• Economy of Telangana
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• Telugu people
Festivals and Traditions
Arts and Crafts
• Music of Telangana
• Shadow Puppets of Telangana
Tourism in Telangana
Telugu literature or Telugu Pandityam (Telugu: తెలుగు
పాండిత్యము) is the body of works written in the
Telugu language. It consists of poems, novels, short stories, dramas
Telugu literature can be traced back to the early 10th
century period (Prabandha Ratnavali(1918) talk about the existence
Telugu literature during 850-1000AD) followed by 11th century
Mahabharata was first translated to Telugu from Sanskrit
by Nannaya. It flourished under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire,
where Telugu was one of the empire's official languages.
Telugu split from Proto-Dravidian between 1500-1000 BC. Telugu became
a distinct language by the time any literary activity began to appear
in the Tamil land, along with Parji, Kolami, Nayaki and Gadaba
Telugu is a Dravidian Language native to India.
1.1 Subject matter
1.3 Author's craft
2.1 Early writers
2.1.1 The Pre-
Nannayya Period (before 1020 AD)
2.1.2 The Jain Literature Phase(850-1000 AD)
18.104.22.168 Malliya Rechana-First Telugu Author (940AD) -
2.1.3 The Age of the
Nannaya Bhattarakudu or Adi Kavi (1022–1063 AD)
22.214.171.124 Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288 AD)
126.96.36.199 Baddena Bhupala (1220-1280AD)
2.1.4 The Age of
Srinatha and the Prabandhas (1400–1600 AD)
188.8.131.52 Bammera Potanaamatya
184.108.40.206 Tallapaka Tirumalamma
220.127.116.11 Allasani Peddana
2.2 Middle age writers
2.2.5 Kancherla Gopanna
2.3.2 Paravastu Chinnayasuri
3 Modern or Adhunika Sahityam
3.1 Kandukuri Veeresalingam
3.2 Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna
3.4 Tripuraneni Ramaswamy
4 Popular authors and works
5 Modern platforms
6 See also
7 External links
There are various sources available for information on early Telugu
writers. Among these are the prologues to their poems, which followed
Sanskrit model by customarily giving a brief description of the
writer, a history of the king to whom the book is dedicated, and a
chronological list of the books he published. In addition, historical
information is available from inscriptions that can be co-related with
the poems; there are several grammars, treatises and anthologies that
provide illustrative stanzas; and there is also information available
from the lives of the poets and the traditions that they followed.
History of literature
by region or country
Matter of Rome
Matter of France
Matter of Britain
North and South American
East / Southeast
Indian writing in English
History of science fiction
List of years in literature
Literature by country
History of theatre
History of ideas
Telugu literature is predominantly religious in subject matter.
Poets and scholars drew most of their material from, and spent most of
their time translating epics, such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata,
Bhagavata and the Puranas, all of which are considered to be
storehouses of Indian culture.
From the sixteenth-century onwards, rarely known episodes from the
Puranas would form the basis for the tradition of Telugu-language
kavya. Literary works drawn from episodes of the
Puranas under the
name Akhyana or Khanda became popular along with depictions of the
fortune of a single hero under the title of Charitra, Vijaya, Vilasa
and Abhyudaya. Such titles are examples of what would become the most
common subject matter of poetry.
In the eighteenth-century, marriages of heroes under the title
Parinaya, Kalyana and Vivāha became popular.
Religious literature consisted of biographies of the founders of
religion, their teachings (Sara) as well as commentaries (bhashya).
Traditional Hindu knowledge systems such as astrology, law, grammar,
ballets, moral aphorisms, and devotional psalms to deities within the
Hindu pantheon are characteristics of more popular works of Telugu
The various forms of literature found in Telugu are:
Prabandham: Stories in verse form with a tight metrical structure and
they have three forms mentioned below.
Prakhyātam: Famous story.
Utpadyam: Purely fictional story.
Mishramam: Mixed story.
Champu: Mixture of prose and poetry.
Kāvyam: Poem which usually begin with a short prayer called a
Prarthana, containing initial auspicious letter "Shri" which invokes
the blessings of the god. The occasion and circumstances under
which the work is undertaken is next stated.
Padya kāvyam: Metrical poetry.
Gadya kāvyam: prose poetry.
Khanda kāvyam: Short poems
Shatakam is a literary piece of art. The name
derives from Shata, which means a hundred in Sanskrit. Shatakam
comprises a hundred poems. Hence, a
Shatakam is a volume (book) of
hundred poems. Shatakams are usually devotional, philosophical or
DaŚaka (anthology): Dasakam or Dashakam comprises ten poems.
Avadhanam involves the partial improvisation of poems
using specific themes, metres, forms, or words.
Navala: Navala is a written, fictional, prose narrative normally
longer than a short story.
Katha : Style of religious storytelling.
Ashtadiggajas have written in all three of the Prabandham genres
during the Prabandha yugam.
Telugu literature uses a unique expression in verse called Champu,
which mixes prose and poetry. Although it is the dominant literary
form, there are exceptions: for example,
Tikkana composed Uttara
Ramayana entirely in verse.
Champu Kavyas and Prabandhas were beyond the comprehension of
masses, new devices for the dissemination of knowledge among the
people were developed in the form of the Dvipada and Shataka styles.
Dvipada means two feet (couplet) and Shataka means hundred (a cento of
verses). (Popular shatakas: Sarveshvara shataka, Kalahastishvara
shataka, Dasarathi Shataka)
There are some Shatakas which are divided into ten groups of ten
verses called Dasaka which is adopted from Prakrit.
Avadhanam is a literary performance popular from the very ancient days
Sanskrit and more so in Telugu and Kannada languages. It
requires a good memory and tests a person's capability of performing
multiple tasks simultaneously. All the tasks are memory intensive
and demand an in-depth knowledge of literature, and prosody. The
number of Prucchakas can be 8 (ashtavadhanam) or 100 (shataavadhaanam)
or even 1000 (sahasravadhanam). A person who has successfully
performed Ashtavadhanam is called as Ashtavadhani, a shatavadhanam is
called a Shatavadhani and sahasraavadhaanam is called
Praudha Prabandha or Maha
Kavya is considered as highest form of
verse. The essentials of such a composition according to the Telugu
poetic theory are
Śaili (Style): The words chosen neither soft nor very musical but
dignified (Gambhira), Sweetness (Madhurya), Grace and Delicacy
(Sukumara), Fragrance (Saurabhya) and Symphony. In choice of
vocabulary, Vulgar language (Gramya) is avoided.
Ṕāka (Mould): Refers to the embodiment of ideas in language, and
the nature and texture of the language employed. There are three types
of pakas namely
Drāksha (wine or grape): Draksha is a crystal clear style where
everything is seen through a transparent medium. Mostly Nannaiyah uses
Kadali (Plantain): Kadali is complex paka because the soft skin has to
peeled to reach the core of the subject. Mostly
Tikkana uses this
Narikela is the most difficult mould to employ
because one has to break the rind to understand the idea. Vishnu
Krishnadevaraya are cast in this paka.
Rasa (Sentiment): Rasa is the heart and soul of any Telugu poetry
which follows rule or (Sutram) "Vākyam Rasātmakam Kāvyam" which
means that the soul of a sentence is Rasa. There are nine Rasas, known
as the Nava Rasas. A perfect kavyam uses all nine of these, namely:
Alamkāra (Ornamentation): There are Śabdhalamkāras (ornaments of
sound) and Arthalamkāras (ornaments of thoughts).
Yamaka (alliteration) are Śabdhalamkāras. Upamāna
(simile) Utpreksha (hyperbole) are Arthalamkāras. We find usage of
Alamkaras in description of events, places and proceedings
Nannayya Period (before 1020 AD)
In the earliest period
Telugu literature existed in the form of
inscriptions, precisely from 575 AD on-wards.
The 6th or 7th century
Jānāśrayī Chandoviciti (or
Janāśraya-chandas) deals with the metres used in Telugu, including
some metres that are not found in
Sanskrit prosody. This indicates
that Telugu poetry existed during or around the 6th century.
The Jain Literature Phase(850-1000 AD)
Historically, Vemulawada was a Jain knowledge hub and played a
significant role in patronizing Jain literature and poets.1980s
excavations around Vemulawada revealed and affirmed the existence of
Telugu Jain literature between 850-1000 AD.
Malliya Rechana-First Telugu Author (940AD) -
Malliya Rechana has composed the first Telugu poetic prosody book
Nannayya chandassu) around 940 AD. This was a
popular one and referred by many poets. There seems to be even an
earlier prosody book by Rechana's guru Vaadindra Chudamani which is
Veturi Prabhakara Sastry in 1900s mentioned about existence of
Nannayya Chandassu in Raja Raja Narendra Pattabhisekha
Sanchika. Accurate dating of this piece of literature happened
after the 1980s discoveries in Karimnagar.
Prabandha Ratnavali(1918) also talks about a verse from Telugu
Jinendra Puranam by Padma Kavi(Pampa), a couple of verses from Telugu
Adi Puranam by Sarvadeva and Kavijanasrayam's affiliation to Jainism
were discussed.P.V.P Sastry also points out that many Jain works could
have been destroyed. Historical rivalry among Hinduism, Jainism
and Buddhism is well known
The Age of the
This is the period of
Kavi Trayam or Trinity of Poets. Nannayya,
Yerrapragada (or Errana) are known as the Kavi Trayam.
Nannaya Bhattarakudu or Adi Kavi (1022–1063 AD)
Nannaya Bhattarakudu's (Telugu: నన్నయ) Andhra mahabharatam,
who lived around the 11th century, is commonly referred to as the
first Telugu literary composition (aadi kaavyam).
Although there is evidence of
Telugu literature before Nannaya, he is
given the epithet Aadi Kavi ("the first poet").
Nannaya was the first
to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. This grammar followed
the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises like
Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam but unlike Pāṇini,
Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā,
sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya.
Nannaya completed the first two
chapters and a part of the third chapter of the
which is rendered in the
Champu style.
Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288 AD)
Nannaya's Andhra Mahabharatam was almost completed by Tikanna Somayaji
(Telugu: తిక్కన సోమయాజి) (1205–1288) who
wrote chapters 4 to 18.
Errapragada, (Telugu: ఎర్రాప్రగడ) who lived in the
14th century, finished the epic by completing the third
chapter. He mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning,
slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of
Tikkana. These three writers – Nannaya, Tikanna and
Yerrapragada – are known as the Kavitraya ("three great poets") of
Telugu. Other such translations like Marana’s
Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed.
Many scientific[relevant? – discuss] works, like
Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by
Eluganti Peddana, were written in the 12th century.[full citation
Baddena Bhupala (1220-1280AD)
Sumati Shatakam, which is a neeti ("moral"), is one of the most famous
Telugu Shatakams.
Shatakam is composed of more than a
100 padyalu (poems). According to many literary critics[who?] Sumati
Shatakam was composed by Baddena Bhupaludu (Telugu: బద్దెన
భూపాల) (CE 1220–1280). He was also known as Bhadra
Bhupala. He was a
Chola prince and a vassal under the
Rani Rudrama Devi, and a pupil of Tikkana. If we
assume that the Sumati
Shatakam was indeed written by Baddena, it
would rank as one of the earliest Shatakams in Telugu along with the
Vrushadhipa Satakam of
Palkuriki Somanatha and the Sarveswara Satakam
of Yathavakkula Annamayya.[original research?] The Sumatee
also one of the earliest Telugu works to be translated into a European
C. P. Brown rendered it in English in the 1840s.[citation
The Age of
Srinatha and the Prabandhas (1400–1600 AD)
Srinatha (Telugu: శ్రీనాథుడు) (1365–1441)
popularised the Prabandha style of composition. He was a minister
in the court of Pedakomati Vemareddy of Kondaveedu
and wrote Salivahana Saptasati, Shivaratri Mahatyam, Harivilasa,
Bhimakanda, Kashi khandam, Shringara Naishadham, Palanati Veera
charitra, Dhananjaya Vijayam,
Sringara Dipika. These works were
concerned with history and mythology. Srinatha's
Srungara Naishadhamu is a well-known example of the form. Srinatha
was widely regarded as the Kavi Sarvabhowma ("the emperor among
Kumaragiri Vema Reddy (Telugu: వేమన), popularly known as Yogi
Vemana, was a 14th-century Telugu poet. His poems were written in
the popular vernacular of Telugu, and are known for their use of
simple language and native idioms. His poems discuss
the subjects of Yoga, wisdom and morality. There is
no consensus among scholars about the period in which
C.P. Brown, known for his research on Vemana, estimates the year of
birth to be the year 1352 based on some of his verses.[citation
needed] His poems are four lines in length. The fourth line is, in
majority of the cases, the chorus Vishwadhabhirama Vinura Vema – he
thus conveyed his message with three small lines written in a simple
vernacular. He travelled widely across south India,
acquiring popularity as a poet and Yogi. So high was
the regard for
Vemana that a popular Telugu saying goes 'Vemana's word
is the word of the Vedas'. He is celebrated for his
style of Chaatu padyam, a poem with a hidden meaning.
Many lines of Vemana's poems are now colloquial phrases of the Telugu
language. They end with the signature line
Vishwadhaabhi Raama, Vinura Vema, literally Beloved of Vishwadha,
listen Vema. There are many interpretations of what the last line
Bammera Potanaamatya (Telugu: బమ్మెర పోతన)
(1450–1510) is best known for his translation of the Bhagavata
Sanskrit to Telugu. His work, Andhra Maha
Bhagavatamu. He was born into a Brahmin family and was considered to
be a sahaja Kavi ("natural poet") who needed no teacher. He wrote
Bhogini Dandakam a poem praising king Singa Bhoopala’s consort
danseuse, Bhogini, while young. This is the earliest available Telugu
Dandaka (a rhapsody which uses the same gana or foot
throughout).[full citation needed] His second work was Virabhadra
Vijayamu which describes the adventures of Virabhadra, son of
Shiva. As a young man, he was a devotee of
Rama and was more interested in salvation, from which came the
inspiration to translate the
Bhagavata Purana.
Annamacharya (or Annamayya) (Telugu: శ్రీ
తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) (9 May
1408 – 23 February 1503) is known as the Pada-kavita Pitaamaha of
the Telugu language. He was born to a Vaidiki Brahmin family and
his works are considered to have dominated and influenced the
Carnatic music compositions.
Annamacharya is said to have composed as many as 32,000 sankeertanas
(songs) on Bhagwaan Govinda Venkateswara, of which only about
12,000 are available today. His keertana compositions are based on the
Vishishtadvaita school of thought. Annamayya was
educated in this system of
Ramanuja by Sri Satagopa Yateendra of the
Ahobila matham.
Tallapaka Tirumalamma (Telugu: తాళ్ళపాక
తిరుమలమ్మ) (Annamacharya's wife) wrote Subhadra
Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu
literature.[by whom?] Her main work,
Subhadra Kalyanam, which consists
of 1170 poems, is about the marriage of
Arjuna and Subhadra, who are
characters that appear in the Mahabharata. She presented the Telugu
nativity and culture in the story taken from
Allasani Peddana (Telugu: అల్లసాని పెద్దన)
(15th and 16th centuries) was ranked as the foremost of the
Ashtadiggajalu the title for the group of eight poets in the court of
Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Peddana was a native of Somandepalli near Anantapur.
Allasani Peddana wrote the first major Prabandha and for this reason
he is revered as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha ("the grand father of Telugu
poetry"). It is believed[by whom?] that he was also a
minister in the king's court and is hence sometimes referred as
Peddanaamaatya (Peddana + Amaatya = Peddana, the minister).[citation
needed] He wrote Swaarochisha Manu Sambhavam (also known as Manu
Charitra), which is a development of an episode in the Markandeya
Purana relating to the birth of Svarochishamanu, who is one of the
fourteen Manus. Pravarakhya is a pious Brahmin youth who goes to the
Himalayas for Tapasya. In the
Himalayas Varudhini, a
falls in love with him, but Pravarakyudu rejects her love. Knowing
Gandharva youth who was earlier rejected by Varudhini assumes
the form of Pravarakhya and succeeds to win her love. To them is born
Svarochisha, the father of Svarochishamanu.[full citation needed]
The theme for his Manu Charitra is a short story from Markandeya
Purana. It is about second Manu of fourteen manus (fathers of mankind
societies according to Hindu mythology), translated into Telugu from
Marana (1291–1323), disciple of
Tikkana. The original story was around 150 poems and Peddana extended
into six chapters with 600 poems by adding fiction and descriptions.
His work was treated as one of the Pancha Kavyas, the five best works
in Telugu. Some of his other famous works such as Harikathaasaaramu
are untraceable now.
Middle age writers
Dhurjati or Dhoorjati (Telugu: ధూర్జటి) (15th and 16th
centuries) was a poet in the court of
Krishnadevaraya and was one of
the 'Ashtadiggajalu'. He was born to Singamma and
Sri Kalahasti and was the grandson of Jakkayya.[citation
needed]. His works include Sri Kalahasteeshwara Mahatyam (The
grace/miracles of lord Shiva) and Sri Kalahasteeshwara
poems in the praise of lord Shiva).
Dhurjati took themes from Puranas
and added local stories and myths in his work. Unlike
contemporaries such as Peddana and Mallana, who chose the stories of
kings, he chose devotion as his theme..
Krishnadevaraya praised Dhurjati, saying "Stuti mati yaina Andhrakavi
Dhurjati palkulakelagalgeno yetulita madhuri mahima...." (How is
Dhurjati's poetry so immeasurably beautiful) On a personal note,
he was known as Pedda
Dhurjati ("elder Dhurjati") as there were four
other people from the same family line who went by the name of
Dhurjati during the same period and after him.. His
grandson Venkataraya Dhurjati, wrote Indumati Parinayam ("marriage of
Indumati"), a story from Kalidasa's Raghuvamsam.
Krishnadevaraya (Telugu: శ్రీ
కృష్ణదేవరాయ) was an emperor of Vijayanagara
Kingdom. Literary activities flourished during the rule of the
Vijayanagara dynasty, and the period of
Krishnadevaraya's rule in the sixteenth century is considered[by
whom?] to be the golden age of Telugu literature.
Krishnadevaraya, a poet himself, introduced the Prabandha to Telugu
literature. Amukta Malyada. Krishna Deva Raya wrote
Amuktamalyada in Telugu, describing the pangs of separation
suffered by Andal (an incarnation of the goddess Mahalakshmi. He
describes Andal’s physical beauty in thirty verses; using
descriptions of the spring and the monsoon as metaphors.[citation
needed] As elsewhere in Indian poetry, the sensual pleasure of union
extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a
metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the
divine. His court had the
elephants"), who were considered to be the greatest of poets of that
time. Some critics[who?] dismiss the following
period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age.
Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth- to mid-nineteenth century,
Kankanti Paparaju’s Uttara
Ramayana in campu style, and the play
Vishnumayavilasa stand out. Other genres bloomed at
the same time.[which?] Yakshaganas, indigenous dramas of song and
prose, were also produced.
Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna
Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna (Telugu: గార్లపాటి
తెనాలి రామకృష్ణ), popularly known as
Rama and Vikata Kavi, was another sixteenth-century court poet
of the Vijayanagara empire and also one of the Ashtadiggajas. His
family had originally hailed from
Tenali in Guntur District, he was
born in a Telugu
Niyogi Brahmin family. His famous work Panduranga
Mahatyamu is one among the Pancha Kavyas. He
dedicated that to Viruri Vedadri. This book is about the Pundarika
Kshetram on the banks of river Bhaimi and its legend. He also composed
Udbhataradhya Charitram on the story of Udbhata, a monk, as well as
Ghatikachala Mahatyam about Ghatikachalam, a place of worship for God
Narasimha near Vellore. He followed the Prabandha style. He took the
theme for Panduranga Mahatyam from the
Skanda Purana and enhanced it
with many stories about the devotees of God
Vitthala (Panduranga). He
is noted for brilliance and wit and for mocking other poets and great
personalities. He created a celebrated character called Nigama Sarma
akka (sister of Nigama Sarma) and a story about her without giving her
a name. He also had written many Chatuvu (extempore poems).
Kshetrayya or Kshetragna (Telugu: క్షేత్రయ్య)
(c. 1600–1680 CE) was a prolific poet and composer of Carnatic
music. He lived in the area of Andhra Pradesh. He composed a number of
padams and keertanas, the prevalent formats of his time. He is
credited with more than 4000 compositions, although only a handful
have survived. He composed his songs on his favourite deity Krishna
(Gopala) in Telugu. He perfected the padam format that is still being
used today. His padams are sung in dance (
Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi)
and music recitals. A unique feature of his padams is the practice of
singing the anupallavi first then the pallavi (second verse followed
by first verse). Most of the padams are of the theme of longing for
the coming of the lord Krishna. He wrote with
Sringara as a main theme
in expressing madhurabhakti (devotion to the supreme).
Sringara is a
motif where the mundane sexual relationship between a Nayaki (woman)
and a Nayaka (man) is used as a metaphor, denoting the yearning of
jeeva (usually depicted as the Nayaki) to unite with the divine
(usually depicted as the man). In most of his compositions, Kshetrayya
has used the mudra (signature) "Muvva Gopala" as a reference to
himself, which is also a name for the Lord Krishna in Kshetrayya's
village Muvva, now called as Movva. Kshetrayya's work has played a
major role in influencing poetry, dance, music of the South Indian
Kshetrayya was intimately connected with the devadasi women
of the temples of south India, who were the subject of many of his
compositions. The devadasis were traditionally in possession of the
musical/poetic interpretations of his work for a long period of time
till the devadasi system was abolished and the compositions became
more accepted in the musical community as valuable works of art. The
musical community also owes a lot to
Veena Dhanammal and T. Brinda,
who popularised Kshetrayya's songs with their beautiful musical
interpretation. Kshetrayya's padams now form an integral part of the
dance and musical traditions of South India, where his songs are
rendered purely as musical works or as accompaniments to dance.
Kancherla Gopanna (Telugu: కంచెర్ల గోపన్న)
(c 1620–1680 CE), popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or
Bhadrachala Ramadasu (Telugu: భద్రాచల
రామదాసు), was a 17th-century Indian devotee of
a composer of Carnatic music. He is one among the famous
vaggeyakaras (same person being the writer and composer of a song) in
the Telugu language. His devotional lyrics to
Rama are famous in South
Indian classical music as Ramadaasu Keertanalu. Even the doyen of
South Indian classical music Saint Thyagaraja learned and later
improved the style now considered standard krithi form of music
composition. He also written Dasarathi Shatakamu a collection of
nearly 100 poems dedicated to the son of Dasaratha (Lord Rama).
Tarikonda Venkamamba (Telugu:తారికొండ
వెంకమాంబ ; alternate spelling: Vengamamba, born
1730) was a poet and staunch devotee of Lord Venkateswara in the 18th
century. She wrote numerous poems and songs.
Tyagaraja or Tyagabrahmam (Telugu: కాకర్ల
త్యాగబ్రహ్మం) (1767–1847) of Tanjore
composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the
repertoire of Carnatic music. In addition to nearly 600 compositions
Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the
Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam. Prahlada Bhakti
Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses,
in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one
act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the
most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the
composer's own imagination and has no basis in the
Often overlooked is the fact that Tyagaraja's works are some of the
best and most beautiful literary expressions in Telugu
language. Valmiki composed the Ramayana, the story of
Rama, with 24,000 verses and also composed 24,000 kritis in praise of
the lord.
Paravastu Chinnayasuri (Telugu: పరవస్తు
చిన్నయ సూరి) (1807–1861) wrote Baala
Vyaakaranamu in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra
Grammar[clarification needed] which is his greatest
gift[peacock term] to Telugu people. Other notable works of
Chinnayasuri include Neeti Chandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra
Dhatumoola and Neeti Sangrahamu. Chinnayasuri translated Mitra Labham
and Mitra Bhedam from the
Panchatantra as Neeti Chandrika.
Kandukuri Veeresalingam and
Kokkonda Venkata Ratnam Pantulu followed
his style of prose writing and wrote Vigrahamu and
Sandhi in a
different pattern.[clarification needed]
Modern or Adhunika Sahityam
Modern Asian literature
Kandukuri Veereshalingam (Telugu: కందుకూరి
వీరేశలింగం) (also known as Kandukuri
Veereshalingam Pantulu (Telugu: కందుకూరి
వీరేశలింగం పంతులు), (16 April 1848 –
27 May 1919) was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was born in
an orthodox Andhra Brahmin family. He is widely considered as the man
who first brought about a renaissance in
Telugu people and Telugu
literature. He was influenced by the ideals of Brahmo Samaj
particularly those of Keshub Chunder Sen. Veereshalingam panthulu is
popularly called Gadya Tikkana. He wrote about 100
books between 1869 and 1919 and introduced the essay, biography,
autobiography and the novel into Telugu literature His Satyavati
Charitam was the first social novel in Telugu. He
wrote Rajashekhara Charitamu inspired by Oliver Goldsmith’s The
Vicar of Wakefied. To him literature was an instrument to fight social
Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna
Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna
Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna (Telugu:
pronunciation (help·info) (born 6 July 1930) is a Carnatic
vocalist, multi-instrumentalist and a playback singer. He is also
acclaimed as a poet, composer and respected for his knowledge of
Carnatic Music. Balamuralikrishna was born in Sankaraguptam, East
Andhra Pradesh state. Dr Balamuralikrishna has
composed over 400 compositions in various languages like Telugu and
Sanskrit. His compositions ranges from Devotional to Varnams, Kirthis,
Javalis and Thillans. His greatest achievement are the compositions in
all the fundamental 72 melakarta ragas.
Aacharya Aatreya (Telugu: ఆచార్య ఆత్రేయ) or
Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu
pronunciation (help·info) (7 May 1921 – 13 September
1989) was a playwright, lyrics and story writer of the Telugu film
industry. He was born as Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu on 7
May 1921 in the Mangalampadu village of
Sullurpeta Mandalam in the
Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. His pen name is based on their
family Gotra. Known for his poetry on the human soul and heart, he was
given the title 'Manasu Kavi'(Poet of Heart), which can be rewritten
as 'Mana Su Kavi'(Our Good Poet). His poetry is philosophical and
intellectually satisfying.
Tripuranēni Rāmasvāmi (January 15, 1887 – January 16, 1943) was a
lawyer, famous poet, playwright and reformer active among the
Telugu-speaking people. Popularly known as Kaviraju, he is considered
the first poet to introduce rationalism and humanism into Telugu
poetry and literature. Ramaswamy chose literary writing as the vehicle
for expressing his rationalist thoughts. His famous work 'Sutaparanam'
in four cantos was a fierce attack on the ancient Puranas, he has
attained the state of excellence in poetic&literary criticism. His
poetic work "Kuppuswamy Satakam" reveals the theme of social
revolution and talks about social evils, blind faith and indignity to
man. He was against Congress and its fight against independence. In
his other works such as "Sambhukavadha", "Suthashrama geethaalu',
'Dhoortha maanava', 'Khooni', 'Bhagavadgita', 'Rana Pratap' and
'Kondaveeti pathanam', he made a rational analysis of dogmas
prescribed by ancient classics and the injustice these dogmas did to
people belonging to the lower social orders. Moreover, he attacked
discriminatory practices and fought against the idea of
untouchability. Sambhuka Vadha created lot of controversy. Sambhuka
was a character who did tapas to go heaven with live body before
death. That was considered as adharma and was killed by Lord Rama.
This story was interpreted that Brahmins do not like doing tapas by
non-Brahmins, which is why Sabhuka was killed.
Popular authors and works
Arudra (ఆరుద్ర) – Samagraandhra Saahityamu
(సమగ్రాంధ్ర సాహిత్యము) (The
Complete Telugu Literature)
Adavi Baapiraju – Gona Gannareddy, Naarayanarao, Tuphaanu (The
Addepalli Ramamohana Rao – Poga choorina Aakasam
Penumarti Viswanatha Sastry (born 1922)
Allasani Peddana – Manu Charitra (The History of Swarochisha Manu)
Aatreya – NGO, Kappalu
Avasarala Ramakrishna Rao (1931–2011) – Sampengalu-Sannajajulu
Atukuri Molla – Molla Ramayanam
Bammera Potana –
Buchchibabu – Chivaraku Migiledi (What is Left at the End)
Balivada Kanta Rao (1927–2000) –
Balivada Kanta Rao Kathalu
(Winner of the Kendriya
Sahitya Academy Award
Sahitya Academy Award Awarded in 1998 by the
Government of India)
Boyi Bhimanna – Gudiselu Kaalipotunnaayi
C. Narayanareddy – Vishwambhara ( Won the
Jnanpith Award for this
novel in the year 1988 )
Cha So (1915–1993)
Chalam – Chitraangi, Maidhaanam, Saavitri, Janaki, Ameena,
Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham
Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham – Gayopaakhyaanam, Prahasanamulu
Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu – Timiramuto samaramu (Fighting against
Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak – Tilak Kathalu, Amrutam Kurisina
Dhurjati – Srikaalahasteesvara Satakam
Duvvoori Ramireddy – Paanasaala, Krusheevaludu
Devulapalli Krishnasastri – Krishna pakshamu (The Brightening
Narasimha Rao – Saagara Ghosha (Boisterousness of Ocean)
Gona Budda Reddy- Ranganatha Ramayanam
Gurajada Apparao – Kanyaasulkamu
Gurram Jashuva – Gabbilamu (The bat), Phiradousi
Kaloji- Naa Godava, Idee Naa Godava (autobiography)
Kandukuri Veeresalingam – Andhrakavula Charitra (The History of
Andhra Poets), Raajasekhara Charitra (The History of Rajasekhara),
KANETY KRISHNA MENON -"KRATUVU"
karunasri Dr. Jandhyala papai sastry - "UdayaSri", "VijayaSri",
KarunaSri", "Amarkhyam", "Telugu bala"
Kasula Purushottama Kavi
Kasula Purushottama Kavi – Andhranayaka Satakamu
Kavitrayam (Nannayya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada) – Andhra
Mahaabhaaratamu (The Great
Mahabharata in Telugu)
Kethu Viswanathareddy –
Kethu Viswanathareddy Kathalu
Ko Ku – Chaduvu
Madhurantakam Rajaram – Halikulu Kushalama
Malladi Venkata Krishna Murthy – Written 153 novels, over 3000 Short
Stories and 8 Travelogues covering 33 countries
Narasimha Sastry – Barrister Parvateesam
Muddupalani – Radhika Santvanamu
Mullapudi Venkata Ramana
Mullapudi Venkata Ramana – Budugu, Girisam malli puttadu
Muppala Ranganayakamma – Raamayana vishavŕksham, Krishnaveni, sweet
home, Janaki Vimukti, Ammaki Adivaram Leda
Nandoori Subbarao – Yenki paatalu
Nanne Choadudu – Kumaara Sambhavamu
Nayani Krishnakumari – Telugu geya vanjmayam, Agniputri, Kashmira
Palagummi Padmaraju – Batikina collegee
Paravasthu Chinnayasuri – Baalavyaakaranamu, neeti chandrika
Rallapalli Ananta Krishna Sharma- Meerabai (1913), Taradevi (1911)
(both Khanda Kavya’s), Natakopanyasamulu,
Saraswatalokamu (1954) (critical review articles), Shalivahana
Gathasaptashati Saramu (translation of the Prakrit work into Telugu)
(1932), Chayapa Senaniya, Nrita Ratnavali (translation into Telugu)
1969, Arya (translation of Sundara Pandya’s
Sanskrit work in Telugu)
Ravuri Bharadwaja – Paakudu Raallu [received the Jnanpith Award
Sankaramanchi Satyam –
Amaravati Kathalu (The Stories from
Sri Krishna Deva Raya – Aamukta Maalyada
Sri Sri – Maha Prasthanam
Sri K Sabha – Vishwarupa Sandarsanam, Vedabhumi, Mogili, Patala
Srinatha – Haravilaasamu, Kaasikhandamu, Bhimakhandamu, Palnaati
veeracharitra, Sŕngaara naishadhamu
Suravaram Pratapareddy – Aandhrula Saanghika Charitra
Annamacharya (1424?-1503) –
Tapi dharma Rao 'Vidhi Vilasam', 'Devala paina bootu bommalu, Pelli-
Dani Puttupurvottaralu, and film script Rojulu marayi
Timmakka – Subhadrakalyanam
Tarigonda Venkamamba – Venkatachala Mahatmyamu, Vasista Ramamyanamu,
Rajayogasaramu, Bhagavatamu, Krishnamanjari
Tenali Ramakrishna – Paanduranga maahaatmyamu
Tenneti Hemalata = Raktapankham, 'Mohanavamsi, Omar Khayyam
Tikkana – Nirvachanottara Raamayanamu -
Tirupati Venkata Kavulu – Paandavodyoga vijayamulu, Devi bhaagavatam
Tirumalamba – Varadambica parinayamu
Thiruvarangam Sudhakar - "Sudhakara kavitha jyotsna"
Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury
Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury – Sutapuranamu, Karempudi kathanam,
Kurukshetra sangramam, Kuppuswamy satakam, Sambhukavadha, Sutashrama
geetalu', Dhoorta manava, Khooni, Bhagavadgita, Rana Pratap,
Tripuraneni Maharadhi - 'Samagraha Praanam'
Ushasri – Sundarakanda
Viswanatha Satyanarayana – Cheliyalikatta, Kalpavrukshamu,
Kinnerasaani Paatalu, Srimadraamaayana kalpavŕkshamu Swargaaniki
Nichchenalu, Veyipadagalu, Ekaveera, naa ramudu, nepala rajavamsa
kathalu ( In Telugu he is the first writer to receive Jnanpith Award
for the novel
Ramayana Kalpavrukshamu (A resourceful tree:Ramayana) in
the year 1970 )
Vempalli Gangadhar - Molakala Punnami
Yenugu Lakshmana Kavi – Bhartruhari Subhashitamulu
Yerrapragada – Harivansamu, Nrusimhapuranam, half of the Aranya
Parva of Maha Bharat
Growing Internet users in India led to the birth of online
platforms that bring Telugu writers closer to more readers. Pratilipi,
SuKatha and Kahaniya are prominent among the new platforms.
Press Academy of
Andhra Pradesh Archives (Telugu)
Telugu Sahityam, a blog about Telugu literature
Telugu Literary & Cultural Association
^ a b Prabhakara Sastry, Veturi (2014) . Prabandha Ratnavali.
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam. p. 44.
^ Telugu Split from Proto-Dravidian
^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu
Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 19.
^ a b c d e Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of
Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 33.
^ a b c d e Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of
Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 35.
^ a b c d Amaresh Datta, The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, v. 1,
"Avadhanam" (Sahitya Akademi, 2006; ISBN 81-260-1803-8)
^ Adluri, Seshu Madhava Rao (1998). "aShTadiggajamulu (Introduction)".
^ a b c d Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of
Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 34.
^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu
Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 97.
^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu
Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 98.
^ G. Ramakrishna; N. Gayathri; Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, eds. (1983).
An Encyclopaedia of South Indian Culture. K.P. Bagchi.
pp. 164–165. OCLC 948611193.
^ a b Chimakurthi, Seshagiri Rao (1992). Telugu Marugulu. Telugu
Gosti. p. 87.
^ Nidadavolu Venkata Rao Gari Rachanalu Parisheelana.
^ a b Chaganti, Seshayya (1956). Andhra Kavi Tarangani. Hindu dharma
^ Jha, Dwijendra Narayan (2014). Rethinking Hindu Identity.
^ Gopavaram, Padmapriya (2011). "1". A Comparative Study of
Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam. Hyderabad: University of
Hyderabad. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
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^ P. T., Raju. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book House.
^ a b "Languages – Literature". aponline.gov.in. Archived from the
original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
^ Jackson, William Joseph (2004). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South
Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing. p. 112.
^ a b P. T., Raju; Rao. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book
^ Source of his history: http://www.svasa.org/annamacharya1.html
^ "Annamayya preached oneness 600 years ago". The Hindu. Chennai,
India. 4 May 2007.
^ "Annamacharya's 600th birth anniversary celebrated". The Hindu.
Chennai, India. 6 April 2009.
^ Dhurajti Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Bhakta Ramadas staged". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 September
^ Natarajan, Nalini and Emmanuel Sampath Nelson, editors, Handbook of
Twentieth-century Literatures of India, Chapter 11: "Twentieth-Century
Telugu Literature" by G. K. Subbarayudu and C. Vijayasree' ', pp.
306–328, retrieved via Google Books, January 4, 20089
^ Mangalampalli can't wait to come home
^ "Acharya Athreya". IMDB. Retrieved 9 August 2006.
^ "9 out of 10 new Internet users coming online will be an Indian
language user: Google-KPMG - The Financial Express".