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Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,[1] is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the headquarters of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta
Cauvery Delta
and is known as the " Rice
Rice
bowl of Tamil Nadu". Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and had a population of 222,943 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city also has rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal
Karaikal
Port, which is 94 km (58 mi) away from Thanjavur. The city first rose to prominence during the reign of chola when it served as the capital of the empire. After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai
Madurai
Nayaks, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas
Thanjavur Marathas
and British Empire. It has been a part of independent India
India
since 1947.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography and climate 3 Tourism and culture 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Transport 7 Administration and politics 8 Education 9 Utility services 10 See also 11 Notes

11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Citations

12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Map of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
city in 1955

According to local legend, the word Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is derived from "Tanjan", an asura (giant) in Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
who was killed in what is now Thanjavur
Thanjavur
by the Hindu god Neelamegha Perumal, a form of Vishnu.[2][3] The word Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is indeed a Tamil name."Than"-cold, "chei"-farmland, "ur"- city, a city surrounded by cold farmlands. The word "Thancheiur" has become "Thanjavur". There are no references to Thanjavur
Thanjavur
in any of the Sangam period (third century BC to fourth century AD) Tamil records, though some scholars believe that the city has existed since that time. Kovil Venni, situated 15 miles (24 km) to the east of the city, was the site of the Battle of Venni between the Chola king Karikala
Karikala
and a confederacy of the Cheras and the Pandyas.[4] The Cholas
Cholas
seemed to have faced an invasion of the Kalabhras
Kalabhras
in the third century AD after which the kingdom faded into obscurity. The region around present day Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was conquered by the Mutharayars during the sixth century, who ruled it up to 849. The Cholas
Cholas
came to prominence once more through the rise of the Medieval Chola
Medieval Chola
monarch Vijayalaya
Vijayalaya
(841–878) in about 850.[5] Vijayalaya
Vijayalaya
conquered Thanjavur
Thanjavur
from the Mutharayar
Mutharayar
king Elango Mutharayar
Mutharayar
and built a temple dedicated to Hindu goddess Nisumbhasudani.[6] His son Aditya I
Aditya I
(871–901) consolidated the hold over the city.[5] The Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
king Krishna II (878–914), a contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I
Parantaka I
(907–950), claims to have conquered Thanjavur, but there are no records to support the claim.[7] Gradually, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
became the most important city in the Chola Empire and remained its capital till the emergence of Gangaikonda Cholapuram in about 1025.[8][9] During the first decade of the eleventh century, the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I
Raja Raja Chola I
(985–1014) constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
at Thanjavur. The temple is considered to be one of the best specimens of Tamil architecture.[10][11][12][13] When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas
Pandyas
from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur
Thanjavur
twice, first during 1218–19 and then during 1230. During the second invasion, the Chola king Rajaraja III (1216–56) was exiled and he sought the help of the Hoysala
Hoysala
king Vira Narasimha II (1220–35) to regain Thanjavur.[14] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was eventually annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1308) in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas.[15] The Pandyas
Pandyas
ruled Thanjavur
Thanjavur
from 1279 to 1311 when their kingdom was raided and annexed by the forces of Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
(1296–1306) and Delhi Sultanate.[16] The Sultanate extended its authority directly over the conquered regions from 1311 to 1335 and then through the semi-independent Ma'bar Sultanate
Ma'bar Sultanate
from 1335 to 1378. Starting from the 1350s, the Ma'bar Sultanate
Ma'bar Sultanate
was steadily absorbed into the rising Vijayanagar Empire.

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Timeline

800 — – 1000 — – 1200 — – 1400 — – 1600 — – 1800 — – 2000 —

Cholas

Pandyas

Delhi Sultanate

Vijayanagara Empire

Bhonsle
Bhonsle
dynasty of the Marathas

British

Independent India

An approximate time-scale of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
rulers.

Thajavur in 1869

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is believed to have been conquered by Kampanna Udayar during his invasion of Srirangam
Srirangam
between 1365 and 1371. Deva Raya's inscription dated 1443, Thirumala's inscription dated 1455 and Achuta Deva's land grants dated 1532 and 1539 attest Vijayanagar's dominance over Thanjavur.[8][16] Sevappa Nayak (1532–80), the Vijayanagar viceroy of Arcot, established himself as an independent monarch in 1532 (1549, according to some sources) and founded the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayak kingdom.[17] Achuthappa Nayak (1560–1614), Raghunatha Nayak (1600–34) and Vijaya Raghava Nayak (1634–73) are some of the important rulers of the Nayak dynasty who ruled Thanjavur.[11][18] Thanjavur Nayaks
Thanjavur Nayaks
were notable for their patronage of literature and arts.[19] The rule of the dynasty came to an end when Thanjavur
Thanjavur
fell to the Madurai Nayak
Madurai Nayak
king Chokkanatha Nayak
Chokkanatha Nayak
(1662–82) in 1673.[11] Vijaya Raghunatha Nayak, the son of Chokkanatha, was killed in a battle and Chokkanatha's brother Alagiri Nayak (1673–75) was crowned as the ruler of the empire.[20] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was successfully conquered in 1674 by Ekoji I
Ekoji I
(1675–84), the Maratha
Maratha
feudatory of the sultan of Bijapur and half-brother of Shivaji
Shivaji
(1627/30-80) of the Bhonsle
Bhonsle
dynasty. Ekoji founded the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom which ruled Thanjavur
Thanjavur
till 1855.[8][11] The Marathas
Marathas
exercised their sovereignty over Thanjavur
Thanjavur
throughout the last quarter of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century. The Maratha
Maratha
rulers patronized Carnatic music. In 1787, Amar Singh, the regent of Thanjavur, deposed the minor Raja, his nephew Serfoji II (1787–93) and captured the throne. Serfoji II
Serfoji II
was restored in 1799 with the assistance of the British, who induced him to relinquish the administration of the kingdom and left him in charge of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
fort and surrounding areas. The kingdom was eventually absorbed into British India
India
in 1855 by the Doctrine of Lapse when Shivaji
Shivaji
II (1832–55), the last Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
ruler, died without a legitimate male heir. The British referred to the city as Tanjore in their records.[8] Five years after its annexation, the British replaced Negapatam (modern-day Nagapattinam) with Thanjavur
Thanjavur
as the seat of the district administration. Under the British, Thanjavur emerged as an important regional centre. The 1871 India
India
census recorded a population of 52,171, making Thanjavur
Thanjavur
the third largest city in the Madras Presidency.[21] After India's independence, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
continued as the district headquarters.[22] Geography and climate[edit] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is located at 10°48′N 79°09′E / 10.8°N 79.15°E / 10.8; 79.15[23] The tributaries of river Cauvery, namely, the Grand Anaicut canal (Pudhaaru), Vadavaaru and Vennaaru rivers flow through the city. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is situated in the Cauvery delta, at a distance of 314 km (195 mi) south-west of Chennai
Chennai
and 56 km (35 mi) east of Tiruchirappalli. While the plains immediately adjoining the Cauvery
Cauvery
river have been under cultivation from time immemorial, most of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
city and the surrounding areas lie in the "New Delta" – a dry, barren upland tract which was brought under irrigation during the early 19th century.[24][25] To the south of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
city, is the Vallam tableland, a small plateau insterspersed at regular intervals by ridges of sandstone.[26] The nearest seaport is Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
which is 84 km (52 mi) east of Thanjavur. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
International Airport, located at a distance of 56 km (35 mi). The city has an elevation of 57 m (187 ft) above mean sea level. The total area of the city is 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi).[27]

Climate data for Thanjavur

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.2 (84.6) 32.0 (89.6) 35.0 (95) 36.3 (97.3) 38.1 (100.6) 37.5 (99.5) 34.6 (94.3) 34.1 (93.4) 34.0 (93.2) 33.0 (91.4) 29.4 (84.9) 28.3 (82.9) 33.46 (92.23)

Average low °C (°F) 18.2 (64.8) 19.2 (66.6) 21.3 (70.3) 24.8 (76.6) 26.3 (79.3) 26.0 (78.8) 25.1 (77.2) 24.6 (76.3) 24.1 (75.4) 22.9 (73.2) 20.8 (69.4) 19.2 (66.6) 22.71 (72.88)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.0 (1.299) 13.0 (0.512) 15.0 (0.591) 32.0 (1.26) 55.0 (2.165) 43.0 (1.693) 55.0 (2.165) 105.0 (4.134) 126.0 (4.961) 165.0 (6.496) 182.0 (7.165) 115.0 (4.528) 939 (36.97)

Source: CRIDA,[28]

The period from November to February in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is pleasant, with a climate full of warm days and cool nights.[29] The onset of summer is from March, with the mercury reaching its peak by the end of May and June.[29] The average temperatures range from 81 °F (27 °C) in January to 97 °F (36 °C) in May and June. Summer rains are sparse and the first monsoon, the South-West monsoon, commences in June and continues till September. North-East monsoon begins October and continues till January.[29] The rainfall during the South-West monsoon period is much lower than that of the North-East monsoon.[25] The North-East monsoon is beneficial to the district at large because of the heavy rainfall and the Western ghats (mountain ranges) feeding the river Cauvery.[29] The average rainfall is 37 inches (940 mm), most of which is contributed by the North-East monsoon.[25] Tourism and culture[edit] Further information: Brihadeeswarar Temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
and Great Living Chola Temples

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Royal Palace courtyard

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is an important pilgrim centre and a major tourist destination of Tamil Nadu.[30] South Zone Culture Centre
South Zone Culture Centre
in Thanjavur is one of the regional cultural centres established by the Government of India
India
to preserve and promote cultural heritage of India.[31] There were 2,002,225 Indian and 81,435 foreign tourist arrivals in 2009 to Thanjavur.[30] The most visited monument in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the Brihadeeswarar Temple, whose construction, the historian Percy Brown described as "a landmark in the evolution of building art in South India".[32][33] Built in the 11th century by the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I (985–1014), the temple is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.[33] The walls of the sanctum are covered with wall paintings from the Chola and Nayak periods.[34][35][36] The temple was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
in 1987. It is replicated in the Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple
Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple
constructed by Raja Raja's son Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(1012–44).[33][37] The Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
palace was the official residence of the Bhonsle family who ruled over the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
region from 1674 to 1855. It was originally constructed by the rulers of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayak kingdom and after their fall, it served as the official residence of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas.[38] When most of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom was annexed by the British Empire
British Empire
in 1799, the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas continued to hold sway over the palace and the surrounding fort. The southern side of the third quadrangle of the palace has a 190 ft (58 m) tower-like building, called the Goodagopuram.[38]

Bharathanatyam, the South Indian dance form in display in Brihadeeswarar Temple

The Saraswathi Mahal Library, established around 1700 and located in the premises of the palace, contains over 30,000 Indian and European manuscripts written on palm leaf and paper.[39] Over eighty per cent of its manuscripts are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and many of them are on palm leaves. The Tamil works include treatises on medicine, and commentaries on Sangam literature.[38] The Rajaraja Chola art gallery is located inside the palace – it has a large collection of stone and bronze images from the ninth to 12th centuries. Most of the idols present in the gallery were collected from various temples in the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
district.[40] The Sivaganga Park is situated to the east of the Brihadeeswarar Temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
and encompasses the Sivaganga Tank believed to have been built by the king Raja Raja Chola. It was created as a people's park by the Tanjore municipality in 1871–72.[41] It has a collection of plants, animals and birds and serves as a zoo for children within the city. [38]

Figure depicting a Tanjore painting

Schwartz Church, a historic monument located in the palace garden, was built in 1779 by Serfoji II
Serfoji II
as a token of affection for Rev. C.V. Schwartz of the Danish Mission.[38] There are five museums in the city, namely: Archeological Museum, Tamil University
Tamil University
Museum located with the Tamil University
Tamil University
premises, the Saraswathi Mahal Library Museum located inside the Saraswathi Mahal, Nayak Durbar Hall Art Museum and Rajaraja Chola Museum.[38] Raja Rajan Manimandapam is one of the tourist attractions in Thanjavur, built during the Thanjavur Tamil Conference in 1991.[38] "Sangeetha Mahal" has a permanent handicrafts exhibition centre. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the cradle for many of the arts and crafts in South India.[42] Carnatic music
Carnatic music
was codified in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and the art flourished during the Nayak rule in the 16th century.[43] Bharathanatyam, a classical dance form of South India, had its major styles developed in Thanjavur.[44] Sathaya Thiruvizha is the annual birthday festival of Raja Raja Chola held during October every year.[45] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the base for the Tyagaraja Aradhana, a Carnatic music
Carnatic music
festival held annually during January – February at Thiruvaiyaru, located 13 km (8.1 mi) away from the city.[46] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
painting is a major form of classical South Indian painting from Thanjavur. It dates back to about the 1600s, the period of Nayakas of Thanjavur, who encouraged art, classical dance and music literature, both in Telugu and Tamil. The art is usually a combination of raised and painted surfaces, with the Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
being the most popular image depicted. In modern times, these paintings have become souvenirs of festive occasions in South India, wall decors, and collectors' items for art lovers.[47][48]

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
"thalayatti bommai" stall

Economy[edit]

Paddy field
Paddy field
in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
District

The major occupation of the inhabitants of the city is tourism and service-oriented industry, while the traditional occupation is agriculture. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is known as the " Rice
Rice
bowl of Tamil Nadu". Paddy (unmilled rice) is the crop and the other crops grown are blackgram, banana, coconut, gingelly, ragi, red gram, green gram, sugarcane and maize. The total percentage of land fit for cultivation is 58%. There are three seasons for agriculture in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Kuruvai (June to September), Samba (August to January) and Thaladi (September, October to February, March).[49] The total rice production has been maintained at 10.615 L.M.T and 7.077 L.M.T. The city acts as a focal point for food grains transported from the adjoining areas of the Cauvery
Cauvery
Delta. Organic farming
Organic farming
is gradually becoming known to the farmers of Thanjavur. To maximise agricultural produce, organic farming is being implemented. Though agriculture is the main economic activity, only 7% of the population is involved in it. There is a lot of agricultural related trading that forms the key economic activity in the city.[50] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is an important centre of silk weaving in Tamil Nadu. There were 200 silk weaving units in the city in 1991 with around 80,000 people working in them.[50][51] The sarees produced in the villages surrounding Thanjavur
Thanjavur
are sold in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and neighbouring towns.[51] Increasing production costs and competition from large-scale producers have reduced the number of people involved in the production.[51] The city produces bell metal craft like Thanjavur metal plates, bronze images bowls, napkins and powder boxes made of copper and bronze. The city is a major manufacturer of pith works consisting of models of Hindu idols, mosques, garlands and other bird figurines. Manufacture of musical instruments like veena, tambura, violin, mrithamgam, thavil and kanjira is another economic activity in the city.[50] All major nationalised banks such as State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Overseas Bank
Indian Overseas Bank
and private banks like ICICI Bank, City Union Bank
City Union Bank
have their branches in Thanjavur. All these banks have their automated teller machines located in various parts of the city.[52] Demographics[edit]

Religious census

Religion

Percent(%)

Hindu

82.87%

Muslim

8.34%

Christian

8.58%

Sikh

0.01%

Buddhist

0.01%

Jain

0.06%

Other

0.11%

No religion

0.01%

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1871 52,171 —    

1881 54,745 +4.9%

1891 54,390 −0.6%

1901 57,870 +6.4%

1911 60,341 +4.3%

1921 59,913 −0.7%

1931 66,889 +11.6%

1941 68,702 +2.7%

1951 100,680 +46.5%

1961 111,099 +10.3%

1971 140,547 +26.5%

1981 184,015 +30.9%

1991 202,013 +9.8%

2001 215,725 +6.8%

2011 222,943 +3.3%

Sources:* 1871 – 1901: Imperial Gazette of India, Volume 23. Clarendon Press. 1908. * 1901 – 2001: "Populationmythu growth". Thanjavur
Thanjavur
municipality website. * 2011:[53]

According to 2011 census, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
had a population of 222,943 with a sex-ratio of 1,042 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[54] A total of 19,860 were under the age of six, constituting 10,237 males and 9,623 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 9.22% and .21% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 83.14%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[54] There were a total of 78,005 workers, comprising 803 cultivators, 2,331 main agricultural labourers, 2,746 in house hold industries, 65,211 other workers, 6,914 marginal workers, 110 marginal cultivators, 235 marginal agricultural labourers, 322 marginal workers in household industries and 6,247 other marginal workers.[53] As per the religious census of 2011, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
(M) had 82.87% Hindus, 8.34% Muslims, 8.58% Christians, 0.01% Sikhs, 0.01% Buddhists, 0.06% Jains, 0.11% following other religions and 0.01% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.[55] As of 2008, a total 2,013.34 ha (4,975.1 acres) (55.4%) of the land was used for residential, 11.32 ha (28.0 acres) (3.06%) for commercial, 82.68 ha (204.3 acres) (2.28%) for industrial, 320.2 ha (791 acres) (8.81%) for public & semi public, 108.11 ha (267.1 acres) (2.98%) for educational and 996.85 ha (2,463.3 acres) (27.47%) for agriculture.[56] Tamil is the widely spoken language, with the standard dialect being Central Tamil dialect. Telugu, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi and Saurashtra are other languages spoken in the city. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the cultural and political center of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi people. While Hindus
Hindus
form the majority, the city also has a substantial population of Muslims
Muslims
and Christians. Roman Catholics in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tanjore and Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.[57] The workforce is predominantly involved in service industry involving trade and commerce.[58] With the expansion of the city area, the opportunities for agriculture is limited and only 7% of the population is involved in it.[58] Transport[edit] Main articles: Transport in Thanjavur
Transport in Thanjavur
and Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Air Force Station

NH 67
NH 67
in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
City

The National Highways 67, 45C, 226 and 226 Extn pass through Thanjavur.[59] The city is connected with Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Karur, Tirupur, Vellore, Perambalur, Ariyalur, Mysuru, Salem, Cuddalore, Viluppuram, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai, Karaikal, Mannargudi, Pattukkottai, Dindigul, Pudukkottai, Karaikudi, Tirunelveli, Bengaluru, Ernakulam, Nagercoil, Tirupathi, Trivandrum
Trivandrum
and Ooty
Ooty
through regular bus services. Thanjavur had a single bus terminus located at the heart of the city.[59] An integrated bus terminus, called New Bus stand was constructed in 1997 near Raja Serfoji College to handle the passenger traffic. Thanjavur has a well-maintained sub-urban public transport system. Government and private buses operate frequently between the two bus termini and other towns and villages like Vallam, Budalur, Mohamed Bunder, Nadukkavery, Pillaiyarpatti, Vallam
Vallam
Pudursethi, Sengipatti, Thiruvaiyaru
Thiruvaiyaru
and Kuruvadipatti.[60]

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Junction railway station

The railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
Junction railway station to Chennai
Chennai
Egmore via Thanjavur, the Main Line is a historical line established by South Indian Railway Company
South Indian Railway Company
in 1879.[61] The Great South Indian Railway Company
South Indian Railway Company
(GSIR) operated a broad gauge rail service between Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
and Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
via Thanjavur
Thanjavur
between 1861 and 1875. During 1875 it was converted to a meter gauge line (MG line).[21] Modern day Thanjavur
Thanjavur
railway junction has three rail heads leading to Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
and Thiruvarur. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is connected by rail with most important cities and towns in India. There are daily express trains to Chennai, Mysore, Ernakulam, Thrissur, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Karur, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Rameswaram, Tiruchendur, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Viluppuram, Chengalpattu, Mannargudi, Bengaluru, Dindigul, Pudukkottai, Karaikudi, Sivagangai
Sivagangai
Manamadurai
Manamadurai
and weekly trains to Tirupati, Nellore, Itarsi, Visakhapatnam, Hubli, Vasco da Gama, Goa, Vijayawada, Nagpur, Jabalpur, Satna, Katni, Allahabad, Varanasi
Varanasi
and Bhubaneswar. There are frequent passenger trains from the city to towns like Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Karaikal, Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai
Mayiladuthurai
and Nagore.[62][63][64] In the early 1990s, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was connected with Chennai
Chennai
via the Vayudoot
Vayudoot
flight service, which was stopped due to poor patronage. A full-fledged air force station is operational at Thanjavur.[65] Thanjavur Air Force Station
Thanjavur Air Force Station
was to become a major air base by 2012, to handle Fighter, Transport aircraft and also refuelling aircraft.[66] However, the establishment and activation of air base has been delayed as of March 2013.[67] The IAF will base a squadron of its Sukhoi Su-30 Supermaneuverability
Supermaneuverability
Fighter aircraft
Fighter aircraft
at Thanjavur, making it the first fighter squadron in Tamil Nadu.[68][69] The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
International Airport. The nearest Seaport is located at Nagapattinam. Administration and politics[edit]

Municipal Corporational Officials

Mayor Savithri Gopal[70]

Commissioner P. Janaki Raveendran[71]

Deputy Mayor K. Manikandan[72]

Elected Members

Ex Member of Legislative Assembly M.Rengasamy[73]

Member of Parliament K.Parasuraman[74]

The municipality of Tanjore was created in 1866 as a third grade municipality as per Town Improvements Act 1865 and initially consisted of 12 members. The number was increased to 18 in 1879 and 24 in 1883. In 1897, the members were empowered to elect a Municipal Chairperson to lead them. Tanjore was upgraded to a second grade municipality in 1933 and first grade in 1943. Since 1983, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
has been a special grade municipality. a As of 2008, the municipality covers an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and has a total of 51 members. The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the supreme executive head.[75] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 62 members, one each from the 62 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson.[76] On 10 April 2013, the state government announced in the Assembly that Thanjavur
Thanjavur
municipality will be upgraded to a Municipal corporation.[77][78] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
City Corporation is likely to have an area of 110.27 km2 (42.58 sq mi) of area, with a population of 3,20,828 and an income of ₹411.8 million (US$6.3 million). The villages Pudupattinam, Nanjikottai, Neelagiri, Melaveli, Pillaiyarpatti, Ramanathapuram, Pallieri, Vilar and Inathukanpatti
Inathukanpatti
are likely to be added to the municipal corporation limits.[79] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
became City Corporation on February 19, 2014.[80] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
comes under the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
State Assembly Constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly once every five years.[81][82] From the 1977 elections, the assembly seat was won by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK) six times during the 1977, 1980, 1989, 1996, 2001 and 2006 elections, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
party once during the 1984 elections and the All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) twice during the 1991 and 2011 elections.[83] [73] M. Karunanidhi, who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
for a record five terms, was elected from the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
assembly constituency in the 1962 elections.[84] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is also a part of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years.[82][85] The Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seat has been held by the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
for Seven terms during 1951–56,[86] 1957–62,[87] 1962–1967,[88] 1980–84, 1984–1989,[89] 1989–91[90] and 1991–96,[91] Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
for Seven terms during 1967–71,[92] 1971–77,[93] 1996–98, 1998–99,[94] 1999-04,[95] 2004–09[96] and 2009–present[97] and All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
for one term during 1977–80.[98] R. Venkataraman, who served as the President of India
India
from 1987 to 1992, was elected from the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency in the 1951 elections.[86] Law and order in the city is maintained by the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
subdivision of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police, headed by a Deputy Superintendent (DSP). The Thanjavur district
Thanjavur district
level police administration is headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police, whose office is located in the city.[99] There are six police stations in the city, one of them being an all-women police station.[100] Some special units include prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a special branch that operates at the district level police division headed by a Superintendent of Police (SP).[99] Education[edit] Main article: List of educational institutions in Thanjavur

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Medical College

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
has a total of four Universities, namely the Tamil University, SASTRA University, PRIST University, Periyar Maniammai University. Government college of engineering, PITS, PREC, PRCET, St. Joseph college of engineering,Vandayar engineering college, Kings college of engineering, AAMEC are the other engineering colleges which provides technical education to citizens of thanjavur. [101] The Tamil University is a state run institute, started during 1981 and obtained its statutory recognition from the University Grants Commission in 1983. It is the only one of its kind for the Tamil language
Tamil language
doing higher research in Tamilology and advanced study in various allied branches like linguistics, translation, lexicography, music, drama and manuscriptology.[102][103] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
has a total of 15 arts, science & management colleges and nine engineering colleges.[104] The Thanjavur Medical College
Thanjavur Medical College
was established in 1961 and is one of the oldest medical colleges in Tamil Nadu.[105] The Paddy Processing Research Centre (PPRC), which later became the Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT) in 2017, is a hub for food processing research.[106] The Saraswati Mahal Library which dates back to the end of the 16th century and the Central Library, managed by the district administration are the two most prominent libraries in the city.[39] There are 20 registered schools in Thanjavur, catering to the primary, secondary and higher secondary educational needs of the city.[104] St. Peter's Higher Secondary School at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was established by Rev. C F Schwartz during 1784. Originally established as a college, it was the first school in South India
India
which taught English to the local populace. St. Antony's Higher Secondary School, established in 1885 by the Diocese of Thanjavur, is one of the oldest schools in Thanjavur district. Christian Missionaries played a prominent role in promoting English education in Thanjavur.[107] Kalyanasundaram Higher Secondary School, established in 1891, is one of the oldest schools in the city.[108] Utility services[edit] Electricity supply to Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board (TNEB). The city along with its suburbs is a part of Trichy Electricity Distribution Circle.[109] Water supply is provided by the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Corporation from the Vadavar Canal, supplied through overhead tanks located in various parts of the city. During the 2000–01 period, a total of 31 million litres of water was supplied everyday for households in the city.[110] About 110 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from Thanjavur every day by door-to-door collection and subsequently the source segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Corporation. The coverage of solid waste management had an efficiency of 100% as of 2001.[111] The underground drainage system covers 70% of the city and the remaining sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences.[112] The Corporation maintains a total of 155 km (96 mi) of storm water drains: 53.27 km (33.10 mi) surfaced drains and 101.73 km (63.21 mi) unlined drains.[113] There are 37 hospitals and seven clinical labs in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
that take care of the health care needs of the citizens.[114] There are a total of 9,745 street lamps: 492 sodium lamps, 2,061 mercury vapour lamps, 7,180 tube lights and twelve high mast beam lamps.[115] The Corporation operates three markets, namely the Serfoji Market, Amarar Swaminathan Market and Kamaraj Market and another market, the Subramaniya Swami Koil Market, is maintained by the Subramania Swami Temple authority.[116] Thanjavur
Thanjavur
comes under the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Telecom circle of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
(BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service.[117] The Regional Passport office, Trichy, operates a Passport Seva Kendra (PSK) in Thanjavur, which PSK covers the Nagappattinam, Thiruvarur, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, and Ariyalur
Ariyalur
revenue districts.[118] See also[edit]

Avarampatti Avusahibthottam Babaji Rajah Bhonsle
Bhonsle
Chattrapathi Manikarnikeswarar Temple Pattathurani

Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ The municipalities in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are graded special, selection, grade I and grade II based on income and population.

Citations[edit]

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References[edit]

Chakravarthy, Pradeep (2010). The Cultural history of Thanjavur. Niyogi Books. ISBN 9788189738624.  Gough, Kathleen (1981). Rural Society in Southeast India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23889-2.  Hemingway, F. R. (1907). Tanjore District Gazetteer. Government Press.  Mitchell, George (1995). Art and Architecture of Southern India: Vijayanagar and the Successor States 1350–1750. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44110-2.  Mukhopadhyay, Arunendu (1990). Crops, Costs, and Variations: An Investigation Based on Farm Management Studies. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-247-8.  Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4.  Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (2000) [1935]. The CōĻas. Madras: University of Madras.  Seshadri, E. K. (1998). Sri Brihadisvara, the great temple of Thanjavur. Nile Books.  Singh, Sarina (2009). India. Australia: Lonely Planet. ABN 36-0005-607-983.  Vriddhagirisan, V. (1942). The Nayaks of Tanjore. Annamalai University.  Various (2007). Tourist guide to Tamil Nadu. Chennai: T. Krishna Press. ISBN 81-7478-177-3.  Urban Infrastructure report (2008). Conversion of City Corporate Plan into Business Plan (PDF) (Report). Tamilnadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thanjavur.

Municipality
Municipality
of Thanjavur  Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "Tanjore". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co. 

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Capital: Chennai

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Greater Chennai · Coimbatore · Madurai · Erode · Salem · Thoothukudi · Tiruchirappalli  · Tirunelveli · Thanjavur
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Ambasamudram Anakaputhur Ariyalur Bhavani Chinnamanur Gudalur (Nilgiris district) Gudalur (Theni district) Jayankondam Jolarpet Kangeyam Kayalpattinam Keelakarai Koothanallur Kulithalai Kuzhithurai Maduranthakam Melur Melvisharam Nellikuppam Nelliyalam Oddanchatram Padmanabhapuram Pallipalayam Perambalur Periyakulam Pernampattu Puliyankudi Punjai Puliampatti Rameswaram Sattur Sengottai Sirkazhi Thiruthani Thiruthuraipoondi Thiruvathipuram Thuvakudi Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vandavasi Vedaranyam Vellakoil Vikramasingapuram Walajapet

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Thanjavur
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Thanjavur

Municipalities

Kumbakonam Pattukkottai

Rivers

Arasalar Kaveri Kollidam

History

Early Cholas Kalabhra dynasty Pallava dynasty Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Later Pandyas Delhi Sultanate Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagara Empire Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayaks Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas Company Raj British Raj

Places of interest

Adi Kumbeswarar Temple Airavatesvara Temple Aiyarappar temple Brihadeeswarar Temple Kalyanasundaresar Temple Kampaheswarar Temple Kanjanur Mahalingeswarar Temple Manora Fort Melattur Nachiyar Koil Poondi Madha Basilica Punnainallur Mariamman Samadhi of Bodhendra Saraswathi Sarangapani Temple Saraswathi Mahal Library Sivaganga Park Suryanar Kovil Swamimalai Murugan Temple Swetha Vinayagar Temple Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
Palace Thingalur Tiruvidaimarudur Conservation Reserve Uppiliappan Temple Vasishteswarar Temple Veetrirundha Perumal Temple

Religious and monastic institutions

Trichy-Tanjore Diocese
Trichy-Tanjore Diocese
of the Church of South India Roman Catholic Diocese of Kumbakonam Roman Catholic Diocese of Tanjore Sri Sankara Mutt Sri Sridhara Ayyaval Mutt Sri Vijayendra Mutt Sri Vittal Rukmini Samsthan Thiruppanandal Adheenam

Universities

Periyar Maniammai University SASTRA University PRIST University Tamil University

Cities and towns People Villages

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124344432 GND: 4106216-4 BNF:

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