HOME
The Info List - The Barricades

The Barricades
Barricades
(Latvian: Barikādes) were a series of confrontations between the Republic of Latvia
Latvia
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in January 1991 which took place mainly in Riga. The events are named for the popular effort of building and protecting barricades from 13 January until about 27 January. Latvia, which had declared restoration of independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
a year earlier, anticipated that Soviet Union
Soviet Union
might attempt to regain control over the country by force. After attacks by the Soviet OMON
OMON
on Riga
Riga
in early January, the government called on people to build barricades for protection of possible targets (mainly in the capital city of Riga
Riga
and nearby Ulbroka, as well as Kuldīga
Kuldīga
and Liepāja). Six people were killed in further attacks, several were wounded in shootings or beaten by OMON. Most victims were shot during the Soviet attack on the Latvian Ministry of the Interior on January 20. One other person died in a building accident reinforcing the barricades. Casualties among Soviet loyalists are considered likely, but the exact number remains unknown. A total of 15,611 people have registered as having been participants of the Barricades,[citation needed] but other data suggests that more than 32,000 Latvians took part.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Soviet military crackdown threat 3 Attacks in early January 4 Construction of the Barricades 5 Fighting 6 Aftermath and further developments 7 Responsibility 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 References

Background[edit] Main article: History of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1985–1991) During World War II
World War II
Latvia
Latvia
had been occupied by USSR. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev introduced glasnost and perestroika policies, hoping to salvage the failing Soviet economy. The reforms also lessened restrictions on political freedom in the Soviet Union. This led to unintended consequences as problems within the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and crimes of the Soviet regime, previously kept secret and denied by the government, were exposed, causing public dissatisfaction, further deepened by the war in Afghanistan and the Chernobyl disaster. Another unintended consequence of Glasnost for the Soviet central authorities was the long-suppressed nationalist sentiments that were released in the republics of the Soviet Union. Massive demonstrations against the Soviet regime began. In Latvia
Latvia
an independence movement started. The supporters of independence - the Popular Front of Latvia, the Latvian Green Party and the Latvian National Independence Movement - won elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR, on 18 March 1990 and formed the Popular Front of Latvia
Latvia
faction, leaving the pro-Soviet Equal Rights faction in opposition. On 4 May 1990, the Supreme Soviet, which afterwards became known as the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia, declared the restoration of independence of Latvia
Latvia
and began secession from the Soviet Union. The USSR did not recognize these actions and considered them contrary to the Soviet federal and republican constitutions. Consequently, tension in relations between Latvia
Latvia
and the Soviet Union and between the independence movement and pro-Soviet forces, such as the International Front of the Working People of Latvia
Latvia
(Interfront) and the Communist Party of Latvia, along with its All-Latvian Public Rescue Committee, grew.

Soviet military crackdown threat[edit] The pro-Soviet forces tried to provoke violence and seize power in Latvia. A series of bombings occurred in December 1990, Marshal of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Dmitry Yazov
Dmitry Yazov
admitted that the military was responsible for the first four bombings, perpetrators of the other bombings remain unknown, the pro-Communist press of the time blamed Latvian nationalists. The government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other pro-Soviet groups threatened that a state of emergency would be established which would grant unlimited authority in Latvia
Latvia
to President Gorbachev and military force would be used to "implement order in the Baltic Republics". At the time Soviet troops, OMON
OMON
units and KGB
KGB
forces were stationed in Latvia. On 23 December 1990 a large combat group of KGB was exposed in Jūrmala. It was rumored at the time that there would be a coup and a dictatorship would be established. Foreign minister of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Eduard Shevardnadze
Eduard Shevardnadze
seemingly confirmed this when he resigned on 20 December 1990, stating that a dictatorship was coming.[2] On 11 December 1990, the Popular Front released an announcement stating that there was no need for a climate of fear and hysteria in what was dubbed hour X - the unlimited authority of the president - would come and every person should be ready to consider what they would do if that happened. The Popular Front also made suggestions regarding what should be done until the hour X and afterwards, if Soviet forces were successful. These plans called for acts to show support for independence and attract the attention of international society, joining volunteer guard units, reasoning with Russians in Latvia
Latvia
explaining to them, especially military officers, that the ideas of the Popular Front are similar to those of Russian democrats. It also called for effort to protect the economy and ensure information circulation should also be made.[3] In case of Soviet control being successfully established, this plan called for a campaign of civil disobedience - ignoring any orders and requests of the Soviet authorities, as well as any Soviet elections and referendums, undermining the Soviet economy by going on strike and by following the absurdly elaborate Soviet manufacturing instructions to the letter in order to paralyze production, helping the independence movement to continue its work illegally and helping its supporters to get involved in the work of the Soviet institutions. Finally, carefully documenting any crimes Soviet forces might commit during the state of emergency.[3]

Attacks in early January[edit] Some of journalists who covered the Barricades
Barricades
(in 2013) On 2 January 1991 the OMON
OMON
seized the Preses Nams (English: Press House), the national printing house of Latvia
Latvia
and attacked Criminal police officers who were documenting the event.[4] The Supreme council held session in which it was reported that the manager of the Preses Nams was being held hostage, while other workers, although physically and verbally abused, were apparently allowed to leave the printing house. The Supreme council officially recognized the taking of the printing house as an illegal act on the part of the Communist Party of Latvia.[5] The Popular front organised protests at the Communist party building.[4] The printing house was partly paralysed as it continued to print only pro-Soviet press.[6] On 4 January the OMON
OMON
seized the telephone exchange in Vecmīlgrāvis, it is speculated that it was because the telephone lines the OMON
OMON
were using were cut off. Thereafter, the OMON
OMON
seized the Ministry of Internal Affairs but the phone wasn't cut off for fear that the OMON would attack the international telephone exchange.[7] Contrary to OMON
OMON
officer claims Boris Karlovich Pugo and Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
both claimed they were not informed of this attack. Meanwhile, the Soviet military was on the move - that same day an intelligence unit arrived in Riga. Then on 7 January, following the orders of Mikhail Gorbachev, Dmitriy Yazov sent commando units into several Republics of the Soviet Union including Latvia. On 11 January, the Military Council of the Baltic Military District was held. It decided to arm Soviet officers and cadets with machine guns. Open movement of Soviet troops and armored vehicles were seen in the streets of Riga.[4] Several meetings by both pro-independence and pro-Soviet movements were held on 10 January. Interfront held a meeting calling on the government of Latvia
Latvia
to resign. Some 50,000 people participated and tried to break into the Cabinet of Ministers building after being asked to do so by military personnel.[4]

Construction of the Barricades[edit] The memorial marking the spot where Andris Slapiņš, a cameraman, was killed during the attack on the Latvian Interior Ministry on 20 January. On 11 January, the Soviet military launched an attack on Latvia's neighbour, Lithuania. On 12 January, the Popular Front announced nationwide demonstrations to be held on 13 January in support of Latvia's lawfully elected government and the guarding of strategic objectives. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Russian SFSR called on the Soviet government to withdraw its military forces from the Baltic States. Leaders of the Latvian government met with Gorbachev who gave assurances that force would not be used. That night the Popular Front, after learning that Soviet forces in Lithuania
Lithuania
had attacked the Vilnius TV Tower
Vilnius TV Tower
and killed 13 civilians, called on people to gather for the defense of strategic objectives.[4] Due to a united effort of the Baltic states to regain their independence in the previous years of the singing revolution, an attack on one of them was perceived as an attack on all of them.[8] At 4:45 on 13 January, an announcement from the Popular Front was broadcast by Latvian radio calling people to gather in Riga
Riga
Cathedral square. At 12:00 noon the Supreme Council session on defense issues was held. At 14.00 the Popular Front's demonstration began, around 700,000 people had gathered, Soviet helicopters dropped leaflets with warnings over the crowd at this point. The Popular Front called on people to build barricades. The Supreme council held another session after the demonstration, the MPs were asked to stay at the Supreme council overnight. The evening session issued a call for Soviet soldiers asking them to disobey orders concerning the use of force against civilians.[9] As night came, following orders from the government, agricultural and construction machines and trucks full of logs arrived in Riga
Riga
to build barricades. Trucks, engineering vehicles and agricultural machinery were brought into the city to block streets. People had already been gathering during the day. Part of this crowd gathered in Riga
Riga
Cathedral Square as the Popular Front had asked in its morning announcement. Others gathered after the midday demonstration. They included colleagues and students. Some were organised by their employers and alma maters. Many families arrived, including women, the elderly and children. By that time most were already morally prepared that something could happen. People had arrived from all over the country. Barricades
Barricades
were largely perceived as a form of nonviolent resistance, people being ready to form a human shield. However, many people did arm themselves, using whatever was available, ranging from pieces of metal to specially crafted shields and civil defence supplies. Some had also prepared Molotov cocktails, but these were confiscated to ensure fire safety. The Latvian militia was armed with sub-machine guns and handguns. The Latvian government was later criticized for not providing weapons. These they had, as was evidenced after the OMON
OMON
seized the Ministry of Interior and removed a considerable number of weapons (it was asserted that there were 200 firearms in the ministry) Trucks were loaded with construction and demolition waste, logs and other cargo. Large concrete blocks, walls, wire obstacles and other materials were also used. The building work begun on the evening of 13 January and took about three hours. The main objects of strategic interest were the Supreme Council buildings (Old town near St. James's Cathedral), the Council of Ministers (City center near the Nativity of Christ Cathedral), Latvian Television (on Zaķusala), Latvian Radio (Old town near Riga
Riga
Cathedral), the International Telephone exchange offices (City center), Ulbroka radio and bridges. Barricades
Barricades
were also built in other parts of country, including in Liepāja
Liepāja
and Kuldīga.

Barricade in Jēkaba Street, July 1991 Care was taken to record the events, not only for accounting purposes and personal keepsakes, but also to show the world what was happening. About 300 foreign journalists worked in Riga
Riga
at the time.[10] The Latvian government ensured that the foreign press was provided with constant updates. Many strategic objects were important mainly for the transfer of information. This would ensure that if the Soviets did launch an attack, the Latvian forces could hold these locations long enough to inform the rest of the world. The international telephone exchange was important to maintain connections with both foreign countries and other parts of the USSR. An often noted example is Lithuania. It was partly cut off from the rest of the world after the Soviet attack. Foreign calls to Lithuania
Lithuania
were transferred through Riga. Latvian radio and television worked day and night to broadcast throughout the time of the barricades. Radio played an important part in life on the barricades. It was used to organize eating and sleeping arrangements, calling people together (e.g. students from the same university), for the various meetings. Artists were invited to entertain people. Foresters were asked to provide firewood for the bonfires that were widely used by the people manning the barricades. Food and drink was provided by a number of public institutions. Many well-wishers provided knit socks and gloves as well as refreshments. Places to sleep were often hard to find - schools were used where possible. Many people either slept at the barricades or went home. Some people experienced exacerbation of their health problems which was not helped by the winter climate, exhaustion and stress.[7] First Aid points were set up with additional medical supplies and equipment, some were based on existing locations. Beds were installed in a number and had teams composed of doctors from local hospitals. Shifts were formed by daily routine - people who went to their job, studies or home were replaced by people who returned to the barricades after their daily duties. Most workers who had been on the barricades later received their usual salary regardless of if they had or had not been to work. Prime minister Ivars Godmanis regularly held meetings with commanders of individual barricades, the Popular Front also participated to discuss tactics. It was decided to enforce protection of the most important objectives by assigning militia to their defense. The supplies for the barricades were coordinated by the Popular Front. The individual barricades were organised by regions. Thus, people from Vidzeme were assigned to barricades overseen by the Vidzeme suburb chapter of the Popular Front. The pro-Soviet forces tried to infiltrate barricades for sabotage. Rumors were spread that attacks were planned.[7]

Fighting[edit] On 14 January, the Soviet military demanded that Latvian laws be repealed. The OMON
OMON
attacked Brasa and Vecmilgrāvis bridges. 17 cars were burned during the day. On the night of 15 January the OMON
OMON
twice attacked the Riga
Riga
branch of the Minsk Militia Academy. Later that day 10,000 people gathered for an Interfront meeting, where an All-Latvian Public Rescue Committee declared that it was taking over power in Latvia. This announcement was broadcast in the Soviet media. On 16 January, the supreme council organised MPs to stay overnight at the supreme council building to ensure a quorum in case of need. At 4:45 pm, in another attack on Vecmilgrāvis bridge, a driver for the Latvian Ministry of Transport, Roberts Mūrnieks was killed - becoming the first fatality at the barricades. Two other people were also injured. At 6:30 pm the OMON
OMON
attacked Brasa bridge, injuring one person. Another bombing took place at 8:45 pm.[7] On 17 January, the alarm was sounded at the Barricades, the strike committee of the Communist Party of Latvia
Latvia
declared that fascism was being reborn in Latvia. A delegation of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the USSR visited Riga. Upon its return to Moscow, the delegation reported that Latvia
Latvia
was in favour of the establishment of unlimited authority of the USSR president. On 18 January the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
decided to form a national self-defense committee. The Popular Front withdrew its call to protect the barricades.

Roberts Mūrnieks' funeral On 19 January, the funeral of Roberts Mūrnieks turned into a demonstration. That night the OMON
OMON
arrested and beat up five members of a volunteer guard unit. On 20 January, about 100,000 people gathered in Moscow to show their support for the Baltic states, calling on Soviet officials to resign in connection with the events in Vilnius. That evening turned out to be the deadliest at the Barricades
Barricades
after the OMON
OMON
and other unidentified combat groups attacked the Latvian Interior Ministry. Two policemen (Vladimirs Gomanovičs and Sergejs Konoņenko), a schoolboy (Edijs Riekstiņš), and a cameraman (a colleague of director Juris Podnieks, Andris Slapiņš) were killed. Another cameraman, Gvido Zvaigzne, died later of his injuries.[11] Four Bauska policemen were injured, as were five participants of the barricades, a Hungarian journalist, and a Russian journalist. It was noted that the attackers also suffered casualties. After the battle, the OMON
OMON
moved into the Latvian communist party building. By the 20 January, the government also urged the transfer of control of the barricades to government forces. This was seen by some as disaffection with the whole idea. This opinion was enforced when part of the barricades were demolished after the government took control of them. On 21 January, the Supreme council called on youths to apply for a job in the Interior ministry system. Gorbunov left for Moscow to meet with Gorbachev to discuss the situation in Latvia. On 22 January, Pugo denied that he had ordered an attack on the interior ministry. Another person was killed on the barricades. On 24 January, the Council of ministers established a public safety department to guard the barricades. On 25 January, after the funeral of the 20 January victims, most defenders of the barricades went home.

Aftermath and further developments[edit] The actual barricades remained on the streets of Riga
Riga
for a long time; for example, those at the Supreme Council were removed only in the autumn of 1992.[7] In March partially in response to January events and partially because of upcoming Soviet referendum on preservation of federation, which Latvia
Latvia
intended to boycott, a poll on independence was held with 3/4 of participants voting in favor of independence. Latvia
Latvia
faced further attacks of Pro-Soviet forces later in 1991 - on 23 May, when OMON
OMON
launched attack on five Latvian border posts and during the Soviet coup attempt of 1991, when several strategic objectives guarded during the barricades were seized, with one civilian (driver Raimonds Salmiņš) killed by Soviet forces. The attempted coup prompted Latvian government, which originally had intended gradual secession from Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to declare full independence, which was recognized by Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 6 September. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was dissolved in December 1991.

Responsibility[edit] Major attacks were carried out by the OMON
OMON
of Riga, however another combat unit was seen during the attack on the Ministry of Interior Affairs. It has been speculated that this unit was Alpha Group
Alpha Group
which had been seen in action during the attack on Vilnius.[10] In an interview with film director Juris Podnieks, an OMON
OMON
officer stated that originally it was planned to attack Riga, not Vilnius. At the last moment, a week before the attack on Vilnius, the plan was suddenly changed. He also claimed that the OMON
OMON
of Rīga was so well prepared that there was no need for the Soviet military, which was present in Rīga at the time, to engage.[12] The OMON
OMON
did not act on their own - after the Preses Nams was seized the OMON
OMON
claimed that high officials of the Soviet government - Boris Pugo and Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
knew about the attack, however both denied their involvement and the Supreme Council blamed the Communist Party of Latvia. In December before the events, the Popular Front, in its instructions for X hour, asserted that a coup was planned by the "Soyuz" group of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the USSR MPs.[3] Dimitry Yuzhkov admitted that the Soviet military was responsible for the first bombings, however no one claimed responsibility for the rest of the bombings, which the communist press blamed on Latvian nationalists.[4] On the basis of these and subsequent events, several OMON
OMON
officers were tried, although many of them were not convicted, the Communist Party of Latvia, Interfront, the All-Latvian Public Rescue Committee and a few related organizations were banned by parliament for the attempted coup d'état, and two leaders of CPL and ALPRC were tried for treason.[13] [14] On 9 November 1999, the Riga
Riga
District Court found ten former Riga
Riga
OMON
OMON
officers guilty for their involvement in the attacks.[15] Viktor Alksnis
Viktor Alksnis
transplanted a large number of the Baltic OMON
OMON
forces to the Transnistrian territory of Moldova in support of the separatist regime there, where Vladimir Antyufeyev, commander of the Riga
Riga
OMON forces, took on the role of Minister of Security initially under an assumed name (Vladimir Shevstov), a post he held until 2012. Antyufeyev appeared in Ukraine as the "deputy prime minister" of the Russian-backed Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
in July 2014.[16] It is unlikely at this point that these members of OMON
OMON
will be brought to trial.[17]

Legacy[edit] 1 Lats commemorative coin of the Barricades Valdis Dombrovskis
Valdis Dombrovskis
(right) and Algirdas Butkevičius, prime ministers of Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, remembering those killed at the Barricades
Barricades
(20 January 2013) In 1995, a support fund for 'Participants of the Barricades
Barricades
of 1991' was created. The fund is for the families of victims. It also gathers information on participants.[18] In 2001 the fund created the 'Museum of the Barricades
Barricades
of 1991' to make historical materials it had gathered available to the public.[19] 20 January is the commemoration day of Participants of the Barricades, on this day as well as on 18 November, 4 May and 21 August. Participants of the barricades are awarded the Commemorative Medal for Participants of the Barricades
Barricades
of 1991. This award was established by the fund of 'Participants of the Barricades
Barricades
of 1991' in 1996. Since 1999 it is awarded by the state for those who had shown courage and unselfishness during the Barricades.[20][21] The Barricades
Barricades
are also commemorated by numerous monuments in Latvia.

See also[edit] January Events
January Events
- Lithuania Black January
Black January
- Azerbaijan Singing Revolution Baltic Way Communist Party of Latvia Day of the Barricades International Front of the Working People of Latvia Latvian independence movement Latvian National Awakening Latvian SSR Popular Front of Latvia References[edit]

^ Zaltāns, Kaspars (March 8, 2016). "Latvia's Barricades
Barricades
of Freedom – What Do They Mean 25 Years On?". Deep Baltic. Retrieved February 6, 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Dainis Īvāns
Dainis Īvāns
(13 January 1991). "Morning session of Supreme council on 13 January 1991" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2007-08-13. (Enquired what indicates that military dictatorship is starting) Pirmkārt, mēs visi ļoti labi atceramies Eduarda Ševardnadzes uzstāšanos Tautas deputātu kongresā un viņa brīdinājumu (English: First of all we all remember very well Eduard Shevardnadze's address to the Congress of Soviets and his warning)

^ a b c Popular Front of Latvia
Latvia
(11 December 1990). "The Popular Front of Latvia
Latvia
announcement to all supporters of independence". Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ a b c d e f "The History of confrontation". Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ "Session of Supreme council on 2 January 1991" (in Latvian). 2 January 1991. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ Einars Cilinskis (9 January 1991). "Session of Supreme council on 9 January 1991" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2007-08-13. Jo mēs zinām, ka Preses namā tagad drukā tikai komunistu presi. (English: Because we know that in Preses Nams now only communist press is printed)

^ a b c d e "Atmiņas par barikāžu dienām" (in Latvian). 2001. Archived from the original (doc) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-13.

^ Aleksandrs Kiršteins (13 January 1991). "Morning session of Supreme council on 13 January 1991" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2007-08-13. Protams, ka uzbrukums Lietuvai mums ir jāsaprot kā uzbrukums Latvijai un Igaunijai. (English: Of course, we should perceive the attack on Lithuania
Lithuania
as an attack on Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia)

^ "Evening session of Supreme council on 13 January 1991" (in Latvian). 13 January 1991. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ a b "Visi uz barikādēm!" (in Latvian). 14 January 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ Latvian Film Podnieks/Slapins

^ Zigurds Vidiņš (1999). Kurš pavēlēja šāvējiem? (wmv) (Documentary). Event occurs at 2:12. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia
Latvia
(10 September 1991). "Latvijas Republikas Augstākās Padomes lēmums "Par dažu sabiedrisko un sabiedriski politisko organizāciju darbības izbeigšanu"" (in Latvian). Latvijas Vēstnesis. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ "Latvijas Republikas Augstākās tiesas dokumenti Par A.Rubika un O.Potreki krimināllietu" (in Latvian). Latvijas Vēstnesis. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ 1999 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Latvia
Latvia
US Department of State. 23 February 2000. Retrieved 2013-06-13.

^ "The End of the Russian Fairy Tale" Anne Applebaum; Slate, July 18, 2014

^ Sprūde, Viesturs. Kur izklīduši «pēdējie impērijas kareivji» (Where are the last of the empire's warriors now?), Crimes Against Humanity site, http://vip.latnet.lv/lpra/mlinnix.htm, retrieved October 24, 2007.

^ "Barikāžu dalībnieku atbalsta fonds". Latvijas Enciklopēdija. I Volume. Riga: SIA "Valērija Belokoņa izdevniecība". 2002. p. 531. ISBN 9984-9482-1-8.

^ "1991. gada barikāžu muzejs". Retrieved 2007-08-13.

^ "Barikāžu dalībnieku atceres diena". Latvijas Enciklopēdija. I Volume. Riga: SIA "Valērija Belokoņa izdevniecība". 2002. p. 531. ISBN 9984-9482-1-8.

^ "Barikāžu dalībnieka piemiņas zīme". Latvijas Enciklopēdija. I Volume. Riga: SIA "Valērija Belokoņa izdevniecība". 2002. p. 531. ISBN 9984-9482-1-8.

vteRevolutions of 1989Internalbackground Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies Internationalbackground Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Reforms Uskoreniye Perestroika Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới Governmentleaders Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre Oppositionmethods Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action Oppositionleaders Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Viktor Orbán Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II Oppositionmovements Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces Eventsby locationCentral and Eastern Europe Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Soviet Union Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Elsewhere Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen Individualevents 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 1988 Polish strikes Polish Round Table Agreement April 9 tragedy Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Baltic Way Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Fall of the Berlin Wall Malta Summit Black January Helsinki Summit German reunification January Events
January Events
in Lithuania January Events
January Events
in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union Later events Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars Pink Tide

vteRestoration of the independence of the Baltic statesArmed struggleGroups and events Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
(1944–56) Forest Brothers Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters Operation Priboi
Operation Priboi
(1949) Operation Jungle
Operation Jungle
(1949–55) Freedom fighters August Sabbe Jānis Pīnups Pranas Končius Juozas Lukša Adolfas Ramanauskas Soviet dissident eraGroups and events Lithuanian Helsinki Group (1977–81) Lithuanian Liberty League
Lithuanian Liberty League
(1978–95) Baltic Appeal (1979) Letter of 40 Intellectuals (1980) Phosphorite War
Phosphorite War
(1987) MRP-AEG (1987–88) Dissidents Gunārs Astra Romas Kalanta Jüri Kukk Tiit Madisson Mart Niklus Lagle Parek Enn Tarto Tomas Venclova Political activism eraMovements ERSP Popular Front of Estonia Popular Front of Latvia Sąjūdis Estonian Citizens' Committee Congress of Estonia Activists Tunne Kelam Vytautas Landsbergis Lennart Meri Singing Revolution Hirvepark meeting (1987) Night Song Festivals (1988) Baltic Way
Baltic Way
(1989) Alo Mattiisen The Baltics Are Waking Up Key decisions Sovereignty Declaration of the Estonian SSR (1988) Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1990) On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia
Latvia
(1990) Final armed confrontations Soviet OMON
OMON
assaults on Lithuanian border posts January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia Post-independence crises Pullapää crisis (1993) Coup of the Volunteers
Coup of the Volunteers
(1993)

vteEastern BlocSoviet UnionCommunismFormation Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania Yalta Conference Annexed as, orinto, SSRs Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia Satellite states Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (to 1948) Annexing SSRs Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR Organizations Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY) Revolts andopposition Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January Cold War
Cold War
events Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin Split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis Conditions Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping Decline Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation