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v t e

Telugu literature
Telugu literature
or Telugu Pandityam (Telugu: తెలుగు పాండిత్యము) is the body of works written in the Telugu language. It consists of poems, novels, short stories, dramas and puranas. Telugu literature
Telugu literature
can be traced back to the early 10th century period (Prabandha Ratnavali[1](1918) talk about the existence of Jain Telugu literature
Telugu literature
during 850-1000AD) followed by 11th century period when Mahabharata
Mahabharata
was first translated to Telugu from Sanskrit by Nannaya. It flourished under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire, where Telugu was one of the empire's official languages. Telugu split from Proto-Dravidian between 1500-1000 BC. Telugu became a distinct language by the time any literary activity began to appear in the Tamil land, along with Parji, Kolami, Nayaki and Gadaba languages.[2] Telugu is a Dravidian Language native to India.

Contents

1 Sources

1.1 Subject matter 1.2 Forms 1.3 Author's craft

2 History

2.1 Early writers

2.1.1 The Pre- Nannayya
Nannayya
Period (before 1020 AD) 2.1.2 The Jain Literature Phase(850-1000 AD)

2.1.2.1 Malliya Rechana-First Telugu Author (940AD) -[12][13][14]

2.1.3 The Age of the Puranas
Puranas
(1020-1400AD)

2.1.3.1 Nannaya
Nannaya
Bhattarakudu or Adi Kavi (1022–1063 AD) 2.1.3.2 Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288 AD) 2.1.3.3 Errapragada 2.1.3.4 Baddena Bhupala (1220-1280AD)

2.1.4 The Age of Srinatha
Srinatha
and the Prabandhas (1400–1600 AD)

2.1.4.1 Srinatha 2.1.4.2 Vemana 2.1.4.3 Bammera Potanaamatya 2.1.4.4 Annamacharya 2.1.4.5 Tallapaka Tirumalamma 2.1.4.6 Allasani Peddana

2.2 Middle age writers

2.2.1 Dhurjati 2.2.2 Krishnadevaraya 2.2.3 Tenali
Tenali
Ramakrishna 2.2.4 Kshetrayya 2.2.5 Kancherla Gopanna

2.3 Venkamamba

2.3.1 Tyagaraja 2.3.2 Paravastu Chinnayasuri

3 Modern or Adhunika Sahityam

3.1 Kandukuri Veeresalingam 3.2 Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna 3.3 Aatreya 3.4 Tripuraneni Ramaswamy

4 Popular authors and works 5 Modern platforms 6 See also 7 External links 8 References

Sources[edit] There are various sources available for information on early Telugu writers. Among these are the prologues to their poems, which followed the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
model by customarily giving a brief description of the writer, a history of the king to whom the book is dedicated, and a chronological list of the books he published. In addition, historical information is available from inscriptions that can be co-related with the poems; there are several grammars, treatises and anthologies that provide illustrative stanzas; and there is also information available from the lives of the poets and the traditions that they followed.[3]

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v t e

Subject matter[edit] Early Telugu literature
Telugu literature
is predominantly religious in subject matter. Poets and scholars drew most of their material from, and spent most of their time translating epics, such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
and the Puranas, all of which are considered to be storehouses of Indian culture.[4] From the sixteenth-century onwards, rarely known episodes from the Puranas
Puranas
would form the basis for the tradition of Telugu-language kavya. Literary works drawn from episodes of the Puranas
Puranas
under the name Akhyana or Khanda became popular along with depictions of the fortune of a single hero under the title of Charitra, Vijaya, Vilasa and Abhyudaya. Such titles are examples of what would become the most common subject matter of poetry.[4] In the eighteenth-century, marriages of heroes under the title Parinaya, Kalyana and Vivāha became popular.[4] Religious literature consisted of biographies of the founders of religion, their teachings (Sara) as well as commentaries (bhashya).[4] Traditional Hindu knowledge systems such as astrology, law, grammar, ballets, moral aphorisms, and devotional psalms to deities within the Hindu pantheon are characteristics of more popular works of Telugu literature.[4] Forms[edit] The various forms of literature found in Telugu are:

Prabandham: Stories in verse form with a tight metrical structure and they have three forms mentioned below.

Prakhyātam: Famous story. Utpadyam: Purely fictional story. Mishramam: Mixed story.

Champu: Mixture of prose and poetry. Kāvyam: Poem which usually begin with a short prayer called a Prarthana, containing initial auspicious letter "Shri" which invokes the blessings of the god.[5] The occasion and circumstances under which the work is undertaken is next stated.[5]

Padya kāvyam: Metrical poetry. Gadya kāvyam: prose poetry. Khanda kāvyam: Short poems

Kavita: Poetry Śatakam (anthology): Shatakam is a literary piece of art. The name derives from Shata, which means a hundred in Sanskrit. Shatakam comprises a hundred poems. Hence, a Shatakam is a volume (book) of hundred poems. Shatakams are usually devotional, philosophical or convey morals. DaŚaka (anthology): Dasakam or Dashakam comprises ten poems. Avadhānam: Avadhanam involves the partial improvisation of poems using specific themes, metres, forms, or words.[6] Navala: Navala is a written, fictional, prose narrative normally longer than a short story. Katha : Style of religious storytelling. Nātakam: Drama. Naneelu:Epigrams.

Ashtadiggajas have written in all three of the Prabandham genres during the Prabandha yugam.[7] Telugu literature
Telugu literature
uses a unique expression in verse called Champu, which mixes prose and poetry. Although it is the dominant literary form, there are exceptions: for example, Tikkana
Tikkana
composed Uttara Ramayana
Ramayana
entirely in verse.[8] As Champu Kavyas and Prabandhas were beyond the comprehension of masses, new devices for the dissemination of knowledge among the people were developed in the form of the Dvipada and Shataka styles. Dvipada means two feet (couplet) and Shataka means hundred (a cento of verses).[9] (Popular shatakas: Sarveshvara shataka, Kalahastishvara shataka, Dasarathi Shataka) There are some Shatakas which are divided into ten groups of ten verses called Dasaka which is adopted from Prakrit.[10] Avadhanam is a literary performance popular from the very ancient days in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and more so in Telugu and Kannada languages.[6] It requires a good memory and tests a person's capability of performing multiple tasks simultaneously.[6] All the tasks are memory intensive and demand an in-depth knowledge of literature, and prosody. The number of Prucchakas can be 8 (ashtavadhanam) or 100 (shataavadhaanam) or even 1000 (sahasravadhanam). A person who has successfully performed Ashtavadhanam is called as Ashtavadhani, a shatavadhanam is called a Shatavadhani and sahasraavadhaanam is called Sahasravadhani.[6] Author's craft[edit] Praudha Prabandha or Maha Kavya is considered as highest form of verse. The essentials of such a composition according to the Telugu poetic theory are

Śaili (Style): The words chosen neither soft nor very musical but dignified (Gambhira), Sweetness (Madhurya), Grace and Delicacy (Sukumara), Fragrance (Saurabhya) and Symphony. In choice of vocabulary, Vulgar language (Gramya) is avoided.[8] Ṕāka (Mould): Refers to the embodiment of ideas in language, and the nature and texture of the language employed. There are three types of pakas namely

Drāksha (wine or grape): Draksha is a crystal clear style where everything is seen through a transparent medium. Mostly Nannaiyah uses this mould.[8] Kadali (Plantain): Kadali is complex paka because the soft skin has to peeled to reach the core of the subject. Mostly Tikkana
Tikkana
uses this mould.[8] Narikela
Narikela
(coconut): Narikela
Narikela
is the most difficult mould to employ because one has to break the rind to understand the idea. Vishnu Chittiyam or Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
are cast in this paka.[5]

Rasa (Sentiment): Rasa is the heart and soul of any Telugu poetry which follows rule or (Sutram) "Vākyam Rasātmakam Kāvyam" which means that the soul of a sentence is Rasa. There are nine Rasas, known as the Nava Rasas.[5] A perfect kavyam uses all nine of these, namely:

śṛṅgāra (love) Hāsya (Comic) Karuṇā
Karuṇā
(Sympathy) Raudram (Horror) Bhayānaka (Fear) Bībhatsa (Disgust) Vīra (Heroic) Adbhuta (wonder) Shantam (Peace)

Alamkāra (Ornamentation): There are Śabdhalamkāras (ornaments of sound) and Arthalamkāras (ornaments of thoughts). Slesha
Slesha
(double entendre) and Yamaka (alliteration) are Śabdhalamkāras. Upamāna (simile) Utpreksha (hyperbole) are Arthalamkāras.[5] We find usage of Alamkaras in description of events, places and proceedings etc.[citation needed]

History[edit] Early writers[edit] The Pre- Nannayya
Nannayya
Period (before 1020 AD)[edit] In the earliest period Telugu literature
Telugu literature
existed in the form of inscriptions, precisely from 575 AD on-wards. The 6th or 7th century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text Jānāśrayī Chandoviciti (or Janāśraya-chandas) deals with the metres used in Telugu, including some metres that are not found in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prosody. This indicates that Telugu poetry existed during or around the 6th century.[11] The Jain Literature Phase(850-1000 AD)[edit] Historically, Vemulawada was a Jain knowledge hub and played a significant role in patronizing Jain literature and poets.1980s excavations around Vemulawada revealed and affirmed the existence of Telugu Jain literature between 850-1000 AD. Malliya Rechana-First Telugu Author (940AD) -[12][13][14][edit] Malliya Rechana has composed the first Telugu poetic prosody book Kavijanasrayam( Pre- Nannayya
Nannayya
chandassu) around 940 AD. This was a popular one and referred by many poets. There seems to be even an earlier prosody book by Rechana's guru Vaadindra Chudamani which is not available. Veturi Prabhakara Sastry in 1900s mentioned about existence of Pre- Nannayya
Nannayya
Chandassu in Raja Raja Narendra Pattabhisekha Sanchika.[14] Accurate dating of this piece of literature happened after the 1980s discoveries in Karimnagar. Prabandha Ratnavali[1](1918) also talks about a verse from Telugu Jinendra Puranam by Padma Kavi(Pampa), a couple of verses from Telugu Adi Puranam by Sarvadeva and Kavijanasrayam's affiliation to Jainism were discussed.P.V.P Sastry also points out that many Jain works could have been destroyed.[12] Historical rivalry among Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism is well known[15] The Age of the Puranas
Puranas
(1020-1400AD)[edit] This is the period of Kavi Trayam or Trinity of Poets. Nannayya, Tikkana
Tikkana
and Yerrapragada (or Errana) are known as the Kavi Trayam. Nannaya
Nannaya
Bhattarakudu or Adi Kavi (1022–1063 AD)[edit] Nannaya
Nannaya
Bhattarakudu's (Telugu: నన్నయ) Andhra mahabharatam, who lived around the 11th century, is commonly referred to as the first Telugu literary composition (aadi kaavyam).[citation needed] Although there is evidence of Telugu literature
Telugu literature
before Nannaya, he is given the epithet Aadi Kavi ("the first poet"). Nannaya
Nannaya
was the first to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. This grammar followed the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises like Aṣṭādhyāyī
Aṣṭādhyāyī
and Vālmīkivyākaranam but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya
Nannayya
divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya.[16] Nannaya
Nannaya
completed the first two chapters and a part of the third chapter of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic, which is rendered in the Champu style.[citation needed] [17] Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288 AD)[edit] Nannaya's Andhra Mahabharatam was almost completed by Tikanna Somayaji (Telugu: తిక్కన సోమయాజి) (1205–1288) who wrote chapters 4 to 18.[citation needed] Errapragada[edit] Errapragada, (Telugu: ఎర్రాప్రగడ) who lived in the 14th century, finished the epic by completing the third chapter.[citation needed] He mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning, slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of Tikkana.[citation needed] These three writers – Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada – are known as the Kavitraya ("three great poets") of Telugu. Other such translations like Marana’s Markandeya
Markandeya
Puranam, Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed. Many scientific[relevant? – discuss] works, like Ganitasarasangrahamu by Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by Eluganti Peddana, were written in the 12th century.[18][full citation needed] Baddena Bhupala (1220-1280AD)[edit] Sumati Shatakam, which is a neeti ("moral"), is one of the most famous Telugu Shatakams.[citation needed] Shatakam is composed of more than a 100 padyalu (poems). According to many literary critics[who?] Sumati Shatakam was composed by Baddena Bhupaludu (Telugu: బద్దెన భూపాల) (CE 1220–1280). He was also known as Bhadra Bhupala. He was a Chola
Chola
prince and a vassal under the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
empress Rani Rudrama Devi, and a pupil of Tikkana.[citation needed] If we assume that the Sumati Shatakam was indeed written by Baddena, it would rank as one of the earliest Shatakams in Telugu along with the Vrushadhipa Satakam of Palkuriki Somanatha
Palkuriki Somanatha
and the Sarveswara Satakam of Yathavakkula Annamayya.[original research?] The Sumatee Shatakam is also one of the earliest Telugu works to be translated into a European language, as C. P. Brown rendered it in English in the 1840s.[citation needed] The Age of Srinatha
Srinatha
and the Prabandhas (1400–1600 AD)[edit] Srinatha[edit] Srinatha
Srinatha
(Telugu: శ్రీనాథుడు) (1365–1441) popularised the Prabandha style of composition.[19] He was a minister in the court of Pedakomati Vemareddy of Kondaveedu[citation needed] and wrote Salivahana Saptasati, Shivaratri Mahatyam, Harivilasa, Bhimakanda, Kashi khandam, Shringara Naishadham, Palanati Veera charitra, Dhananjaya Vijayam, Sringara
Sringara
Dipika. These works were concerned with history and mythology.[citation needed] Srinatha's Srungara Naishadhamu is a well-known example of the form.[19] Srinatha was widely regarded as the Kavi Sarvabhowma ("the emperor among poets").[citation needed] Vemana[edit] Kumaragiri Vema Reddy (Telugu: వేమన), popularly known as Yogi Vemana, was a 14th-century Telugu poet.[20] His poems were written in the popular vernacular of Telugu, and are known for their use of simple language and native idioms.[citation needed] His poems discuss the subjects of Yoga, wisdom and morality.[citation needed] There is no consensus among scholars about the period in which Vemana lived. C.P. Brown, known for his research on Vemana, estimates the year of birth to be the year 1352 based on some of his verses.[citation needed] His poems are four lines in length. The fourth line is, in majority of the cases, the chorus Vishwadhabhirama Vinura Vema – he thus conveyed his message with three small lines written in a simple vernacular.[citation needed] He travelled widely across south India, acquiring popularity as a poet and Yogi.[citation needed] So high was the regard for Vemana that a popular Telugu saying goes 'Vemana's word is the word of the Vedas'.[citation needed] He is celebrated for his style of Chaatu padyam, a poem with a hidden meaning.[citation needed] Many lines of Vemana's poems are now colloquial phrases of the Telugu language.[citation needed] They end with the signature line Vishwadhaabhi Raama, Vinura Vema, literally Beloved of Vishwadha, listen Vema. There are many interpretations of what the last line signifies.[citation needed] Bammera Potanaamatya[edit] Bammera Potanaamatya (Telugu: బమ్మెర పోతన) (1450–1510) is best known for his translation of the Bhagavata Purana from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to Telugu.[citation needed] His work, Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu. He was born into a Brahmin family and was considered to be a sahaja Kavi ("natural poet") who needed no teacher. He wrote Bhogini Dandakam a poem praising king Singa Bhoopala’s consort danseuse, Bhogini, while young. This is the earliest available Telugu Dandaka (a rhapsody which uses the same gana or foot throughout).[21][full citation needed] His second work was Virabhadra Vijayamu which describes the adventures of Virabhadra, son of Shiva.[citation needed] As a young man, he was a devotee of Shiva
Shiva
and also Rama
Rama
and was more interested in salvation, from which came the inspiration to translate the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[citation needed] Annamacharya[edit] Tallapaka Annamacharya
Annamacharya
(or Annamayya) (Telugu: శ్రీ తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) (9 May 1408 – 23 February 1503) is known as the Pada-kavita Pitaamaha of the Telugu language.[22] He was born to a Vaidiki Brahmin family and his works are considered to have dominated and influenced the structure of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
compositions.[citation needed] Annamacharya
Annamacharya
is said to have composed as many as 32,000 sankeertanas (songs) on Bhagwaan Govinda Venkateswara,[23] of which only about 12,000 are available today. His keertana compositions are based on the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school of thought.[citation needed] Annamayya was educated in this system of Ramanuja
Ramanuja
by Sri Satagopa Yateendra of the Ahobila matham.[citation needed] Tallapaka Tirumalamma[edit] Tallapaka Tirumalamma (Telugu: తాళ్ళపాక తిరుమలమ్మ) (Annamacharya's wife)[24] wrote Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu literature.[by whom?] Her main work, Subhadra
Subhadra
Kalyanam, which consists of 1170 poems, is about the marriage of Arjuna
Arjuna
and Subhadra, who are characters that appear in the Mahabharata. She presented the Telugu nativity and culture in the story taken from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epic.[citation needed] Allasani Peddana[edit] Allasani Peddana (Telugu: అల్లసాని పెద్దన) (15th and 16th centuries) was ranked as the foremost of the Ashtadiggajalu the title for the group of eight poets in the court of Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire.[citation needed] Peddana was a native of Somandepalli near Anantapur.[citation needed] Allasani Peddana wrote the first major Prabandha and for this reason he is revered as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha ("the grand father of Telugu poetry").[citation needed] It is believed[by whom?] that he was also a minister in the king's court and is hence sometimes referred as Peddanaamaatya (Peddana + Amaatya = Peddana, the minister).[citation needed] He wrote Swaarochisha Manu Sambhavam (also known as Manu Charitra), which is a development of an episode in the Markandeya Purana relating to the birth of Svarochishamanu, who is one of the fourteen Manus. Pravarakhya is a pious Brahmin youth who goes to the Himalayas
Himalayas
for Tapasya. In the Himalayas
Himalayas
Varudhini, a Gandharva
Gandharva
girl, falls in love with him, but Pravarakyudu rejects her love. Knowing this a Gandharva
Gandharva
youth who was earlier rejected by Varudhini assumes the form of Pravarakhya and succeeds to win her love. To them is born Svarochisha, the father of Svarochishamanu.[21][full citation needed] The theme for his Manu Charitra is a short story from Markandeya Purana. It is about second Manu of fourteen manus (fathers of mankind societies according to Hindu mythology), translated into Telugu from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Marana
Marana
(1291–1323),[citation needed] disciple of Tikkana. The original story was around 150 poems and Peddana extended into six chapters with 600 poems by adding fiction and descriptions. His work was treated as one of the Pancha Kavyas, the five best works in Telugu. Some of his other famous works such as Harikathaasaaramu are untraceable now.[citation needed] Middle age writers[edit] Dhurjati[edit] Dhurjati or Dhoorjati (Telugu: ధూర్జటి) (15th and 16th centuries) was a poet in the court of Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
and was one of the 'Ashtadiggajalu'.[citation needed] He was born to Singamma and Narayana in Sri Kalahasti
Sri Kalahasti
and was the grandson of Jakkayya.[citation needed]. His works include Sri Kalahasteeshwara Mahatyam (The grace/miracles of lord Shiva) and Sri Kalahasteeshwara Shatakam (100+ poems in the praise of lord Shiva). Dhurjati took themes from Puranas and added local stories and myths in his work.[citation needed] Unlike contemporaries such as Peddana and Mallana, who chose the stories of kings, he chose devotion as his theme.[citation needed]. Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
praised Dhurjati, saying "Stuti mati yaina Andhrakavi Dhurjati palkulakelagalgeno yetulita madhuri mahima...." (How is Dhurjati's poetry so immeasurably beautiful)[25] On a personal note, he was known as Pedda Dhurjati ("elder Dhurjati") as there were four other people from the same family line who went by the name of Dhurjati during the same period and after him.[citation needed]. His grandson Venkataraya Dhurjati, wrote Indumati Parinayam ("marriage of Indumati"), a story from Kalidasa's Raghuvamsam. Krishnadevaraya[edit] Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
(Telugu: శ్రీ కృష్ణదేవరాయ) was an emperor of Vijayanagara Kingdom. Literary activities flourished during the rule of the Vijayanagara dynasty,[citation needed] and the period of Krishnadevaraya's rule in the sixteenth century is considered[by whom?] to be the golden age of Telugu literature.[citation needed] Krishnadevaraya, a poet himself, introduced the Prabandha to Telugu literature.[citation needed] Amukta Malyada. Krishna Deva Raya wrote the book Amuktamalyada
Amuktamalyada
in Telugu, describing the pangs of separation suffered by Andal (an incarnation of the goddess Mahalakshmi. He describes Andal’s physical beauty in thirty verses; using descriptions of the spring and the monsoon as metaphors.[citation needed] As elsewhere in Indian poetry, the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine.[citation needed] His court had the Ashtadiggajas ("eight elephants"), who were considered to be the greatest of poets of that time.[citation needed] Some critics[who?] dismiss the following period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age.[citation needed] Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth- to mid-nineteenth century, Kankanti Paparaju’s Uttara Ramayana
Ramayana
in campu style, and the play Vishnumayavilasa stand out.[citation needed] Other genres bloomed at the same time.[which?] Yakshaganas, indigenous dramas of song and prose, were also produced.[citation needed] Tenali
Tenali
Ramakrishna[edit] Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna
Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna
(Telugu: గార్లపాటి తెనాలి రామకృష్ణ), popularly known as Tenali
Tenali
Rama
Rama
and Vikata Kavi, was another sixteenth-century court poet of the Vijayanagara empire and also one of the Ashtadiggajas. His family had originally hailed from Tenali
Tenali
in Guntur District, he was born in a Telugu Niyogi Brahmin family. His famous work Panduranga Mahatyamu is one among the Pancha Kavyas.[citation needed] He dedicated that to Viruri Vedadri.[26] This book is about the Pundarika Kshetram on the banks of river Bhaimi and its legend. He also composed Udbhataradhya Charitram on the story of Udbhata, a monk, as well as Ghatikachala Mahatyam about Ghatikachalam, a place of worship for God Narasimha
Narasimha
near Vellore. He followed the Prabandha style. He took the theme for Panduranga Mahatyam from the Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
and enhanced it with many stories about the devotees of God Vitthala
Vitthala
(Panduranga). He is noted for brilliance and wit and for mocking other poets and great personalities. He created a celebrated character called Nigama Sarma akka (sister of Nigama Sarma) and a story about her without giving her a name. He also had written many Chatuvu (extempore poems). Kshetrayya[edit] Kshetrayya or Kshetragna (Telugu: క్షేత్రయ్య) (c. 1600–1680 CE) was a prolific poet and composer of Carnatic music. He lived in the area of Andhra Pradesh. He composed a number of padams and keertanas, the prevalent formats of his time. He is credited with more than 4000 compositions, although only a handful have survived. He composed his songs on his favourite deity Krishna (Gopala) in Telugu. He perfected the padam format that is still being used today. His padams are sung in dance ( Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
and Kuchipudi) and music recitals. A unique feature of his padams is the practice of singing the anupallavi first then the pallavi (second verse followed by first verse). Most of the padams are of the theme of longing for the coming of the lord Krishna. He wrote with Sringara
Sringara
as a main theme in expressing madhurabhakti (devotion to the supreme). Sringara
Sringara
is a motif where the mundane sexual relationship between a Nayaki (woman) and a Nayaka (man) is used as a metaphor, denoting the yearning of jeeva (usually depicted as the Nayaki) to unite with the divine (usually depicted as the man). In most of his compositions, Kshetrayya has used the mudra (signature) "Muvva Gopala" as a reference to himself, which is also a name for the Lord Krishna in Kshetrayya's village Muvva, now called as Movva. Kshetrayya's work has played a major role in influencing poetry, dance, music of the South Indian tradition. Kshetrayya was intimately connected with the devadasi women of the temples of south India, who were the subject of many of his compositions. The devadasis were traditionally in possession of the musical/poetic interpretations of his work for a long period of time till the devadasi system was abolished and the compositions became more accepted in the musical community as valuable works of art. The musical community also owes a lot to Veena Dhanammal
Veena Dhanammal
and T. Brinda, who popularised Kshetrayya's songs with their beautiful musical interpretation. Kshetrayya's padams now form an integral part of the dance and musical traditions of South India, where his songs are rendered purely as musical works or as accompaniments to dance. Kancherla Gopanna[edit] Kancherla Gopanna
Kancherla Gopanna
(Telugu: కంచెర్ల గోపన్న) (c 1620–1680 CE), popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu (Telugu: భద్రాచల రామదాసు), was a 17th-century Indian devotee of Rama
Rama
and a composer of Carnatic music.[27] He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras (same person being the writer and composer of a song) in the Telugu language. His devotional lyrics to Rama
Rama
are famous in South Indian classical music as Ramadaasu Keertanalu. Even the doyen of South Indian classical music Saint Thyagaraja learned and later improved the style now considered standard krithi form of music composition. He also written Dasarathi Shatakamu a collection of nearly 100 poems dedicated to the son of Dasaratha (Lord Rama). Venkamamba[edit] Tarikonda Venkamamba (Telugu:తారికొండ వెంకమాంబ ; alternate spelling: Vengamamba, born 1730) was a poet and staunch devotee of Lord Venkateswara in the 18th century. She wrote numerous poems and songs. Tyagaraja[edit] Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
or Tyagabrahmam (Telugu: కాకర్ల త్యాగబ్రహ్మం) (1767–1847) of Tanjore composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the repertoire of Carnatic music. In addition to nearly 600 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam. Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana. Often overlooked is the fact that Tyagaraja's works are some of the best and most beautiful literary expressions in Telugu language.[citation needed] Valmiki composed the Ramayana, the story of Rama, with 24,000 verses and also composed 24,000 kritis in praise of the lord.[citation needed] Paravastu Chinnayasuri[edit] Paravastu Chinnayasuri (Telugu: పరవస్తు చిన్నయ సూరి) (1807–1861) wrote Baala Vyaakaranamu in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra Grammar[clarification needed] which is his greatest gift[peacock term] to Telugu people. Other notable works of Chinnayasuri include Neeti Chandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola and Neeti Sangrahamu. Chinnayasuri translated Mitra Labham and Mitra Bhedam from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Panchatantra
Panchatantra
as Neeti Chandrika. Kandukuri Veeresalingam
Kandukuri Veeresalingam
and Kokkonda Venkata Ratnam Pantulu followed his style of prose writing and wrote Vigrahamu and Sandhi in a different pattern.[clarification needed] Modern or Adhunika Sahityam[edit]

Modern Asian literature

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v t e

Kandukuri Veeresalingam[edit] Kandukuri Veereshalingam (Telugu: కందుకూరి వీరేశలింగం) (also known as Kandukuri Veereshalingam Pantulu (Telugu: కందుకూరి వీరేశలింగం పంతులు), (16 April 1848 – 27 May 1919) was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was born in an orthodox Andhra Brahmin family. He is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu people
Telugu people
and Telugu literature. He was influenced by the ideals of Brahmo Samaj particularly those of Keshub Chunder Sen. Veereshalingam panthulu is popularly called Gadya Tikkana.[citation needed] He wrote about 100 books between 1869 and 1919 and introduced the essay, biography, autobiography and the novel into Telugu literature[28] His Satyavati Charitam was the first social novel in Telugu.[citation needed] He wrote Rajashekhara Charitamu inspired by Oliver Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefied. To him literature was an instrument to fight social evils.[citation needed] Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna[edit] Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna
Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna
(Telugu: మంగళంపల్లి బాలమురళీకృష్ణ)  pronunciation (help·info) (born 6 July 1930) is a Carnatic vocalist, multi-instrumentalist and a playback singer. He is also acclaimed as a poet, composer and respected for his knowledge of Carnatic Music. Balamuralikrishna was born in Sankaraguptam, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
state.[29] Dr Balamuralikrishna has composed over 400 compositions in various languages like Telugu and Sanskrit. His compositions ranges from Devotional to Varnams, Kirthis, Javalis and Thillans. His greatest achievement are the compositions in all the fundamental 72 melakarta ragas. Aatreya[edit] Aacharya Aatreya (Telugu: ఆచార్య ఆత్రేయ) or Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu  pronunciation (help·info) (7 May 1921 – 13 September 1989) was a playwright, lyrics and story writer of the Telugu film industry.[30] He was born as Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu on 7 May 1921 in the Mangalampadu village of Sullurpeta
Sullurpeta
Mandalam in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. His pen name is based on their family Gotra. Known for his poetry on the human soul and heart, he was given the title 'Manasu Kavi'(Poet of Heart), which can be rewritten as 'Mana Su Kavi'(Our Good Poet). His poetry is philosophical and intellectually satisfying.[citation needed] Tripuraneni Ramaswamy[edit] Tripuranēni Rāmasvāmi (January 15, 1887 – January 16, 1943) was a lawyer, famous poet, playwright and reformer active among the Telugu-speaking people. Popularly known as Kaviraju, he is considered the first poet to introduce rationalism and humanism into Telugu poetry and literature. Ramaswamy chose literary writing as the vehicle for expressing his rationalist thoughts. His famous work 'Sutaparanam' in four cantos was a fierce attack on the ancient Puranas, he has attained the state of excellence in poetic&literary criticism. His poetic work "Kuppuswamy Satakam" reveals the theme of social revolution and talks about social evils, blind faith and indignity to man. He was against Congress and its fight against independence. In his other works such as "Sambhukavadha", "Suthashrama geethaalu', 'Dhoortha maanava', 'Khooni', 'Bhagavadgita', 'Rana Pratap' and 'Kondaveeti pathanam', he made a rational analysis of dogmas prescribed by ancient classics and the injustice these dogmas did to people belonging to the lower social orders. Moreover, he attacked discriminatory practices and fought against the idea of untouchability. Sambhuka Vadha created lot of controversy. Sambhuka was a character who did tapas to go heaven with live body before death. That was considered as adharma and was killed by Lord Rama. This story was interpreted that Brahmins do not like doing tapas by non-Brahmins, which is why Sabhuka was killed. Popular authors and works[edit]

Arudra
Arudra
(ఆరుద్ర) – Samagraandhra Saahityamu (సమగ్రాంధ్ర సాహిత్యము) (The Complete Telugu Literature) Adavi Baapiraju
Adavi Baapiraju
– Gona Gannareddy, Naarayanarao, Tuphaanu (The storm), Amshumati Addepalli Ramamohana Rao – Poga choorina Aakasam Ajanta – Penumarti Viswanatha Sastry (born 1922) Allasani Peddana – Manu Charitra (The History of Swarochisha Manu) Aatreya – NGO, Kappalu Avasarala Ramakrishna Rao (1931–2011) – Sampengalu-Sannajajulu Atukuri Molla – Molla Ramayanam Bammera Potana
Bammera Potana
Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana Buchchibabu – Chivaraku Migiledi (What is Left at the End) Balivada Kanta Rao (1927–2000) – Balivada Kanta Rao Kathalu (Winner of the Kendriya Sahitya Academy Award
Sahitya Academy Award
Awarded in 1998 by the Government of India) Boyi Bhimanna – Gudiselu Kaalipotunnaayi C. Narayanareddy
C. Narayanareddy
– Vishwambhara ( Won the Jnanpith Award
Jnanpith Award
for this novel in the year 1988 ) Cha So (1915–1993) Chalam – Chitraangi, Maidhaanam, Saavitri, Janaki, Ameena, Brahmaneekam, Musings Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham
Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham
– Gayopaakhyaanam, Prahasanamulu Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu – Timiramuto samaramu (Fighting against the darkness) Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak – Tilak Kathalu, Amrutam Kurisina Raatri Dhurjati – Srikaalahasteesvara Satakam Duvvoori Ramireddy – Paanasaala, Krusheevaludu Devulapalli Krishnasastri – Krishna pakshamu (The Brightening Fortnight) Garikapati Narasimha
Narasimha
Rao – Saagara Ghosha (Boisterousness of Ocean) Gona Budda Reddy- Ranganatha Ramayanam Gurajada Apparao
Gurajada Apparao
– Kanyaasulkamu Gurram Jashuva
Gurram Jashuva
– Gabbilamu (The bat), Phiradousi Kaloji- Naa Godava, Idee Naa Godava (autobiography) Kandukuri Veeresalingam
Kandukuri Veeresalingam
– Andhrakavula Charitra (The History of Andhra Poets), Raajasekhara Charitra (The History of Rajasekhara), KANETY KRISHNA MENON -"KRATUVU" karunasri Dr. Jandhyala papai sastry - "UdayaSri", "VijayaSri", KarunaSri", "Amarkhyam", "Telugu bala" Kasula Purushottama Kavi
Kasula Purushottama Kavi
– Andhranayaka Satakamu Kavitrayam (Nannayya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada) – Andhra Mahaabhaaratamu (The Great Mahabharata
Mahabharata
in Telugu) Kethu Viswanathareddy Kethu Viswanathareddy Kathalu Ko Ku – Chaduvu Madhurantakam Rajaram – Halikulu Kushalama Malladi Venkata Krishna Murthy – Written 153 novels, over 3000 Short Stories and 8 Travelogues covering 33 countries Mokkapati Narasimha
Narasimha
Sastry – Barrister Parvateesam Muddupalani
Muddupalani
– Radhika Santvanamu Mullapudi Venkata Ramana
Mullapudi Venkata Ramana
– Budugu, Girisam malli puttadu Muppala Ranganayakamma
Muppala Ranganayakamma
– Raamayana vishavŕksham, Krishnaveni, sweet home, Janaki Vimukti, Ammaki Adivaram Leda Nandoori Subbarao – Yenki paatalu Nanne Choadudu – Kumaara Sambhavamu Nayani Krishnakumari – Telugu geya vanjmayam, Agniputri, Kashmira deepakalika Palagummi Padmaraju – Batikina collegee Paravasthu Chinnayasuri – Baalavyaakaranamu, neeti chandrika Rallapalli Ananta Krishna Sharma- Meerabai (1913), Taradevi (1911) (both Khanda Kavya’s), Natakopanyasamulu, Vemana (1928–29), Saraswatalokamu (1954) (critical review articles), Shalivahana Gathasaptashati Saramu (translation of the Prakrit work into Telugu) (1932), Chayapa Senaniya, Nrita Ratnavali (translation into Telugu) 1969, Arya (translation of Sundara Pandya’s Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work in Telugu) 1970. Ravuri Bharadwaja – Paakudu Raallu [received the Jnanpith Award 20120 Sankaramanchi Satyam – Amaravati Kathalu (The Stories from Amaravati) Sri Krishna Deva Raya – Aamukta Maalyada Sri Sri – Maha Prasthanam Sri K Sabha – Vishwarupa Sandarsanam, Vedabhumi, Mogili, Patala Ganga Srinatha
Srinatha
– Haravilaasamu, Kaasikhandamu, Bhimakhandamu, Palnaati veeracharitra, Sŕngaara naishadhamu Suravaram Pratapareddy
Suravaram Pratapareddy
– Aandhrula Saanghika Charitra Tallapaka Annamacharya
Annamacharya
(1424?-1503) – Annamacharya
Annamacharya
kirtanas Tapi dharma Rao 'Vidhi Vilasam', 'Devala paina bootu bommalu, Pelli- Dani Puttupurvottaralu, and film script Rojulu marayi Tallapaka Timmakka – Subhadrakalyanam Tarigonda Venkamamba – Venkatachala Mahatmyamu, Vasista Ramamyanamu, Rajayogasaramu, Bhagavatamu, Krishnamanjari Tenali
Tenali
Ramakrishna – Paanduranga maahaatmyamu Tenneti Hemalata = Raktapankham, 'Mohanavamsi, Omar Khayyam Tikkana
Tikkana
– Nirvachanottara Raamayanamu - Tirupati Venkata Kavulu – Paandavodyoga vijayamulu, Devi bhaagavatam Tirumalamba – Varadambica parinayamu Thiruvarangam Sudhakar - "Sudhakara kavitha jyotsna" Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury
Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury
– Sutapuranamu, Karempudi kathanam, Kurukshetra sangramam, Kuppuswamy satakam, Sambhukavadha, Sutashrama geetalu', Dhoorta manava, Khooni, Bhagavadgita, Rana Pratap, Kondaveeti patanam Tripuraneni Maharadhi - 'Samagraha Praanam' Ushasri – Sundarakanda Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana
– Cheliyalikatta, Kalpavrukshamu, Kinnerasaani Paatalu, Srimadraamaayana kalpavŕkshamu Swargaaniki Nichchenalu, Veyipadagalu, Ekaveera, naa ramudu, nepala rajavamsa kathalu ( In Telugu he is the first writer to receive Jnanpith Award for the novel Ramayana
Ramayana
Kalpavrukshamu (A resourceful tree:Ramayana) in the year 1970 ) Vemana Vemana Satakam Vempalli Gangadhar
Vempalli Gangadhar
- Molakala Punnami Yenugu Lakshmana Kavi – Bhartruhari Subhashitamulu Yerrapragada – Harivansamu, Nrusimhapuranam, half of the Aranya Parva of Maha Bharat

Modern platforms[edit] Growing Internet users in India[31] led to the birth of online platforms that bring Telugu writers closer to more readers. Pratilipi, SuKatha and Kahaniya are prominent among the new platforms. See also[edit]

Chatuva Telugu development

External links[edit]

Press Academy of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Archives (Telugu) Telugu Sahityam, a blog about Telugu literature Telugu Literary & Cultural Association

References[edit]

^ a b Prabhakara Sastry, Veturi (2014) [1918]. Prabandha Ratnavali. Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam. p. 44.  ^ Telugu Split from Proto-Dravidian ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ a b c d e Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 33. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ a b c d e Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 35. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ a b c d Amaresh Datta, The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, v. 1, "Avadhanam" (Sahitya Akademi, 2006; ISBN 81-260-1803-8) ^ Adluri, Seshu Madhava Rao (1998). "aShTadiggajamulu (Introduction)". mun.ca.  ^ a b c d Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 34. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 97. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 98. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.  ^ G. Ramakrishna; N. Gayathri; Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, eds. (1983). An Encyclopaedia of South Indian Culture. K.P. Bagchi. pp. 164–165. OCLC 948611193.  ^ a b Chimakurthi, Seshagiri Rao (1992). Telugu Marugulu. Telugu Gosti. p. 87.  ^ Nidadavolu Venkata Rao Gari Rachanalu Parisheelana. p. 80.  ^ a b Chaganti, Seshayya (1956). Andhra Kavi Tarangani. Hindu dharma sastra granthalayam.  ^ Jha, Dwijendra Narayan (2014). Rethinking Hindu Identity.  ^ Gopavaram, Padmapriya (2011). "1". A Comparative Study of Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam. Hyderabad: University of Hyderabad. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140328010809/https://telugubasha.net/en/literatture-telugu. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ P. T., Raju. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book House.  ^ a b "Languages – Literature". aponline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2007.  ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2004). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7546-3950-3.  ^ a b P. T., Raju; Rao. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book House.  ^ Source of his history: http://www.svasa.org/annamacharya1.html ^ "Annamayya preached oneness 600 years ago". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 May 2007.  ^ "Annamacharya's 600th birth anniversary celebrated". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 April 2009.  ^ Dhurajti Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1] ^ "Bhakta Ramadas staged". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 September 2005.  ^ Natarajan, Nalini and Emmanuel Sampath Nelson, editors, Handbook of Twentieth-century Literatures of India, Chapter 11: "Twentieth-Century Telugu Literature" by G. K. Subbarayudu and C. Vijayasree' ', pp. 306–328, retrieved via Google Books, January 4, 20089 ^ Mangalampalli can't wait to come home ^ "Acharya Athreya". IMDB. Retrieved 9 August 2006.  ^ "9 out of 10 new Internet users coming online will be an Indian language user: Google-KPMG - The Financial Express". www.financialexpress.com. Retrieved

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