Coca-Cola Company, which is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, but
incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware, is an American multinational
beverage corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of
nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. The company is best
known for its flagship product Coca-Cola, invented in 1886 by
pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia. The Coca-Cola
formula and brand were bought in 1889 by
Asa Griggs Candler
Asa Griggs Candler (December
30, 1851 – March 12, 1929), who incorporated The
in 1892. The company has operated a franchised distribution system
since 1889, wherein The
Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup
concentrate, which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the
world who hold exclusive territories. The
Coca-Cola Company owns its
anchor bottler in North America,
The company's stock is listed on the NYSE (NYSE: KO) and is part of
DJIA, the S&P 500 index, the Russell 1000 Index, and the Russell
1000 Growth Stock Index.
Muhtar Kent serves as chairman of the company
James Quincey as president and chief executive officer.
2 Revenue and sales
4 Staff and management
6 Consumer relations and civic involvement
9 Products and brands
9.1 Non-food assets
9.1.1 Columbia Pictures
9.1.2 World of Coca-Cola
9.2.2 Other soft drinks
9.2.4 Healthy beverages
9.2.5 Best selling
9.2.7 Green tea
9.2.9 Huiyuan Juice
9.2.10 Coke Mini can
9.2.11 Holiday can
9.2.12 Stake in Monster Beverage
10.3 Theme parks
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Main article: Coca-Cola
The company has a long history of acquisitions.
Minute Maid in 1960, the Indian cola brand
Thums Up in 1993, and
Barq's in 1995. In 2001, it acquired the
Odwalla brand of fruit
juices, smoothies, and bars for $181 million. In 2007, it
Beverage from founder Lance Collins and Castanea
Partners for an estimated $250 million. The company's
2009 bid to buy a Chinese juice maker ended when China rejected its
$2.4 billion bid for the
Huiyuan Juice Group, on the grounds the
resulting company would be a virtual monopoly. Nationalism was
also thought to be a reason for aborting the deal. In 1982,
Columbia Pictures for $692 million. It sold the
movie studio to Sony, for $3 billion, in 1989. In 2013, Coca-Cola
finalized its purchase of ZICO, a coconut water company.
In 2011, the
Coca-Cola company bought the rest of the organic tea
company Honest Tea, after buying a 40% stake in the company in
2008. In 2015, the company took a minority stake ownership in the
cold pressed juice manufacturer, Suja Life LLC.
Revenue and sales
Minute Maid group North America offices in
Sugar Land Town Square, Sugar Land, Texas, United States
According to The
Coca-Cola Company's 2005 Annual Report, the firm at
that time sold beverage products in more than 200 countries. The
2005 report further states that of the more than 50 billion
beverage servings of all types consumed worldwide, daily, beverages
bearing the trademarks owned by or licensed to
Coca-Cola account for
approximately 1.5 billion. Of these, beverages bearing the
trademark "Coca-Cola" or "Coke" accounted for approximately 78% of the
company's total gallon sales. According to the 2007 Annual Report,
Coca-Cola had gallon sales distributed as follows: 43% in the United
States, 37% in Mexico, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Japan, and the
People's Republic of China, and 20% spread throughout the rest of the
world. The figure in 2010 showed that they sold
1.6 billion drinks every day.
In 2010, it was announced that
Coca-Cola had become the first brand to
top £1 billion in annual UK grocery sales. In 2017, Coke
sales were down 11% from a year ago due to consumer tastes shifting
away from sugary drinks and due to health risks associated with
artificial sweeteners in Diet drinks.
Certificate of Purchase Class A Stock for 20 Shares of The Coca-Cola
Company, issued 20. February 1929
Since the 1920s,
Coca-Cola has been a publicly traded company. One
share of stock purchased in 1919 for $40, with all dividends
reinvested, would be worth $9.8 million in 2012, a 10.7% annual
increase, adjusted for inflation. In 1987,
Coca-Cola once again
became one of the 30 stocks which makes up the Dow Jones Industrial
Average, which is commonly referenced as a proxy for stock market
performance; it had previously been a Dow stock from 1932 to 1935.
Coca-Cola has paid a dividend, increasing each year for 49
years. Stock is available from a direct purchase program,
through Computershare Trust Company, but unlike many programs, has
Staff and management
Main page: Category:
The following are key management as of May 2017 (excluding VP
positions and regional leaders):
Muhtar Kent (Chairman of the Board)
James Quincey (President and Chief Executive Officer)
Marcos de Quinto (Chief Marketing Officer)
J. Alexander M. Douglas, Jr. (President, Coca‑
Cola North America)
Ceree Eberly (Chief People Officer)
Irial Finan (President, Bottling Investments Group)
Bernhard Goepelt (General Counsel and Chief Legal Counsel)
Julie Hamilton (Chief Customer and Commercial Leadership Officer)
Brent Hastie (Senior Vice President, Strategy and Planning)
Ed Hays (Chief Technical Officer)
Barry Simpson (Chief Information Officer)
Clyde C. Tuggle (Chief Public Affairs and Communications Officer)
Kathy N. Waller (Chief Financial Officer)
Craig Williams (President, The
The following are all directors as of November 2016:
See also: Category:Directors of The
Muhtar Kent (Chairman)
Herbert A. Allen Jr.
Ronald W. Allen
Howard G. Buffett
Richard M. Daley
Helene D. Gayle
Alexis M. Herman
Maria Elena Lagomasino
David B. Weinberg
In general, The
Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiaries only produce
syrup concentrate, which is then sold to various bottlers throughout
the world who hold a local
who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce
the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in
combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then
sell, distribute, and merchandise the resulting
Coca-Cola product to
retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service
distributors. Outside the United States, these bottlers also control
the fountain business.
Since the early 1980s, the company has actively encouraged the
consolidation of bottlers, with the company often owning a share of
these "anchor bottlers".
Outside North America
The company's largest bottlers outside North America are:
Coca-Cola Amatil, based in
Australia (Australia, New Zealand,
Indonesia, South Pacific nations) (Company owns a share)
Coca-Cola European Partners PLC, based in the
United Kingdom (western
Europe) (Company owns share)
Coca-Cola Bottling Shqipëria, based in Albania
Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc., based in the Philippines, a
joint venture between the company and
Coca-Cola FEMSA, based in
Mexico (parts of
Mexico and Latin America)
(Company owns share)
Arca Continental, also based in
Mexico (parts of
Mexico and Latin
America and in US under
Coca-Cola Southwest Beverages LLC in the state
of Texas and parts of New Mexico, Oklahoma and Arkansas )
Embotelladora Andina S.A, based in
Chile (southern South America)
Coca-Cola Beverages Africa, based in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
(southern and eastern Africa) (company owns share)
Coca-Cola Korea, based in
South Korea (independent)
Coca-Cola HBC AG, originally based in
Greece but now located in
Switzerland (Greece, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Nigeria) (Company
Coca-Cola Icecek, based in
Turkey (Turkey, southwest Asia, Arabia)
(Company owns share)
Swire Group, based in
Hong Kong (China, Taiwan, Hong Kong)
Kirin Company, based in
In the United States
Coca-Cola Bottling Company
In the United States, the company bypasses bottlers and is responsible
for the manufacture and sale of fountain syrups directly to authorized
fountain wholesalers and some fountain retailers.
After purchasing the North American assets of
as of 2014 the company directly owns 100% of
the anchor bottler of
Coca-Cola products in North America,
representing about 90% of Canada and 80% of the United
Other major bottlers in the
United States are:
Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated, based in Charlotte, North
Carolina (company owns share)
Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Northern New England based in Bedford,
New Hampshire and owned by Kirin Company
Coca-Cola Bottling Company United, based in Birmingham, Alabama
Coca-Cola USA, based in
Salt Lake City, Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah and owned by Swire
In September 2015, the company announced the sale of several
production plants and territories to Swire, Consolidated, and United,
and creation of the
Coca-Cola National Product Supply System which
controls 95% of the territory in the United States.
Consumer relations and civic involvement
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, plans
for an interracial celebratory dinner in still-segregated
not initially well supported by the city's business elite until
J. Paul Austin, the chairman and CEO of Coca-Cola, and Mayor Ivan
Allen summoned key
Atlanta business leaders to the Commerce Club's
eighteenth floor dining room, where Austin told them flatly, 'It is
Coca-Cola to be located in a city that refuses to
honor its Nobel Prize winner. We are an international business. The
Coca-Cola Company does not need Atlanta. You all need to decide
Atlanta needs the
Coca-Cola Company.' Within two hours of the
end of that meeting, every ticket to the dinner was sold.
— Andrew Young
Coca-Cola contributed $1,700,500 to a $46 million
political campaign known as "The Coalition Against The Costly Food
Labeling Proposition, sponsored by Farmers and Food Producers".
This organization was set up to oppose a citizen's initiative, known
as Proposition 37, demanding mandatory labeling of foods containing
genetically modified ingredients.
Coca-Cola was listed as a partner of the (RED) campaign,
together with other brands such as Nike, Girl, American Express, and
Converse. The campaign's mission is to prevent the transmission of the
HIV virus from mother to child by 2015 (the campaign's byline is
"Fighting For An AIDS Free Generation").
Main article: Criticism of Coca-Cola
Since the early 2000s, the criticisms over the use of Coca-Cola
products as well as the company itself, escalated with concerns over
health effects, environmental issues, animal testing, economic
business practices and employee issues. The
Coca-Cola Company has been
faced with multiple lawsuits concerning these various criticisms.
Chevrolet Express wagon from The
Coca-Cola advertising has "been among the most prolific in marketing
history", with a notable and major impact on popular culture and
society as a whole.
The logo, bottle design, and brand image are internationally
recognizable. Their product is ranked the number one soft drink,
repeatedly, internationally, and has notoriety as the first soft drink
consumed by astronauts in space.
Coca-Cola employs a diverse range of
integrated marketing communications to advertise through direct
marketing, web based media, social media, and sales promotions
The company carefully considers all touch points a consumer (or
prospective consumer) has with the brand as potential delivery
channels for the brand's message, and makes use of all relevant
communication systems. This well established, long standing,
consistent approach has created a longing for the product that by far
"superseded the desire for that typically associated with a drink to
quench one's thirst" (Dudovskiy, 2015).
They have exclusive vendor company partnerships, which eliminates
competition, e.g. cinemas and restaurants only serving
Pepsi. At sponsored sporting events, they again eliminate competition
by attaining sole sale rights as well as VIP sales opportunities to
important clients, e.g., baseball fields.
The company also markets via mobile marketing in text messages, e.g.
viral marketing campaigns (Stringer, 2015).
Web and social media
They set the industry benchmark as the brand so universally recognized
that audience building is unnecessary. Their fan engagement spans 86
million globally across social media channels. They deliver a
consistently unified message whether it be through new products,
online interaction, and social, cultural, or sporting events
Sales and promotions
In the retail setting, direct store beverage delivery trucks (mobile
advertising) as well as point of sale coolers and vending machines
have bright red logo blazoned branding. In terms of food service,
Coca-Cola is a food pairing suggestion that is now ingrained as a food
match, e.g., for popcorn, burgers, fries, and hot dog combos
Products and brands
Main article: List of
See also: List of assets owned by The
Coca-Cola Company's office building in
Coca-Cola Company offers more than 350 brands in over 200
countries, aside from its namesake
Columbia Pictures in 1981 owing to the low monetary
value of the studio. The film company was the first and only studio
ever owned by Coca-Cola. During its ownership of the studio, the
studio released many popular films including Ghostbusters, Stripes,
The Karate Kid, and some others. However, after the 1987 film Ishtar,
Columbia was sold to Tokyo-based Sony.
World of Coca-Cola
Main article: World of Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola operates a soft drink themed tourist attraction in Atlanta,
Georgia; the World of
Coca-Cola is a multi-storied exhibition. It
features flavor sampling and a history museum, with locations in Las
Vegas, Nevada and Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
Tab was Coca-Cola's first attempt to develop a diet soft drink, using
saccharin as a sugar substitute. Introduced in 1963, the product is
still sold today, although its sales have dwindled since the
introduction of Diet Coke. The Tab soft drink is difficult to locate
in recent times, due to its de facto replacement by Diet Coke.
Other soft drinks
Coca-Cola Company also produces a number of other soft drinks
Fanta (introduced circa 1941) and Sprite. Fanta's origins
date back to World War II during a trade embargo against Germany on
cola syrup, making it impossible to sell
Coca-Cola in Germany. Max
Keith, the head of Coca-Cola's German office during the war, decided
to create a new product for the German market, made from products only
available in Germany at the time, which they named Fanta. The
drink proved to be a hit, and when Coke took over again after the war,
it adopted the
Fanta brand as well.
Fanta was originally an orange
flavored soft drink which can come in plastic bottles or cans. It has
become available in many different flavors now such as grape, peach,
grapefruit, apple, pineapple, and strawberry.
Coca-Cola introduced Sprite, a lemon-lime soft drink, and
another of the company's bestsellers and its response to 7 Up.
An ad in Berlin, Germany.
Coca-Cola South Africa also released
Valpre Bottled "still" and
In 1969, the company released Simba, which was a take on Mountain Dew,
and had packaging that was African desert themed, replete with an
African Lion as the symbol of the brand. The tagline was "Simba - It
Cures the African Thirst."
Also in 1969, the company released a line of products under the name
of Santiba, which was targeted for mixing cocktails and party usage,
products including Quinine water and Ginger Ale. Like the
above-mentioned Simba, the
Santiba line of products was short lived in
Main article: BreakMate
No longer manufactured, the
BreakMate was a three-flavour
dispenser introduced by
Siemens in 1988. Intended for
use in offices with five to fifty people, its refrigerated
compartment held three individual one-litre plastic containers of soda
syrup and a CO2 tank. Like a soda fountain, it mixed syrup in a 1:5
ratio with carbonated water. In North America,
BreakMate parts in 2007 and stopped distributing the syrup in
During the 1990s, the company responded to the growing consumer
interest in healthy beverages by introducing several new
non-carbonated beverage brands. These included
Minute Maid Juices to
Powerade sports beverage, flavored tea
Nestea (in a joint venture
Fruitopia fruit drink, and
Dasani water, among others.
Minute Maid division launched the
Simply Orange brand of
juices including orange juice. 2016,
Coca-Cola India introduced Vio
(flavoured milk) to enter into the value added dairy category, the
product lays the foundation for Coca-Cola's new segment after
Carbonated beverages: Water and Juices.
In 2004, perhaps in response to the burgeoning popularity of
low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins diet,
its intention to develop and sell a low-carbohydrate alternative to
Coke Classic, dubbed C2 Cola. C2 contains a mix of high fructose corn
syrup, aspartame, sucralose, and Acesulfame potassium. C2 is designed
to more closely emulate the taste of
Coca-Cola Classic. Even with less
than half of the food energy and carbohydrates of standard soft
drinks, C2 is not a replacement for zero-calorie soft drinks such as
Diet Coke. C2 went on sale in the U.S. on June 11, 2004, and in Canada
in August 2004. C2's future is uncertain due to disappointing sales.
Starting in 2009, The
Coca-Cola Company invested in Innocent Drinks,
first with a minor stake, increasing to 90% in the first quarter of
It was in May 2014 when Finley, a sparkling fruit-flavoured drink, was
launched in France. It was launched in other countries later,
Luxembourg in September. The drink had first
been developed to start by
Coca-Cola in 2001 in Belgium. The drink
is targeted for adults, and is low in sugar with four flavors in
Coca-Cola is the best-selling soft drink in most countries, and was
recognized as the number one global brand in 2010. While the
Middle East is one of the only regions in the world where
not the number one soda drink,
Coca-Cola nonetheless holds almost 25%
marketshare (to Pepsi's 75%) and had double-digit growth in 2003.
Similarly, in Scotland, where the locally produced
Irn-Bru was once
more popular, 2005 figures show that both
Diet Coke now
outsell Irn-Bru. In Peru, the native
Inca Kola has been more
popular than Coca-Cola, which prompted
Coca-Cola to enter in
negotiations with the soft drink's company and buy 50% of its stakes.
In Japan, the best selling soft drink is not cola, as (canned) tea and
coffee are more popular. As such, The
Coca-Cola Company's best
selling brand there is not Coca-Cola, but Georgia. In May 2016,
Coca-Cola Company temporarily halted production of its signature
drink in Venezuela due to sugar shortages. Since then, The
Coca-Cola Company has since been using "minimum inventories of raw
material" to make their signature drinks at two production plants in
On July 6, 2006, a
Coca-Cola employee and two other people were
arrested and charged with trying to sell trade secrets information to
the soft drink maker's competitor,
PepsiCo for $1.5 million. The
recipe for Coca-Cola, perhaps the company's most closely guarded
secret, was never in jeopardy. Instead, the information was related to
a new beverage in development.
Coca-Cola executives verified that the
documents were valid and proprietary. At least one glass vial
containing a sample of a new drink was offered for sale, court
documents said. The conspiracy was revealed by PepsiCo, which notified
the authorities when they were approached by the conspirators.
The company announced a new "negative calorie" green tea drink,
Enviga, in 2006, along with trying coffee retail concepts Far Coast
On May 25, 2007,
Coca-Cola announced it would purchase Glaceau, a
maker of flavored vitamin-enhanced drinks (vitamin water), flavored
waters, and Burn energy drinks, for $4.1 billion in cash.
On September 3, 2008,
Coca-Cola announced its intention to make cash
offers to purchase China
Huiyuan Juice Group Limited (which has a 42%
share of the Chinese pure fruit juice market) for US$2.4bn
(HK$12.20 per share). China's ministry of commerce blocked the
deal on March 18, 2009, arguing that the deal would hurt small local
juice companies, could have pushed up juice market prices, and limited
Coke Mini can
In October 2009,
Coca-Cola revealed its new 90-calorie mini can that
holds 7.5 fluid ounces. The mini can is often sold in 8 packs.
Despite costing nearly 30 percent more per ounce, the mini cans have
been met with positive sales figures.
In November 2011,
Coca-Cola revealed a seasonal design for their
regular Coke cans as part of a partnership with the World Wildlife
Fund. However it was withdrawn only a month after release due to
consumer complaints about the similar look to the silver cans commonly
used for Diet Coke. There were also complaints about deviating from
traditional red as the color of
Coca-Cola cans previously.
Stake in Monster Beverage
It was announced on August 14, 2014, that
Coca-Cola Co is making a
cash payment of $2.15 billion for a 16.7 percent stake in Monster
Beverage Corp to expand its market for energy drinks. Coke's ownership
in Full Throttle and Burn will be transferred to Monster. In return,
Monster will transfer its ownership in Hansen's Natural Sodas and
Peace Iced Tea to Coke. Muhtar Kent, Coke's Chief Executive Officer,
stated that the company has the option to increase its stake to 25
percent but cannot exceed that percentage in the next four
Coca-Cola's advertising expenses accounted for US$3.256 billion in
Coca-Cola sponsored the English
Football League from the beginning of
the 2004–05 season (beginning August 2004) to the start of 2010/11
season, when the
Football League replaced it with NPower.[citation
needed] Along with this,
Coca-Cola sponsored the
Camp, that took place in Pretoria, South Africa during the 2010 FIFA
World Cup, during which hundreds of teenagers from around the world
were able to come together and share their love of the game, partly
due to Best Buy's efforts through their @15 program.
Other major sponsorships include the AFL; NHRA; NASCAR; the PGA Tour;
NCAA Championships; the Olympic Games; the NRL; the FIFA World Cups;
and the UEFA European Championships. Each Fall,
Coca-Cola is the sponsor of the
TOUR Championship by
Coca-Cola held at
East Lake Golf Club
East Lake Golf Club in Atlanta, GA. The
TOUR Championship is the
season ending tournament of the PGA TOUR. In the
Philippines, it has a team in the Philippine Basketball Association,
Powerade Tigers.
The company sponsored the popular Fox singing-competition series
American Idol from 2002 until 2014.
Coca-Cola is a sponsor of the nightly talk show on PBS, Charlie Rose
in the US.
Coca-Cola are also executive producers of Coke Studio (Pakistan).
There are various adaptations of Coke Studio such as Coke Studio
(India) and Coke Studio (Middle East).
While not necessarily having naming rights to anything in all
locations, the company does sponsor and provide beverages in many
theme parks, usually in an exclusive capacity. This includes the Walt
Disney Parks and Resorts,[a] Merlin Entertainment, Universal Parks
& Resorts, Six Flags, Cedar Fair, and
SeaWorld Entertainment which
are six of the nine largest theme park operators worldwide (it is
unknown whether OCT Parks China, the Chimelong Group, or Fantawild,
the fourth, seventh, and eighth largest theme park operators
respectively, use Coca-Cola).
The company also directly sponsors, with naming rights, the Coca-Cola
London Eye and the
Coca-Cola Orlando Eye.
The company also operates "Coca-Cola" visitor centers in Israel,
Belgium and Turkey. 
List of assets owned by The
Stepan Company – produces coca leaf extract
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Coca-Cola Bottling Co. (1944)
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Limca Book of Records
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List of brand name soft drinks products
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