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Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was the emperor of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
from 271 to 274 AD. He was originally the Praeses
Praeses
(governor) of Gallia Aquitania, and became emperor after the murder of Emperor Victorinus in 271, having received the support of Victorinus's mother, Victoria. During his reign, he faced external pressure from Germanic raiders, who pillaged the eastern and northern parts of his empire, and the Roman Empire, from which the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
had split. He also faced increasing internal pressure, which led to him declaring his son, Tetricus II, caesar in 273 and potentially co-emperor in 274, although this is debated. The Roman Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
invaded in either 273 or 274, culminating in the Battle of Châlons, in which Tetricus surrendered. Whether this was the result of a secret agreement between Tetricus and Aurelian
Aurelian
or necessary after his defeat, is debated. Aurelian
Aurelian
spared Tetricus, and even made him a senator and Corrector (governor) of Lucania
Lucania
et Bruttii. He died of natural causes a few years after 274.

Contents

1 History 2 Numismatics 3 References

3.1 Primary sources 3.2 Citations 3.3 Bibliography

History[edit] Commonly referred to as Tetricus I, Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus is believed, based upon his name, to have been born in Gaul, though the date is not known.[1][2] In 271 AD, he was the Praeses
Praeses
provinciae (governor) of Gallia Aquitania, when Emperor Victorinus
Victorinus
was murdered by the Gallic Army. Victorinus's mother, Victoria, selected Tetricus to be his replacement and bribed the army to have him proclaimed emperor of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
in the spring of 271.[1][3][4] He was ceremonially proclaimed emperor at Burdigala in Gaul.[5] Multiple regnal titles were added to Tetricus' name on his ascension, as was custom for Roman emperors, changing it to Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Esuvius Tetricus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus
Augustus
Pontifex Maximus.[6] In late 271, Tetricus moved the capital of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
from Cologne
Cologne
to Trier. He elevated his son, Tetricus II, to caesar in 273 to increase his support.[5][7] He may have also elevated his son to co-emperor during the last days of his reign, but this is disputed.[3] During his reign, the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
was subject to internal and external pressures. There was dissent within the army and the government. It was threatened by the Roman Empire, from which the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
had split, and by Germanic tribes.[3][8] Upon his accession, all of the Gallic provinces except Gallia Narbonensis, which had been partially reconquered by Placidianus under Claudius Gothicus, recognised him as emperor. Britain recognised him but the Spanish provinces of Hispania Baetica, Lusitania
Lusitania
and Hispania Tarraconensis and the German city of Strasbourg, recognised Aurelian instead. During his rule, Germanic tribes became increasingly aggressive, raiding across the Rhine
Rhine
and along the coast, to pillage Gallic territory. Tetricus occasionally fought against them, mostly in the early years of his reign, even once celebrating a triumph but mostly he would withdraw troops and abandon forts, allowing the territory to be pillaged. Germanic raids continued with almost no opposition. One penetrated so far into Gallic territory that it reached the Loire.[7] Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
began preparations to invade the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
in either early or late 273, with both sides meeting at Châlons-sur-Marne.[7] There are two accounts of what happened; one, which is believed to have been created by Roman imperial propaganda some time later, states that Tetricus offered to surrender, quoting Virgil
Virgil
and saying "eripe me his invicte malis" (rescue me undefeated from these troubles). Modern scholars contend that the Battle of Châlons did occur, with Tetricus surrendering either directly after the battle or later.[9][10][11] This battle was recorded as being exceptionally bloody, so much so that for generations it was referred to as the "Catalaunian catastrophe".[12] The latest possible date for his surrender is March 274, when the Gallic mints switched from minting coins of Tetricus I
Tetricus I
and II to those of Aurelian. With his surrender, the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
rejoined the Roman Empire and Aurelian held a triumph in Rome. The leaders of the two breakaway states he had conquered, Tetricus of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
and Zenobia
Zenobia
of the Palmyrene Empire were paraded.[10][11] Aurelian
Aurelian
pardoned both and made Tetricus a senator and Corrector (a governor of a minor province) of Lucania
Lucania
et Bruttii.[1][10][3][13] Tetricus died of natural causes several years later in Lucania.[1] Numismatics[edit] The Aurei
Aurei
(a gold coin) issued during the reign of Tetricus fell into several types. Seven featured his bust on the obverse, with the reverses showing him riding a horse, a standing Aequitas, a standing Jupiter, a standing Laetitia, a standing Pax, him holding an olive branch and a sceptre, or a standing Spes. One featured his face on the obverse and a standing Hilaritas on the reverse. Another displayed his head on the obverse and a depiction of Victoria walking to the right on the reverse. There were two Aurelius
Aurelius
types which depicted Tetricus I and Tetricus II
Tetricus II
together; both featured Jugate
Jugate
busts of them on the obverse, with one having a standing Aeternitas on the reverse and the other having a standing Felicitas. A rare Quinarius
Quinarius
(a silver coin) issued during his reign held a three-quarter facing bust of Tetricus on the obverse and Victoria standing with her foot on a globe on the reverse.[14] References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tetricus I.

Primary sources[edit] These sources were written by early chronicles and been drawn upon by modern scholars.

Aurelius
Aurelius
Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Aurelius
Aurelius
Victor, Liber de Caesaribus Eutropius, Brevarium, Book 9 Historia Augusta, The Thirty Tyrants Joannes
Joannes
Zonaras, Compendium of History, Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284 Zosimus, Historia Nova

Citations[edit]

^ a b c d Adkins & Adkins 2004, p. 30. ^ Potter 2014, p. 257. ^ a b c d Sayles 2007, p. 138. ^ Southern 2015, p. 119. ^ a b Canduci 2010, p. 98. ^ Drinkwater 1987, p. 125. ^ a b c Southern 2015, p. 175. ^ Adkins & Adkins 2004, p. 8. ^ Canduci 2010, p. 100. ^ a b c Southern 2015, p. 176. ^ a b Vagi 2000, p. 386. ^ Potter 2014, p. 268. ^ Matyszak 2014, p. 134. ^ Friedberg, Friedberg & Friedberg 2017, p. 50.

Bibliography[edit]

Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2004). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Facts On File. ISBN 9780816074822.  Canduci, Alexander (2010). Triumph and Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors. Murdoch Books. ISBN 9781741965988.  Drinkwater, J.F. (1987). The Gallic Empire: Separatism and Continuity in the North-Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, A.D. 260-274. Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden. ISBN 9783515048064.  Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S.; Friedberg, Robert (2017). Gold Coins of the World: From Ancient Times to the Present. An Illustrated Standard Catlaog with Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 9780871840097.  Matyszak, Philip (2014). The Roman Empire (9th ed.). Oneworld Publications. ISBN 9781780744254.  Potter, David S. (2014). The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395. Routledge. ISBN 9781134694778.  Sayles, Wayne G. (2007). Ancient Coin Collecting III: The Roman World – Politics and Propaganda. KP. ISBN 9780896894785.  Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. ISBN 9781317496946.  Vagi, David L. (2000). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, c. 82 B.C.– A.D. 480. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 9781579583163. 

Regnal titles

Preceded by Victorinus Emperor of the Gallic Empire 271–274 AD Succeeded by None

Political offices

Preceded by Victorinus Consul of the Gallic Empire 271–274 with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
(273–274) Succeeded by None

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
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Galerius
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Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 11425945 LCCN: n88647400 GN

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