Lee to march away and make the fight on more favorable ground. But Lee orders a flanking attack on the Union position. Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
of Maine is told by his superiors that he occupies the end of the Union line, and that he must hold at any cost. In a brilliant, costly action, Chamberlain succeeds in repulsing the Confederate attack. On July 3, Lee orders a frontal assault on the center of the Union line. Knowing it is doomed, Longstreet argues against it. But Lee is confident and Longstreet despairs. General George Pickett
George Pickett
leads the charge, which is turned back with heavy losses. A shaken Lee orders retreat. Chamberlain is now confident of Union victory. Layout[edit] Beginning with the famous section about Longstreet's spy Harrison gathering information about the movements and positions of the Federals, each day is told primarily from the perspectives of commanders of the two armies, including Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
and James Longstreet for the Confederacy, and Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
and John Buford
John Buford
for the Union.[1] Most chapters describe the emotion-laden decisions of these officers as they went into battle. Maps depicting the positioning of the troops as they went to battle, as they advanced, add to the sense of authenticity as decisions are made to advance and retreat with the armies. The author also uses the story of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles in the history of North America, to relate the causes of the Civil War and the motivations that led old friends to face each other on the battlefield. Characters[edit]

Confederacy

Robert Edward Lee
Robert Edward Lee
(Commanding general, Army of Northern Virginia) James Longstreet
James Longstreet
(Lieutenant General) George Pickett
George Pickett
(Major General) Lewis Addison Armistead
Lewis Addison Armistead
(Brigadier General) John Bell Hood
John Bell Hood
(Major General) Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
(Major General) James Lawson Kemper
James Lawson Kemper
(Brigadier General) Henry Heth
Henry Heth
(Major General) Jubal Anderson Early
Jubal Anderson Early
(Major General) James Ewell Brown Stuart (Major General) Richard Stoddart Ewell (Lieutenant General) Ambrose Powell Hill (Lieutenant General) Richard Brooke Garnett (Brigadier General) Moxley Sorrel
Moxley Sorrel
(Lieutenant Colonel) Walter H. Taylor
Walter H. Taylor
(Major) Arthur Fremantle
Arthur Fremantle
(Lieutenant Colonel, British Coldstream Guards) Henry Thomas Harrison
Henry Thomas Harrison
(Confederate spy)

Union

Joshua L. Chamberlain
Joshua L. Chamberlain
(Colonel) John Buford
John Buford
(Brigadier General) Thomas Chamberlain (Lieutenant) Winfield Scott Hancock
Winfield Scott Hancock
(Major General) William Gamble (Colonel) John Fulton Reynolds
John Fulton Reynolds
(Major General) George Meade
George Meade
(Commanding general, Army of the Potomac) Ellis Spear
Ellis Spear
(Captain) Buster Kilrain (Private, former Sergeant; the only fictional character)

Publication[edit] Publication of The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
and release of the movie have had two significant influences on modern perceptions of the Civil War. First, the actions of Chamberlain and the 20th Maine Infantry on Little Round Top have achieved enormous public awareness. Visitors touring the Gettysburg Battlefield
Gettysburg Battlefield
rank the 20th Maine monument as their most important stop. Second, since Shaara used the memoirs of General James Longstreet as a prime source for his history, the book has renewed the modern re-evaluation of Longstreet's reputation, damaged since the 1870s by the Lost Cause writers, such as Jubal A. Early. Literary significance[edit] General H. Norman Schwarzkopf
H. Norman Schwarzkopf
described The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
as "the best and most realistic historical novel about war that I have ever read." The filmmaker Ken Burns
Ken Burns
has mentioned the influence of the book in developing his interest in the Civil War and his subsequent production of the PBS
PBS
series on the subject. The book has also been cited by Joss Whedon as the original inspiration for his science fiction/Western hybrid series Firefly. Awards and nominations[edit] The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
received the 1975 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
has been required reading, at various times, at the US Army Officer Candidate School, The Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the U.S. Army War College, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, the U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces Detachment Officer Qualification Course, The Basic School for Marine Officers (TBS) and Saint Joseph's University. It is one of only two novels (the other being Once an Eagle by Anton Myrer) on the U.S. Army's recommended reading list for Officer Professional Development. Other media[edit] The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
was the source for the screenplay for the 1993 movie Gettysburg. Much dialogue in the movie comes directly from the book. The Firefly science fiction television series was developed by Joss Whedon after reading The Killer Angels. Homage to Shaara's novel was paid in the series' final episode, "Objects in Space". Singer-songwriter Steve Earle
Steve Earle
included a song on his 1999 bluegrass album, The Mountain, called "Dixieland", sung from the point of view of the character Buster Kilrain. A stage adaptation by Karen Tarjan was originally produced at Lifeline Theatre in Chicago in 2004, and again in the Fall of 2013. The adaptation was subsequently produced at Anchorage Community Theatre, the Wayside Theatre in Virginia, the Heritage Theatre in Maryland, Mother Road Theatre in New Mexico, and Michigan Shakespeare Festival. The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
was the title of the 2013 album by Swedish heavy metal artists Civil War, which included the song "Gettysburg", a song about the Battle of Gettysburg. A second stage adaptation by Brian Newell, "The Killer Angels, Soldiers of Gettysburg," opens May 5, 2017 at the Maverick Theater in Fullerton California. The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
is the favorite book of Conan O'Brien.[2] References[edit]

^ "Chamberlain" Study Guide at What So Proudly We Hail Curriculum. Retrieved 22 February 2012. ^ "I'm Conan O'Brien, host of CONAN on TBS and renowned microbiologist. Ask me anything! • r/IAmA". reddit. 

Further reading[edit]

Eishen, Thomas, Courage on Little Round Top, Skyward Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1-881554-38-4. Guelzo, Allen C., Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, Knopf, 2013, ISBN 0-307594-08-4. Hartwig, D. Scott, A Killer Angels Companion, Thomas Publications, 1996, ISBN 0-939631-95-4. Smithpeters, Jeff, To the Latest Generation: Post Cold War Civil War Novels in Their Contemporary Contexts, doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University, 2005. The dissertation argues that The Killer Angels is a response to the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and to a longing for the leadership of John F. and Robert F. Kennedy.

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

1918–1925

His Family
His Family
by Ernest Poole
Ernest Poole
(1918) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1919) The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
by Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
(1921) Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1922) One of Ours
One of Ours
by Willa Cather
Willa Cather
(1923) The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins
by Margaret Wilson (1924) So Big by Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber
(1925)

1926–1950

Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) Early Autumn
Early Autumn
by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary
by Julia Peterkin (1929) Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930) Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) The Good Earth
The Good Earth
by Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck
(1932) The Store
The Store
by Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
(1933) Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom
by Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller
(1934) Now in November
Now in November
by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn
by Harold L. Davis (1936) Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
(1937) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
by John Phillips Marquand (1938) The Yearling
The Yearling
by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1940) In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow
Ellen Glasgow
(1942) Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark
by Martin Flavin (1944) A Bell for Adano by John Hersey
John Hersey
(1945) All the King's Men
All the King's Men
by Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren
(1947) Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific
by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor
by James Gould Cozzens (1949) The Way West
The Way West
by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)

1951–1975

The Town by Conrad Richter (1951) The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(1953) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor
MacKinlay Kantor
(1956) A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
by James Agee
James Agee
(1958) The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Allen Drury
(1960) To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(1961) The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor (1962) The Reivers
The Reivers
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House
by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner
by William Styron
William Styron
(1968) House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
by N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1969) The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter
by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
by Michael Shaara (1975)

1976–2000

Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson
(1978) The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song
by Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
(1980) A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces
by John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole
(1981) Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich
by John Updike
John Updike
(1982) The Color Purple
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984) Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985) Lonesome Dove
Lonesome Dove
by Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
(1986) A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis
by Peter Taylor (1987) Beloved by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) Breathing Lessons
Breathing Lessons
by Anne Tyler (1989) The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) Rabbit at Rest by John Updike
John Updike
(1991) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
by Jane Smiley
Jane Smiley
(1992) A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
by Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler
(1993) The Shipping News
The Shipping News
by E. Annie Proulx
Annie Proulx
(1994) The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries
by Carol Shields (1995) Independence Day by Richard Ford
Richard Ford
(1996) Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997) American Pastoral
American Pastoral
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) The Hours by Michael Cunningham
Michael Cunningham
(1999) Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri
(2000)

2001–present

The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2001) Empire Falls
Empire Falls
by Richard Russo
Richard Russo
(2002) Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
Jeffrey Eugenides
(2003) The Known World
The Known World
by Edward P. Jones (2004) Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2005) March by Geraldine Brooks (2006) The Road
The Road
by Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
(2007) The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
by Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(2008) Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2009) Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010) A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan
Jennifer Egan
(2011) No award given (2012) The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son
by Adam Johnson (2013) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014) All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See
by Anthony Doerr
Anthony Doerr
(2015) The Sympathizer
The Sympathizer
by Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen
(2016) The Underground Railroad by Colson Whit

.