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Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(Hebrew: תֵּל אָבִיב‬, [tel aˈviv], Arabic: تل أَبيب‎) is the second most populous city in Israel
Israel
– after Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 438,818, it is the financial and technological center of the country. Silicon Wadi
Silicon Wadi
is another name for Gush Dan, in comparison to Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
in the U.S. state of California. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, and is home to many foreign embassies.[6] It is a global city and is ranked 34th in the Global Financial Centres Index.[7] Tel Aviv has the third-largest economy in the Middle East
Middle East
after Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Kuwait City.[8][not in citation given] The city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world.[9] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually.[10][11][12][13] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students. The city was founded in 1909 by Jews on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa
Jaffa
(Hebrew: יָפוֹ‬ Yafo). Its name means Spring Hill, though the hill was mostly sand. The modern city's first neighborhoods had already been established in 1886, the first of which was Neve Tzedek.[14] Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time.[15] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa
Jaffa
were later merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and other related modernist architectural styles.[16][17]

Contents

1 Etymology and origins 2 History

2.1 Jaffa 2.2 Pre- Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
neighborhoods North of Jaffa 2.3 Ottoman era 2.4 Under the British Mandate 2.5 After Israeli independence

2.5.1 Arab–Israeli conflict

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Local government

4.1 List of Mayors of Tel Aviv

4.1.1 Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948) 4.1.2 State of Israel
Israel
(1948–present)

4.2 City council

5 Education 6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Neighborhoods

7 Cityscape

7.1 Architecture

7.1.1 Bauhaus

7.2 High-rise construction and towers

8 Economy 9 Culture and contemporary life

9.1 Entertainment and performing arts 9.2 Tourism and recreation 9.3 Nightlife 9.4 Fashion 9.5 LGBT
LGBT
culture 9.6 Cuisine 9.7 Museums 9.8 Sports 9.9 Media

10 Environment and urban restoration 11 Transportation

11.1 Bus and taxi 11.2 Rail 11.3 Roads 11.4 Air 11.5 Light rail 11.6 SkyTran 11.7 Cycling

12 Twin towns and sister cities 13 Future 14 People born in Tel Aviv 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 External links

Etymology and origins

Tel Aviv, founded in 1909, is named after Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel, Altneuland, meaning "Old New Land".

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland ("Old New Land"), translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, and to where they lived; and I sat there overwhelmed among them seven days."[18] The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was envisaged as a future city from the start. Its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa.[19] The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote:[19]

In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, and also sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. — Akiva Arieh Weiss, 1906

History See also: Timeline of Tel Aviv
Timeline of Tel Aviv
and Jaffa

The ancient port of Jaffa—where, according to the Bible, Jonah
Jonah
set sail into the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
before being swallowed by a fish[20]

Builder in Tel Aviv, 1920s

Jaffa Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for many centuries. Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in roughly 7,500 BC.[21] Its natural harbor has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, it had been ruled by the Canaanites, Egyptians, Israelites, Philistines, Babylonians, Persians, Phonecians, Seleucids, Hasmonean Jews, Romans, Byzantines, Rashiduns, Crusaders, Ayyubids, and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515. It had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. Pre- Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
neighborhoods North of Jaffa During the First Aliyah
First Aliyah
in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa
Jaffa
on the current territory of Tel Aviv. The first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews
Mizrahi Jews
due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche.[14] Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom (1890), Yafa Nof (1896), Achva (1899), Ohel Moshe (1904), Kerem HaTeimanim
Kerem HaTeimanim
(1906), and others. Once Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa. Ottoman era

Nahlat Binyamin, Tel Aviv, in 1913

Herzl Street and the Herzliya
Herzliya
Hebrew Gymnasium in 1913

Sarona, Tel Aviv

The Second Aliyah
Second Aliyah
led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit (lit. "homestead") society. The society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene."[22] The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement.[23] The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa
Jaffa
by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition.[24] Meir Dizengoff, later Tel Aviv's first mayor, also joined the Ahuzat Bayit society.[25][26] His vision for Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs.[27][unreliable source] On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells. This gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by Akiva Aryeh Weiss, president of the building society.[28][29] Weiss collected 120 sea shells on the beach, half of them white and half of them grey. The members' names were written on the white shells and the plot numbers on the grey shells. A boy drew names from one box of shells and a girl drew plot numbers from the second box. A photographer, Avraham Soskin, documented the event. The first water well was later dug at this site, located on what is today Rothschild Boulevard, across from Dizengoff House.[30] Within a year, Herzl, Ahad Ha'am, Yehuda Halevi, Lilienblum, and Rothschild streets were built; a water system was installed; and 66 houses (including some on six subdivided plots) were completed.[23] At the end of Herzl Street, a plot was allocated for a new building for the Herzliya
Herzliya
Hebrew High School, founded in Jaffa
Jaffa
in 1906.[23] On 21 May 1910, the name Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was adopted.[23] The flag and city arms of Tel Aviv (see above) contain under the red Star of David 2 words from the biblical book of Jeremiah: "I (God) will build You up again and you will be rebuilt." (Jer 31:4) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was planned as an independent Hebrew city with wide streets and boulevards, running water for each house, and street lights.[31] By 1914, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had grown to more than 1 square kilometre (247 acres).[23] However, growth halted in 1917 when the Ottoman authorities expelled the residents of Jaffa
Jaffa
and Tel Aviv.[23] A report published in The New York Times
The New York Times
by United States
United States
Consul Garrels in Alexandria, Egypt described the Jaffa
Jaffa
deportation of early April 1917. The orders of evacuation were aimed chiefly at the Jewish population.[32] Jews were free to return to their homes in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
at the end of the following year when, with the end of World War I and the defeat of the Ottomans, the British took control of Palestine. The town had rapidly become an attraction to immigrants, with a local activist writing:[33]

The immigrants were attracted to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
because they found in it all the comforts they were used to in Europe: electric light, water, a little cleanliness, cinema, opera, theatre, and also more or less advanced schools... busy streets, full restaurants, cafes open until 2 a.m., singing, music, and dancing.

Under the British Mandate

Shadal Street, 1926

Rothschild Boulevard, circa 1930

Herzl Street, 1934

Magen David Square in 1936

Allenby Street
Allenby Street
in 1940

Master plan for Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
by Patrick Geddes, 1925

Tel Aviv, established as suburb of Jaffa, received township or local council status in 1921, and city status in 1934.[34][35] According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had a population of 15,185 inhabitants, consisting of 15,065 Jews, 78 Muslims and 42 Christians.[36] Increasing in the 1931 census to 46,101, in 12,545 houses.[37] With increasing Jewish immigration during the British administration, friction between Arabs and Jews in Palestine increased. On 1 May 1921, the Jaffa
Jaffa
Riots resulted in the deaths of 48 Arabs and 47 Jews and injuries to 146 Jews and 73 Arabs.[38] In the wake of this violence, many Jews left Jaffa
Jaffa
for Tel Aviv, increasing the population of Tel Aviv from 2,000 in 1920 to around 34,000 by 1925.[16][39]

The restored Jaffa
Jaffa
train station

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
began to develop as a commercial center.[40] In 1923, Tel Aviv was the first town to be wired to electricity in Palestine, followed by Jaffa
Jaffa
later in the same year. The opening ceremony of the Jaffa
Jaffa
Electric Company powerhouse, on 10 June 1923, celebrated the lighting of the two main streets of Tel Aviv.[41] In 1925, the Scottish biologist, sociologist, philanthropist and pioneering town planner Patrick Geddes
Patrick Geddes
drew up a master plan for Tel Aviv which was adopted by the city council led by Meir Dizengoff. Geddes's plan for developing the northern part of the district was based on Ebenezer Howard's garden city movement.[42] The plan consisted of four main features: a hierarchical system of streets laid out in a grid, large blocks consisting of small-scale domestic dwellings, the organization of these blocks around central open spaces, and the concentration of cultural institutions to form a civic center.[43] While most of the northern area of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was built according to this plan, the influx of European refugees in the 1930s necessitated the construction of taller apartment buildings on a larger footprint in the city.[44] Ben Gurion House
Ben Gurion House
was built in 1930–31, part of a new workers' housing development. At the same time, Jewish cultural life was given a boost by the establishment of the Ohel Theatre and the decision of Habima Theatre
Habima Theatre
to make Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
its permanent base in 1931.[23] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was granted municipal status in 1934.[23] The Jewish population rose dramatically during the Fifth Aliyah
Fifth Aliyah
after the Nazis came to power in Germany.[23] By 1937 the Jewish population of Tel Aviv had risen to 150,000, compared to Jaffa's mainly Arab 69,000 residents. Within two years, it had reached 160,000, which was over a third of Palestine's total Jewish population.[23] Many new Jewish immigrants to Palestine disembarked in Jaffa, and remained in Tel Aviv, turning the city into a center of urban life. Friction during the 1936–39 Arab revolt led to the opening of a local Jewish port, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Port, independent of Jaffa, in 1938. It closed on 25 October 1965. Lydda Airport (later Ben Gurion Airport) and Sde Dov Airport opened between 1937 and 1938.[27][unreliable source] Many German Jewish architects trained at the Bauhaus, the Modernist school of architecture in Germany, and left Germany
Germany
during the 1930s. Some, like Arieh Sharon, came to Palestine and adapted the architectural outlook of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and similar schools to the local conditions there, creating what is recognized as the largest concentration of buildings in the International Style in the world.[16][27][unreliable source] Tel Aviv's White City emerged in the 1930s, and became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2003.[45] Tel Aviv was hit during the Italian Bombing of Palestine in World War II. On 9 September 1940, 137 were killed in the bombing of Tel Aviv.[46] According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan for dividing Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, Tel Aviv, by then a city of 230,000, was to be included in the proposed Jewish state. Jaffa
Jaffa
with, as of 1945, a population of 101,580 people—53,930 Muslims, 30,820 Jews and 16,800 Christians—was designated as part of the Arab state. Civil War broke out in the country and in particular between the neighbouring cities of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa, which had been assigned to the Jewish and Arab states respectively. After several months of siege, on 13 May 1948, Jaffa
Jaffa
fell and the Arab population fled en masse. After Israeli independence

Crowd outside Dizengoff House (now Independence Hall) to witness the proclamation and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence in 1948

When Israel
Israel
declared Independence on 14 May 1948, the population of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was over 200,000.[47] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was the temporary government center of the State of Israel
Israel
until the government moved to Jerusalem in December 1949. Due to the international dispute over the status of Jerusalem, most embassies remained in or near Tel Aviv.[48] In the early 1980s, 13 embassies in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
moved to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
as part of the UN's measures responding to Israel's 1980 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law.[49] Today, all national embassies are in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
or environs.[50] The boundaries of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa
Jaffa
became a matter of contention between the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
municipality and the Israeli government in 1948.[51] The former wished to incorporate only the northern Jewish suburbs of Jaffa, while the latter wanted a more complete unification.[51] The issue also had international sensitivity, since the main part of Jaffa
Jaffa
was in the Arab portion of the United Nations Partition Plan, whereas Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was not, and no armistice agreements had yet been signed.[51] On 10 December 1948, the government announced the annexation to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
of Jaffa's Jewish suburbs, the Palestinian neighborhood of Abu Kabir, the Palestinian village of Salama and some of its agricultural land, and the Jewish 'Hatikva' slum.[51] On 25 February 1949, the depopulated Palestinian village of al-Shaykh Muwannis was also annexed to Tel Aviv.[51] On 18 May 1949, Manshiya and part of Jaffa's central zone were added, for the first time including land that had been in the Arab portion of the UN partition plan.[51] The government voted on the unification of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa
Jaffa
on 4 October 1949, but the decision was not implemented until 24 April 1950 due to the opposition of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
mayor Israel
Israel
Rokach.[51] The name of the unified city was Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
until 19 August 1950, when it was renamed Tel Aviv-Yafo in order to preserve the historical name Jaffa.[51]

Azrieli Sarona
Azrieli Sarona
in 2016.

Park Tzameret
Park Tzameret
residential neighborhood under construction

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
thus grew to 42 square kilometers (16.2 sq mi). In 1949, a memorial to the 60 founders of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was constructed.[52] Over the past 60 years, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has developed into a secular, liberal-minded center with a vibrant nightlife and café culture.[27] In the 1960s, some of the older buildings were demolished, making way for the country's first high-rises. The Shalom Meir Tower, which was completed in 1965. was Israel's tallest building until 1999. Tel Aviv's population peaked in the early 1960s at 390,000, representing 16 percent of the country's total.[53] A long period of steady decline followed, however, and by the late 1980s the city had an aging population of 317,000.[53] High property prices pushed families out and deterred young people from moving in.[53] At this time, gentrification began in the poor neighborhoods of southern Tel Aviv, and the old port in the north was renewed.[27] New laws were introduced to protect Modernist buildings, and efforts to preserve them were aided by UNESCO
UNESCO
recognition of the Tel Aviv's White City as a world heritage site. In the early 1990s, the decline in population was reversed, partly due to the large wave of immigrants from the former Soviet Union.[53] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
also began to emerge as a high-tech center.[27] The construction of many skyscrapers and high-tech office buildings followed. In 1993, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was categorized as a world city.[54] The city is regarded as a strong candidate for global city status.[55] In the Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was attacked by Scud
Scud
missiles from Iraq. Iraq hoped to provoke an Israeli military response, which could have destroyed the US–Arab alliance. The United States
United States
pressured Israel
Israel
not to retaliate, and after Israel
Israel
acquiesced, the US and Netherlands
Netherlands
rushed Patriot missiles to defend against the attacks, but they proved largely ineffective. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and other Israeli cities continued to be hit by Scuds throughout the war, and every city in the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
area except for Bnei Brak
Bnei Brak
was hit. A total of 74 Israelis died as a result of the Iraqi attacks, mostly from suffocation and heart attacks,[56] while approximately 230 Israelis
Israelis
were injured.[57] Extensive property damage was also caused, and some 4,000 Israelis were left homeless. It was feared that Iraq would fire missiles filled with nerve agents or sarin. As a result, the Israeli government issued gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. The inhabitants of the southeastern suburb of HaTikva erected an angel-monument as a sign of their gratitude that "it was through a great miracle, that many people were preserved from being killed by a direct hit of a Scud
Scud
rocket."[58] On 4 November 1995, Israel's prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated at a rally in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in support of the Oslo peace accord. The outdoor plaza where this occurred, formerly known as Kikar Malchei Yisrael, was renamed Rabin Square.[27] In 2009, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
celebrated its official centennial.[59] In addition to city- and country-wide celebrations, digital collections of historical materials were assembled. These include the History section of the official Tel Aviv-Yafo Centennial Year website;[59] the Ahuzat Bayit collection, which focuses on the founding families of Tel Aviv, and includes photographs and biographies;[60] and Stanford University's Eliasaf Robinson Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Collection,[61] documenting the history of the city. Arab–Israeli conflict

Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
F-16I Sufas over Tel Aviv

Since the First Intifada, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has suffered from Palestinian political violence. The first suicide attack in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
occurred on 19 October 1994, on the Line 5 bus, when a bomber killed 22 civilians and injured 50 as part of a Hamas
Hamas
suicide campaign.[62] On 6 March 1996, another Hamas
Hamas
suicide bomber killed 13 people (12 civilians and 1 soldier) in the Dizengoff Center
Dizengoff Center
suicide bombing.[63][64] Three women were killed by a Hamas
Hamas
terrorist in the Café Apropo bombing
Café Apropo bombing
on 27 March 1997.[65][66][67]

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Dolphinarium, site of the 2001 Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing, in which 21 Israelis, mostly teenagers, were killed.

One of the most deadly attacks occurred on 1 June 2001, during the Second Intifada, when a suicide bomber exploded at the entrance to the Dolphinarium discothèque, killing 21, mostly teenagers, and injuring 132.[68][69][70][71] Another Hamas
Hamas
suicide bomber killed six civilians and injured 70 in the Allenby Street
Allenby Street
bus bombing.[72][73][74][75][76] Twenty-three civilians were killed and over 100 injured in the Tel Aviv central bus station massacre.[77][78] Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. In the Mike's Place suicide bombing, an attack on a bar by a British Muslim
British Muslim
suicide bomber resulted in the deaths of three civilians and wounded over 50.[79] Hamas
Hamas
and Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed joint responsibility. An Islamic Jihad bomber killed five and wounded over 50 in the 25 February 2005 Stage Club bombing.[80] The most recent suicide attack in the city occurred on 17 April 2006, when 11 people were killed and at least 70 wounded in a suicide bombing near the old central bus station.[81] Another attack took place on 29 August 2011 in which a Palestinian attacker stole an Israeli taxi cab and rammed it into a police checkpoint guarding the popular Haoman 17 nightclub in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
which was filled with 2,000[82] Israeli teenagers. After crashing, the assailant went on a stabbing spree, injuring eight people.[80] Due to an Israel
Israel
Border Police roadblock at the entrance and immediate response of the Border Police team during the subsequent stabbings, a much larger and fatal mass-casualty incident was avoided.[83] On 21 November 2012, during Operation Pillar of Defense, the Tel Aviv area was targeted by rockets, and air raid sirens were sounded in the city for the first time since the Gulf War. All of the rockets either missed populated areas or were shot down by an Iron Dome
Iron Dome
rocket defense battery stationed near the city. During the operation, a bomb blast on a bus wounded at least 28 civilians, three seriously.[84][85][86][87] This was described as a terrorist attack by Israel, Russia, and the United States
United States
and was condemned by the United Nations, United States, United Kingdom, France
France
and Russia, whilst Hamas
Hamas
spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri declared that the organisation "blesses" the attack.[88] Geography

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
seen from space in 2003

City plan of Tel Aviv, Israel.

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is located around 32°5′N 34°48′E / 32.083°N 34.800°E / 32.083; 34.800 on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, in central Israel, the historic land bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
lies on land that used to be sand dunes and as such has relatively poor soil fertility. The land has been flattened and has no important gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the Mediterranean coastline and the Yarkon River
Yarkon River
mouth.[89] Because of the expansion of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and the Gush Dan
Gush Dan
region, absolute borders between Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jaffa
Jaffa
and between the city's neighborhoods do not exist. The city is located 60 kilometers (37 mi) northwest of Jerusalem and 90 kilometers (56 mi) south of the city of Haifa.[90] Neighboring cities and towns include Herzliya
Herzliya
to the north, Ramat HaSharon to the northeast, Petah Tikva, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
and Giv'atayim
Giv'atayim
to the east, Holon
Holon
to the southeast, and Bat Yam
Bat Yam
to the south.[91] The city is economically stratified between the north and south. Southern Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is considered less affluent than northern Tel Aviv with the exception of Neve Tzedek
Neve Tzedek
and northern and north-western Jaffa. Central Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to Azrieli Center
Azrieli Center
and the important financial and commerce district along Ayalon Highway. The northern side of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University, Hayarkon Park, and upscale residential neighborhoods such as Ramat Aviv
Ramat Aviv
and Afeka.[92] Climate

A winter thunderstorm in Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification: Csa),[93] and enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year. Most precipitation falls in the form of rain between the months of October and April, with intervening dry summers. The average annual temperature is 20.9 °C (69.6 °F), and the average sea temperature is 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) during the winter, and 24–29 °C (75–84 °F) during the summer. The city averages 528 millimeters (20.8 in) of precipitation annually. Summers in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
last about five months, from June to October. August, the warmest month, averages a high of 30.6 °C (87.1 °F), and a low of 25 °C (77 °F). The high relative humidity due to the location of the city by the Mediterranean Sea, in a combination with the high temperatures, creates a thermal discomfort during the summer. Summer low temperatures in Tel Aviv seldom drop below 20 °C (68 °F). Winters are mild and wet, with most of the annual precipitation falling within the months of December, January and February as intense rainfall and thunderstorms. In January, the coolest month, the average maximum temperature is 17.6 °C (63.7 °F), the minimum temperature averages 10.2 °C (50.4 °F). During the colder days of winter, temperatures may reach a low of 6 °C (43 °F). Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city. Autumns and springs are characterized by sharp temperature changes, with heat waves that might be created due to hot and dry air masses that arrive from the nearby deserts. During heatwaves in autumn and springs, temperatures usually climb up to 35 °C (95 °F) and even up to 40 °C (104 °F), accompanied with exceptionally low humidity. An average day during autumn and spring has a high of 23 °C (73 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F), and a low of 15 °C (59 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F). The highest recorded temperature in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was 46.5 °C (115.7 °F) on 17 May 1916, and the lowest is −1.9 °C (28.6 °F) on 7 February 1950, during a cold wave that brought the only recorded snowfall in Tel Aviv.

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
mean sea temperature[94]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

18.8 °C (65.8 °F) 17.6 °C (63.7 °F) 17.9 °C (64.2 °F) 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) 24.9 °C (76.8 °F) 27.4 °C (81.3 °F) 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) 26.3 °C (79.3 °F) 23.2 °C (73.8 °F) 20.6 °C (69.1 °F)

Climate data for Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(Temperature: 1987–2010, Precipitation: 1980–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 33.2 (91.8) 38.3 (100.9) 43.9 (111) 46.5 (115.7) 44.4 (111.9) 37.4 (99.3) 41.4 (106.5) 42.0 (107.6) 44.4 (111.9) 35.6 (96.1) 33.5 (92.3) 46.5 (115.7)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 23.6 (74.5) 25.0 (77) 30.4 (86.7) 35.5 (95.9) 32.4 (90.3) 30.8 (87.4) 31.6 (88.9) 31.8 (89.2) 32.0 (89.6) 32.9 (91.2) 29.2 (84.6) 23.8 (74.8) 35.5 (95.9)

Average high °C (°F) 17.5 (63.5) 17.7 (63.9) 19.2 (66.6) 22.8 (73) 24.9 (76.8) 27.5 (81.5) 29.4 (84.9) 30.2 (86.4) 29.4 (84.9) 27.3 (81.1) 23.4 (74.1) 19.2 (66.6) 24.04 (75.28)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 13.4 (56.1) 16.4 (61.5) 19.2 (66.6) 21.8 (71.2) 24.8 (76.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.8 (82) 26.5 (79.7) 22.7 (72.9) 17.6 (63.7) 13.9 (57) 20.33 (68.59)

Average low °C (°F) 9.6 (49.3) 9.8 (49.6) 11.5 (52.7) 14.4 (57.9) 17.3 (63.1) 20.6 (69.1) 23 (73) 23.7 (74.7) 22.5 (72.5) 19.1 (66.4) 14.6 (58.3) 11.2 (52.2) 16.44 (61.57)

Mean minimum °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.3 (45.1) 8.3 (46.9) 10.7 (51.3) 14.0 (57.2) 18.3 (64.9) 22.2 (72) 23.3 (73.9) 20.6 (69.1) 16.2 (61.2) 10.9 (51.6) 7.8 (46) 6.6 (43.9)

Record low °C (°F) −1.9 (28.6) −2.0 (28.4) 3.5 (38.3) 7 (45) 11.2 (52.2) 15 (59) 19 (66) 20 (68) 15.7 (60.3) 11.6 (52.9) 6 (43) 4 (39) −2 (28.4)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 147 (5.79) 111 (4.37) 62 (2.44) 16 (0.63) 3.6 (0.142) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (0.028) 34 (1.34) 81 (3.19) 127 (5) 582.3 (22.93)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15 13 10 4 1.8 0 0 0 0.3 6 9 12 71.1

Average relative humidity (%) (at 1200 GMT) 72 70 65 60 63 67 70 67 60 65 68 73 66.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.2 200.1 235.6 270 328.6 357 368.9 356.5 300 279 234 189.1 3,311

Source #1: Israel
Israel
Meteorological Service[95][96][97][98]

Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory
for data of sunshine hours[99]

Climate data for Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
the West Coast (2005–2014)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.7 (81.9) 31.8 (89.2) 38.3 (100.9) 39.1 (102.4) 38.4 (101.1) 36.7 (98.1) 31.7 (89.1) 32.5 (90.5) 34.1 (93.4) 39.5 (103.1) 34.0 (93.2) 29.5 (85.1) 39.5 (103.1)

Average high °C (°F) 18.3 (64.9) 18.9 (66) 20.7 (69.3) 22.6 (72.7) 24.4 (75.9) 27.1 (80.8) 29.0 (84.2) 29.9 (85.8) 29.0 (84.2) 26.9 (80.4) 23.9 (75) 20.3 (68.5) 24.25 (75.64)

Daily mean °C (°F) 14.7 (58.5) 15.4 (59.7) 17.2 (63) 19.3 (66.7) 21.7 (71.1) 24.7 (76.5) 26.9 (80.4) 27.6 (81.7) 26.5 (79.7) 23.8 (74.8) 20.2 (68.4) 16.6 (61.9) 21.22 (70.2)

Average low °C (°F) 11.1 (52) 11.9 (53.4) 13.6 (56.5) 16.0 (60.8) 18.9 (66) 22.4 (72.3) 24.7 (76.5) 25.4 (77.7) 24.1 (75.4) 20.7 (69.3) 16.5 (61.7) 12.8 (55) 18.18 (64.72)

Record low °C (°F) 4.2 (39.6) 5.2 (41.4) 7.2 (45) 10.3 (50.5) 13.1 (55.6) 18.8 (65.8) 21.6 (70.9) 22.5 (72.5) 20.1 (68.2) 15.1 (59.2) 10.2 (50.4) 4.0 (39.2) 4 (39.2)

Source: Israel
Israel
Meteorological Service databases[100][101]

Local government

Rabin Square
Rabin Square
and Tel Aviv City Hall
Tel Aviv City Hall
looking northwest

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is governed by a 31-member city council elected for a five-year term in direct proportional elections.[102] All Israeli citizens over the age of 18 with at least one year of residence in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
are eligible to vote in municipal elections. The municipality is responsible for social services, community programs, public infrastructure, urban planning, tourism and other local affairs.[103][104][105] The Tel Aviv City Hall
Tel Aviv City Hall
is located at Rabin Square. Ron Huldai
Ron Huldai
has been mayor of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
since 1998.[102] Huldai was reelected for a fourth term in the 2013 municipal elections, defeating Nitzan Horowitz
Nitzan Horowitz
who ran at the head of the Meretz
Meretz
list.[106] Huldai's term equals that of the previously longest serving mayor, Shlomo Lahat, who was in office for 19 years. The shortest serving was David Bloch, in office for two years, 1925–27. Politically, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is known to be a stronghold for the left, in both local and national issues. Typically of Israel, in which the left and right wing votes tend to be "reversed", the left wing vote is especially true for the city's mostly affluent central and northern neighborhoods, though not the case for its working-class southeastern neighborhoods which tend to vote for right wing parties in national elections.[107] Outside the kibbutzim, Meretz
Meretz
receives more votes in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
than in any other city in Israel.[108]

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
old city hall

List of Mayors of Tel Aviv Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948)

Name Term start Term end Party

1

Meir Dizengoff 1920 1925 General Zionists

2

David Bloch-Blumenfeld 1925 1928 Ahdut HaAvoda

(1)

Meir Dizengoff 1928 1936 General Zionists

3

Moshe Chelouche 1936 1936 Unaffiliated

4

Israel
Israel
Rokach 1936 1948 General Zionists

State of Israel
Israel
(1948–present)

Mayor of Tel Aviv Took office Left office Party

1

Israel
Israel
Rokach 1948 1953 General Zionists

2

Chaim Levanon 1953 1959 General Zionists

3

Mordechai Namir 1959 1969 Mapai

4

Yehoshua Rabinovitz 1969 1974 Labor Party

5

Shlomo Lahat 1974 1993 Likud

6

Roni Milo 1993 1998 Likud

7

Ron Huldai 1998 Incumbent Labor Party

City council Following the 2013 municipal elections, Meretz
Meretz
gained an unprecedented 6 seats on the council. However, having been reelected as mayor, Huldai and the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
1 list lead the coalition, which controls 29 of 31 seats.

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
City Council, 2013–2018 Term

Party Seats Coalition Member

Meretz 6 Yes

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
1 5 Yes

Rov Ha'ir (City Majority) 4 Yes

Ir Le'kulanu (City for All) 3 Partial (2 of 3 seats, Shelley Dvir remained in the Opposition)

Segev-Beyachad Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(Shas, Jewish Home, Torah Judaism) 3 Yes

Ko'ach Le'gimla'im (Power to Pensioners) 2 Yes

Halikud Beiteinu 2 Yes

Drom Ha'ir (South Tel Aviv) 1 Yes

Yesh Atid 1 Yes

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
B'tucha (Safe Tel Aviv) 1 Yes

Aseifat Horim (Parents' Assembly) 1 No

Tzedek Hevrati (Social Justice) 1 Yes

Mahapach Yarok (Green Revolution) 1 Yes

Education

The Vladimir Schreiber Institute of Mathematics at Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University

In 2006, 51,359 children attended school in Tel Aviv, of whom 8,977 were in municipal kindergartens, 23,573 in municipal elementary schools, and 18,809 in high schools.[109] Sixty-four percent of students in the city are entitled to matriculation, more than 5 percent higher than the national average.[109] About 4,000 children are in first grade at schools in the city, and population growth is expected to raise this number to 6,000.[110] As a result, 20 additional kindergarten classes were opened in 2008–09 in the city. A new elementary school is planned north of Sde Dov as well as a new high school in northern Tel Aviv.[110] The first Hebrew high school, called Herzliya
Herzliya
Hebrew Gymnasium, was built in 1905 on Herzl Street. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University, the largest university in Israel, is known internationally for its physics, computer science, chemistry and linguistics departments. Together with Bar-Ilan University
Bar-Ilan University
in neighboring Ramat Gan, the student population numbers over 50,000, including a sizeable international community.[111][112] Its campus is located in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv.[113] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
also has several colleges.[114] The Herzliya
Herzliya
Hebrew Gymnasium moved from Jaffa to old Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in 1909 and moved to Jabotinsky
Jabotinsky
Street in the early 1960s.[115] Other notable schools in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
include Shevah Mofet, the second Hebrew school in the city, Ironi Alef High School for Arts and Alliance. Demographics

Sarona, Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has a population of 438,818 spread over a land area of 52,000 dunams (52.0 km2) (20 mi²), yielding a population density of 7,606 people per square km (19,699 per square mile). According to the Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of 2009[update] Tel Aviv's population is growing at an annual rate of 0.5 percent. Jews of all backgrounds form 91.8 percent of the population, Muslims and Arab Christians make up 4.2 percent, and the remainder belong to other groups (including various Christian and Asian communities).[116] As Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is a multicultural city, many languages are spoken in addition to Hebrew. According to some estimates, about 50,000 unregistered African and Asian foreign workers live in the city.[117] Compared with Westernised cities, crime in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is relatively low.[118] According to Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, the average income in the city, which has an Unemployment
Unemployment
Rate of 4.6%,[119] is 20% above the national average.[109] The city's education standards are above the national average: of its 12th-grade students, 64.4 percent are eligible for matriculation certificates.[109] The age profile is relatively even, with 22.2 percent aged under 20, 18.5 percent aged 20–29, 24 percent aged 30–44, 16.2 percent aged between 45 and 59, and 19.1 percent older than 60.[120] Tel Aviv's population reached a peak in the early 1960s at around 390,000, falling to 317,000 in the late 1980s as high property prices forced families out and deterred young couples from moving in.[53] Since the 1990s, population has steadily grown.[53] Today, the city's population is young and growing.[110] In 2006, 22,000 people moved to the city, while only 18,500 left,[110] and many of the new families had young children. The population is expected to reach 450,000 by 2025; meanwhile, the average age of residents fell from 35.8 in 1983 to 34 in 2008.[110] The population over age 65 stands at 14.6 percent compared with 19% in 1983.[110] Religion

The Great Synagogue

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has 544 active synagogues,[121] including historic buildings such as the Great Synagogue, established in the 1930s.[122] In 2008, a center for secular Jewish Studies and a secular yeshiva opened in the city.[123] Tensions between religious and secular Jews before the gay pride parade ended in vandalism of a synagogue.[124] The number of churches has grown to accommodate the religious needs of diplomats and foreign workers.[125] The population was 93% Jewish, 1% Muslim, and 1% Christian. The remaining 5 percent were not classified by religion.[126] Israel
Israel
Meir Lau is chief rabbi of the city.[127]

The restored Immanuel Church, Jaffa

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is an ethnically diverse city. The Jewish population, which forms the majority group in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
consists of the descendants of immigrants from all parts of the world, including Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
from Europe, North America, South America, Australia
Australia
and South Africa, as well as Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews
Mizrahi Jews
from Southern Europe, North Africa, India, Central Asia, West Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. There are also a sizable number of Ethiopian Jews and their descendants living in Tel Aviv. In addition to Muslim and Arab Christian
Arab Christian
minorities in the city, several hundred Armenian Christians who reside in the city are concentrated mainly in Jaffa
Jaffa
and some Christians from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel
Israel
with Jewish spouses and relatives. In recent years, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has received many non-Jewish migrants from Asia and Africa, students, foreign workers (documented and undocumented) and refugees. There are many economic migrants and refugees from African countries, primarily Eritrea
Eritrea
and Sudan, located in the southern part of the city.[128] Neighborhoods

Kerem HaTeimanim
Kerem HaTeimanim
was founded as a predominantly Yemenite Jewish neighborhood in the center of Tel Aviv

Further information: Neighborhoods of Tel Aviv Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is divided into nine districts that have formed naturally over the city's short history. The oldest of these is Jaffa, the ancient port city out of which Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
grew. This area is traditionally made up demographically of a greater percentage of Arabs, but recent gentrification is replacing them with a young professional and artist population. Similar processes are occurring in nearby Neve Tzedek, the original Jewish neighborhood outside of Jaffa. Ramat Aviv, a district in the northern part of the city that is largely made up of luxury apartments and includes Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University, is currently undergoing extensive expansion and is set to absorb the beachfront property of Sde Dov Airport
Sde Dov Airport
after its decommissioning.[129] The area known as HaKirya
HaKirya
is the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) headquarters and a large military base.[92] Moreover, in the past few years, Rothschild Boulevard
Rothschild Boulevard
which is located at beginning in Neve Tzedek
Neve Tzedek
had become an attraction both of tourist, businesses and startups. It features a wide, tree-lined central strip with pedestrian and bike lanes. Historically, there was a demographic split between the Ashkenazi northern side of the city, including the district of Ramat Aviv, and the southern, more Sephardi and Mizrahi neighborhoods including Neve Tzedek
Neve Tzedek
and Florentin.[27][unreliable source] Since the 1980s, major restoration and gentrification projects have been implemented in southern Tel Aviv.[27][unreliable source] Baruch Yoscovitz, city planner for Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
beginning in 2001, reworked old British plans for the Florentin neighborhood from the 1920s, adding green areas, pedestrian malls, and housing. The municipality invested two million shekels in the project. The goal was to make Florentin the Soho
Soho
of Tel Aviv, and attract artists and young professionals to the neighborhood. Indeed, street artists, such as Dede, installation artists such as Sigalit Landau, and many others made the upbeat neighborhood their home base.[130][131] Florentin is now known as a hip, "cool" place to be in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
with coffeehouses, markets, bars, galleries and parties.[132] Cityscape

View of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
from the Azrieli Center

Architecture

1930s Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(left) and 1920s Eclectic (right) architecture styles

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to different architectural styles that represent influential periods in its history. The early architecture of Tel Aviv consisted largely of European-style single-story houses with red-tiled roofs.[133] Neve Tzedek, the first neighborhood to be constructed outside of Jaffa
Jaffa
is characterised by two-story sandstone buildings.[16] By the 1920s, a new eclectic Orientalist style came into vogue, combining European architecture with Eastern features such as arches, domes and ornamental tiles.[133] Municipal construction followed the "garden city" master plan drawn up by Patrick Geddes. Two- and three-story buildings were interspersed with boulevards and public parks.[133] Various architectural styles, such as Art Deco, classical and modernist also exist in Tel Aviv. Bauhaus Main article: Bauhaus

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Museum

Bauhaus
Bauhaus
architecture was introduced in the 1920s and 1930s by German Jewish architects who settled in Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv's White City, around the city center, contains more than 5,000 Modernist-style buildings inspired by the Bauhaus school and Le Corbusier.[16][17] Construction of these buildings, later declared protected landmarks and, collectively, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, continued until the 1950s in the area around Rothschild Boulevard.[17][134] Some 3,000 buildings were created in this style between 1931 and 1939 alone.[133] In the 1960s, this architectural style gave way to office towers and a chain of waterfront hotels and commercial skyscrapers.[27] Some of the city's Modernist buildings were neglected to the point of ruin. Before legislation to preserve this landmark architecture, many of the old buildings were demolished. Efforts are under way to refurbish Bauhaus
Bauhaus
buildings and restore them to their original condition.[135]

The famous eclectic Orientalist style Beit Levin, by Yehuda Magidovitch, backed by tall skyscrapers

High-rise construction and towers See also: List of tallest buildings in Tel Aviv

The Azrieli Center
Azrieli Center
complex contains some of the tallest skyscrapers in Tel Aviv.

The Shalom Meir Tower, Israel's first skyscraper, was built in Tel Aviv in 1965 and remained the country's tallest building until 1999. At the time of its construction, the building rivaled Europe's tallest buildings in height, and was the tallest in the Middle East. In the mid-1990s, the construction of skyscrapers began throughout the entire city, altering its skyline. Before that, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had had a generally low-rise skyline.[136] However, the towers were not concentrated in certain areas, and were scattered at random locations throughout the city, creating a disjointed skyline.

Nehoshtan Tower, Neve Tzedek

New neighborhoods, such as Park
Park
Tzameret, have been constructed to house apartment towers such as YOO Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
towers, designed by Philippe Starck. Other districts, such as Sarona, have been developed with office towers. Other recent additions to Tel Aviv's skyline include the 1 Rothschild Tower and First International Bank Tower.[137][138] As Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
celebrated its centennial in 2009,[139] the city attracted a number of architects and developers, including I. M. Pei, Donald Trump, and Richard Meier.[140] American journalist David Kaufman reported in New York magazine that since Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
"was named a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site, gorgeous historic buildings from the Ottoman and Bauhaus
Bauhaus
era have been repurposed as fabulous hotels, eateries, boutiques, and design museums."[141] In November 2009, Haaretz
Haaretz
reported that Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had 59 skyscrapers more than 100 meters tall.[142] Currently, dozens of skyscrapers have been approved or are under construction throughout the city, and many more are planned. The tallest building approved is the Egged Tower, which would become Israel's tallest building upon completion.[143] According to current plans, the tower is planned to have 80 floors, rise to a height of 270 meters, and will have a 50-meter spire.[144]

Meier on Rothschild
Meier on Rothschild
tower

In 2010, the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Municipality's Planning and Construction Committee launched a new master plan for the city for 2025. It decided not to allow the construction of any additional skyscrapers in the city center, while at the same time greatly increasing the construction of skyscrapers in the east. The ban extends to an area between the coast and Ibn Gabirol Street, and also between the Yarkon River and Eilat Street. It did not extend to towers already under construction or approved. One final proposed skyscraper project was approved, while dozens of others had to be scrapped. Any new buildings there will usually not be allowed to rise above six and a half stories. However, hotel towers along almost the entire beachfront will be allowed to rise up to 25 stories. According to the plan, large numbers of skyscrapers and high-rise buildings at least 18 stories tall would be built in the entire area between Ibn Gabirol Street
Ibn Gabirol Street
and the eastern city limits, as part of the master plan's goal of doubling the city's office space to cement Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
as the business capital of Israel. Under the plan, "forests" of corporate skyscrapers will line both sides of the Ayalon Highway. Further south, skyscrapers rising up to 40 stories will be built along the old Ottoman railway between Neve Tzedek and Florentine, with the first such tower there being the Neve Tzedek Tower. Along nearby Shlavim Street, passing between Jaffa
Jaffa
and south Tel Aviv, office buildings up to 25 stories will line both sides of the street, which will be widened to accommodate traffic from the city's southern entrance to the center.[145][146] In November 2012, it was announced that to encourage investment in the city's architecture, residential towers throughout Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
would be extended in height. Buildings in Jaffa
Jaffa
and the southern and eastern districts may have two and a half stories added, while those on Ibn Gabirol Street might be extended by seven and a half stories.[147]

The "First International Bank Tower" in Tel Aviv's financial district

Economy Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has been ranked as the twenty-fifth most important financial center in the world.[7] It was built on sand dunes in an area unsuitable for farming. Instead, it developed as a hub of business and scientific research.[27][unreliable source] In 1926, the country's first shopping arcade, Passage Pensak, was built there.[148] By 1936, as tens of thousands of middle class immigrants arrived from Europe, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
was already the largest city in Palestine. A small port was built at the Yarkon estuary, and many cafes, clubs and cinemas opened. Herzl Street became a commercial thoroughfare at this time.[149] Economic activities account for 17 percent of the GDP.[53] In 2011, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had an unemployment rate of 4.4 percent.[150]

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading. Its computer systems are located in an underground bunker in case of emergencies, in which there is space for personnel to keep the exchange active during emergencies.[151]

The city has been described as a "flourishing technological center" by Newsweek
Newsweek
and a "miniature Los Angeles" by The Economist.[152][153] In 1998, the city was described by Newsweek
Newsweek
as one of the 10 most technologically influential cities in the world. Since then, high-tech industry in the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
area has continued to develop.[153] The Tel Aviv metropolitan area (including satellite cities such as Herzliya and Petah Tikva) is Israel's center of high-tech, sometimes referred to as Silicon Wadi.[153][154] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
(TASE), Israel's only stock exchange, which has reached record heights since the 1990s.[155] The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Stock exchange
Stock exchange
has also gained attention for its resilience and ability to recover from war and disasters. For example, the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
was higher on the last day of both the 2006 Lebanon war and the 2009 Operation in Gaza than on the first day of fighting[156] Many international venture-capital firms, scientific research institutes and high-tech companies are headquartered in the city. Industries in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
include chemical processing, textile plants and food manufacturers.[27][unreliable source] The city's nightlife, cultural attractions and architecture attract tourists whose spending benefits the local economy.[157]

Shops at the Dizengoff Center

In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) at Loughborough University
Loughborough University
reissued an inventory of world cities based on their level of advanced producer services. Tel Aviv was ranked as a alpha- world city.[158] The Kiryat Atidim
Kiryat Atidim
high tech zone opened in 1972 and the city has become a major world high tech hub. In December 2012, the city was ranked second on a list of top places to found a high tech startup company, just behind Silicon Valley.[159] In 2013, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
had more than 700 startup companies and research and development centers, and was ranked the second-most innovative city in the world, behind Medellín
Medellín
and ahead of New York City.[160] According to Forbes, nine of its fifteen Israeli-born billionaires live in Israel; four live in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and its suburbs.[161][162] The cost of living in Israel
Israel
is high, with Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
being its most expensive city to live in. According to Mercer, a human resources consulting firm based in New York, as of 2010[update] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is the most expensive city in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 19th most expensive in the world.[154] Shopping malls in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
include Dizengoff Center, Ramat Aviv
Ramat Aviv
Mall and Azrieli Shopping Mall and markets such as Carmel Market, Ha'Tikva Market, and Bezalel Market. Culture and contemporary life Entertainment and performing arts

The Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance and Theatre

A street café in Florentin, Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is a major center of culture and entertainment.[163] Eighteen of Israel's 35 major centers for the performing arts are located in the city, including five of the country's nine large theatres, where 55% of all performances in the country and 75 percent of all attendance occurs.[53][164] The Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center
Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center
is home of the Israeli Opera, where Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo
was house tenor between 1962 and 1965, and the Cameri Theatre.[165] With 2,482 seats, the Heichal HaTarbut
Heichal HaTarbut
is the city's largest theatre and home to the Israel
Israel
Philharmonic Orchestra.[166]

Heichal HaTarbut

Habima Theatre, Israel's national theatre, was closed down for renovations in early 2008, and reopened in November 2011 after major remodeling. Enav Cultural Center is one of the newer additions to the cultural scene.[164] Other theatres in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
are the Gesher Theatre and Beit Lessin Theater; Tzavta and Tmuna are smaller theatres that host musical performances and fringe productions. In Jaffa, the Simta and Notzar theatres specialize in fringe as well. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is home to the Batsheva Dance Company, a world-famous contemporary dance troupe. The Israeli Ballet is also based in Tel Aviv.[164] Tel Aviv's center for modern and classical dance is the Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance and Theatre in Neve Tzedek.[167] The city often hosts global musical acts such as Paul McCartney, Elton John, Madonna, The Rolling Stones, Radiohead, Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
and Damian Marley etc. in venues such as Hayarkon Park, the Israel
Israel
Trade Fairs & Convention Center, the Barby Club, the Zappa Club and Live Park Rishon Lezion just south of Tel Aviv.[168][169][170] Opera and classical music performances are held daily in Tel Aviv, with many of the world's leading classical conductors and soloists performing on Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
stages over the years.[164] The Tel Aviv Cinematheque
Tel Aviv Cinematheque
screens art movies, premieres of short and full-length Israeli films, and hosts a variety of film festivals, among them the Festival of Animation, Comics and Caricatures, "Icon" Science Fiction and Fantasy Festival, the Student Film Festival, the Jazz, Film and Videotape Festival and Salute to Israeli Cinema. The city has several multiplex cinemas.[164] Tourism and recreation

Hayarkon Park
Hayarkon Park
is the largest city park in Tel Aviv

Early evening at the beach

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
receives about 2.5 million international visitors annually, the fifth-most-visited city in the Middle East
Middle East
& Africa.[10][11] . In 2010, Knight Frank's world city survey ranked it 34th globally.[171] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has been named the third "hottest city for 2011" (behind only New York City
New York City
and Tangier) by Lonely Planet, third-best in the Middle East
Middle East
and Africa by Travel + Leisure
Travel + Leisure
magazine (behind only Cape Town and Jerusalem), and the ninth-best beach city in the world by National Geographic.[172][173][174] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is consistently ranked as one of the top LGBT
LGBT
destinations in the world.[175][176] The city has also been ranked as one of the top 10 oceanfront cities.[177] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is known as "the city that never sleeps" and a "party capital" due to its thriving nightlife, young atmosphere and famous 24-hour culture.[12][13][178] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has branches of some of the world's leading hotels, including the Crowne Plaza, Sheraton, Dan, Isrotel and Hilton. It is home to many museums, architectural and cultural sites, with city tours available in different languages.[179] Apart from bus tours, architectural tours, Segway tours, and walking tours are also popular.[180][181][182] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has 44 hotels with more than 6,500 rooms.[109] The beaches of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and the city's promenade play a major role in the city's cultural and touristic scene, often ranked as some of the best beaches in the world.[174] Hayarkon Park
Hayarkon Park
is the most visited urban park in Israel, with 16 million visitors annually. Other parks within city limits include Charles Clore Park, Independence Park, Meir Park
Park
and Dubnow Park. About 19% of the city land are green spaces.[183] Nightlife

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
by night

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is an international hub of highly active and diverse nightlife with bars, dance bars and nightclubs staying open well past midnight. The largest area for nightclubs is the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
port, where the city's large, commercial clubs and bars draw big crowds of young clubbers from both Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and neighboring cities. The South of Tel Aviv is known for the popular Haoman 17 club, as well as for being the city's main hub of alternative clubbing, with underground venues including established clubs like the Block Club, Comfort 13 and Paradise Garage, as well as various warehouse and loft party venues. The Allenby/Rothschild area is another popular nightlife hub, featuring such clubs as the Pasaz, Radio EPGB and the Penguin. In 2013, Absolut Vodka
Absolut Vodka
introduced a specially designed bottle dedicated to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
as part of its international cities series.[184] Fashion Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
has become an international center of fashion and design.[185] It has been called the "next hot destination" for fashion.[186] Israeli designers, such as swimwear company Gottex
Gottex
show their collections at leading fashion shows, including New York's Bryant Park
Park
fashion show.[187] In 2011, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
hosted its first Fashion Week
Fashion Week
since the 1980s, with Italian designer Roberto Cavalli
Roberto Cavalli
as a guest of honor.[188] LGBT
LGBT
culture

Tel Aviv Pride
Tel Aviv Pride
is the largest annual pride parade in the Middle East and Asia.

Named "the best gay city in the world" by American Airlines, Tel Aviv is one of the most popular destinations for LGBT
LGBT
tourists internationally, with a large LGBT
LGBT
community.[189][190] American journalist David Kaufman has described the city as a place "packed with the kind of ‘we're here, we're queer’ vibe more typically found in Sydney
Sydney
and San Francisco. The city hosts its well-known pride parade, the biggest in Asia, attracting over 200,000 people yearly.[191] In January 2008, Tel Aviv's municipality established the city's LGBT
LGBT
Community centre, providing all of the municipal and cultural services to the LGBT
LGBT
community under one roof. In December 2008, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
began putting together a team of gay athletes for the 2009 World Outgames in Copenhagen.[192] In addition, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
hosts an annual LGBT
LGBT
Film Festival. Tel Aviv's LGBT
LGBT
community is the subject of Eytan Fox's 2006 film The Bubble. Cuisine Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is famous for its wide variety of world-class restaurants, offering traditional Israeli dishes as well as international fare.[193] More than 100 sushi restaurants, the third highest concentration in the world, do business in the city.[194] In Tel Aviv there are some dessert specialties, the most known is the Halva ice cream traditionally topped with date syrup and pistachios Museums

The Herta and Paul Amir Building in the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Museum of Art

Israel
Israel
has the highest number of museums per capita of any country, with three of the largest located in Tel Aviv.[195][196] Among these are the Eretz Israel
Israel
Museum, known for its collection of archaeology and history exhibits dealing with the Land of Israel, and the Tel Aviv Museum of Art. Housed on the campus of Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University
is Beth Hatefutsoth, a museum of the international Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
that tells the story of Jewish prosperity and persecution throughout the centuries of exile. Batey Haosef Museum specializes in Israel
Israel
Defense Forces military history. The Palmach
Palmach
Museum near Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University offers a multimedia experience of the history of the Palmach. Right next to Charles Clore Park
Park
is a museum of the Etzel. The Israel
Israel
Trade Fairs & Convention Center, located in the northern part of the city, hosts more than 60 major events annually. Many offbeat museums and galleries operate in the southern areas, including the Tel Aviv Raw Art contemporary art gallery.[197][198] Sports Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is the only city with three clubs in Israeli Premier League, the country's top football league. Maccabi Tel Aviv Sports Club was founded in 1906 and competes in more than 10 sport fields. Its basketball team, Maccabi Tel Aviv, is a world-known professional team, that holds 50 Israeli titles, has won 39 editions of the Israel cup, and has six European Championships, and its football team has won 21 Israeli league titles and has won 23 State Cups, four Toto Cups and two Asian Club Championships. Yael Arad, an athlete in Maccabi's judo club, won a silver medal in the 1992 Olympic Games.[199]

The Tel Aviv Marathon
Tel Aviv Marathon
going through Hayarkon Park

National Sport Center – Tel Aviv
National Sport Center – Tel Aviv
(also Hadar Yosef Sports Center) is a compound of stadiums and sports facilities. It also houses the Olympic Committee of Israel
Israel
and the National Athletics Stadium with the Israeli Athletic Association. Hapoel Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Sports Club, founded in 1923, comprises more than 11 sports clubs,[200] including Hapoel Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Football Club (13 championships, 16 State Cups, one Toto Cup
Toto Cup
and once Asian champions) which plays in Bloomfield Stadium, men's and women's basketball clubs. Bnei Yehuda (once Israeli champion, twice State Cup winners and twice Toto Cup
Toto Cup
winner) is the only Israeli football team in the top division that represents a neighborhood, the Hatikva Quarter
Hatikva Quarter
in Tel Aviv, and not a city. Shimshon Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Beitar Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
both formerly played in the top division, but dropped into the lower leagues, and merged in 2000, the new club now playing in Liga Artzit, the third tier. Another former first division team, Maccabi Jaffa, is now defunct, as are Maccabi HaTzefon Tel Aviv, Hapoel HaTzefon Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Hakoah Tel Aviv, who merged with Maccabi Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
and moved to Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
in 1959.

Bloomfield Stadium
Bloomfield Stadium
before its demolition in August 2016[201]

Two rowing clubs operate in Tel Aviv. The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Rowing Club, established in 1935 on the banks of the Yarkon River, is the largest rowing club in Israel.[202] Meanwhile, the beaches of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
provide a vibrant Matkot
Matkot
(beach paddleball) scene.[203] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Lightning represent Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in the Israel
Israel
Baseball League.[204] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
also has an annual half marathon, run in 2008 by 10,000 athletes with runners coming from around the world.[205] In 2009, the Tel Aviv Marathon
Tel Aviv Marathon
was revived after a fifteen-year hiatus, and is run annually since, attracting a field of over 18,000 runners.[206] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is also ranked to be 10th best to-skateboarding city by Transworld Skateboarding. Media The three largest newspaper companies in Israel
Israel
– Yedioth Ahronoth, Maariv and Haaretz
Haaretz
– are all based within the city limits.[207] Several radio stations cover the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
area, including the city-based Radio Tel Aviv.[208] The three major Israeli television networks, Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Authority, Keshet, Reshet, and Channel 10, are based in the city, as well as two of the most popular radio stations in Israel: Galatz and Galgalatz, which are both based in Jaffa. Studios of the international news channel i24news is located at Jaffa
Jaffa
Port
Port
Customs House. An English language radio station, TLV1, is based at Kikar Hamedina. Environment and urban restoration

IDF soldiers cleaning the beaches at Tel Aviv, which have scored highly in environmental tests.[209]

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is ranked as the greenest city in Israel.[210] Since 2008, city lights are turned off annually in support of Earth Hour.[211] In February 2009, the municipality launched a water saving campaign, including competition granting free parking for a year to the household that is found to have consumed the least amount of water per person.[212] In the early 21st century, Tel Aviv's municipality transformed a derelict power station into a public park, now named "Gan HaHashmal" ("Electricity Park"), paving the way for eco-friendly and environmentally conscious designs.[213] In October 2008, Martin Weyl turned an old garbage dump near Ben Gurion International Airport, called Hiriya, into an attraction by building an arc of plastic bottles.[214] The site, which was renamed Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
Park
Park
to honor Israel's former prime minister, will serve as the centerpiece in what is to become a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) urban wilderness on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, designed by German landscape architect, Peter Latz.[214]

Charles Clore Park

At the end of the 20th century, the city began restoring historical neighborhoods such as Neve Tzedek
Neve Tzedek
and many buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. Since 2007, the city hosts its well-known, annual Open House Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
weekend, which offers the general public free entrance to the city's famous landmarks, private houses and public buildings. In 2010, the design of the renovated Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Port
Port
(Nemal Tel Aviv) won the award for outstanding landscape architecture at the European Biennial for Landscape Architecture in Barcelona.[215] In 2014, the Sarona Market Complex opened, following an 8-year renovation project of Sarona colony.[216]

Transportation Main article: Transport in Tel Aviv

Ayalon Highway
Ayalon Highway
which runs through Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is a major transportation hub, served by a comprehensive public transport network, with many major routes of the national transportation network running through the city.

Play media

Short video about Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
from the Israeli News Company

Bus and taxi As with the rest of Israel, bus transport is the most common form of public transport and is very widely used. The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central Bus Station is located in the southern part of the city. The main bus network in Tel Aviv metropolitan area
Tel Aviv metropolitan area
operated by Dan Bus Company, Metropoline
Metropoline
and Kavim. the Egged Bus Cooperative, Israels's largest bus company, provides intercity transportation.[217] The city is also served by local and inter-city share taxis. Many local and inter-city bus routes also have sherut taxis that follow the same route and display the same route number in their window. Fares are standardised within the region and are comparable to or less expensive than bus fares. Unlike other forms of public transport, these taxis also operate on Fridays and Saturdays (the Jewish sabbath "Shabbat"). Private taxis are white with a yellow sign on top. Fares are standardised and metered, but may be negotiated ahead of time with the driver. Rail

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central Railway Station

The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central railway station is the main railway station of the city, and the busiest station in Israel. The city has three additional railway stations along the Ayalon Highway: Tel Aviv University, HaShalom (adjacent to Azrieli Center) and HaHagana (near the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central Bus Station), Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Mercaz. It is estimated that over a million passengers travel by rail to Tel Aviv monthly. The trains do not run on Saturday and the principal Jewish festivals (Rosh Hashana (2 days), Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Simkhat Torah, Pessach (Passover) first and fifth days and Shavuot (Pentecost). Jaffa
Jaffa
Railway Station was the first railway station in the Middle East. It served as the terminus for the Jaffa– Jerusalem
Jerusalem
railway. The station opened in 1891 and closed in 1948. In 2005–2009, the station was restored and converted into an entertainment and leisure venue marketed as "HaTachana", Hebrew for "the station" (see homepage here:[218]). Roads

Begin Road
Begin Road
as seen from Azrieli Center

The main highway leading to and within the city is the Ayalon Highway (Highway 20), which runs in the eastern side of the city from north to south along the Ayalon River riverbed. Driving south on Ayalon gives access to Highway 4 leading to Ashdod, Highway 1, leading to Ben Gurion International Airport and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Highway 431 leading to Jerusalem, Modiin, Rehovot
Rehovot
and the Highway 6 Trans- Israel
Israel
Highway. Driving north on Ayalon gives access to the Highway 2 coastal road leading to Netanya, Hadera
Hadera
and Haifa. Within the city, main routes include Kaplan Street, Allenby Street, Ibn Gabirol Street, Dizengoff Street, Rothschild Boulevard, and in Jaffa
Jaffa
the main route is Jerusalem Boulevard. Namir Road connects the city to Highway 2, Israel's main north–south highway, and Begin/ Jabotinsky
Jabotinsky
Road, which provides access from the east through Ramat Gan, Bnei Brak
Bnei Brak
and Petah Tikva. Tel Aviv, accommodating about 500,000 commuter cars daily, suffers from increasing congestion. In 2007, the Sadan Report recommended the introduction of a congestion charge similar to that of London
London
in Tel Aviv as well as other Israeli cities. Under this plan, road users traveling into the city would pay a fixed fee.[219] Air The main airport serving Greater Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is Ben Gurion International Airport. Located in the neighbouring city of Lod, it handled over 20 million passengers in 2017. Ben Gurion is the main hub of El Al, Arkia, Israir Airlines
Israir Airlines
and Sun D'Or. The airport is 15 kilometres (9 mi) southeast of Tel Aviv, on Highway 1 between Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Jerusalem. Sde Dov (IATA: SDV), in northwestern Tel Aviv, is a domestic airport and is planned be closed in favor of real-estate development.[220] In the future all services to Sde Dov will be transferred to Ben Gurion Airport. Light rail Main article: Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Light Rail The first line of a light rail system is under construction and scheduled to open in 2020.[221] The Red Line starts at Petah Tikva's Central Bus Station, east of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and follows the Jabotinsky
Jabotinsky
Road (Route 481) westwards at street level. At the point where Jabotinsky Road and Highway 4 intersect the line drops into an underground tunnel for 10 km (6.21 mi) through Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
and Tel Aviv and emerges again to street level just before Jaffa, where it turns southwards towards Bat Yam. The underground section will include 10 stations, including an interchange with Israel
Israel
Railways services at Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central Railway Station and the nearby 2000 Terminal. A maintenance depot, connected via a branch line and tunnel to the main section of the line, will be constructed in Kiryat Arye, across from the existing Kiryat Arye suburban railway station. The intended builder and operator of the first line, MTS, has had financial difficulties that postponed the line's opening. In May 2010, the ministry of finance decided to cancel the agreement with MTS due to the difficulties and the agreement was cancelled in August 2010.[222] The line is being built instead by NTA – The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
region's mass transit development authority. Initially, the line's targeted opening was in 2012 and today the target is 2016 after several postponements due to the disagreements with MTS and NTA's takeover of the project. The second line is scheduled to open in 2021. SkyTran See also: SkyTran The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
municipality is currently working on building a SkyTran system across the city, under which light, two-person cars will be transported along elevated magnetic levitation tracks. Initially, a SkyTran
SkyTran
loop will be built around the campus of Israel
Israel
Aerospace Industries, followed by a commercial network around the city. This will be the pilot project of the SkyTran
SkyTran
system, which is planning other such projects around the world.[223] Cycling

Tel-O-Fun
Tel-O-Fun
bicycle rental system

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Municipality encourages the use of bicycles in the city. Plans called for expansion of the paths to 100 kilometers (62.1 mi) by 2009.[224] As of April 2011 the municipality has completed construction of the planned 100 kilometres (62 miles) of bicycle paths. In April 2011, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
municipality launched Tel-O-Fun, a bicycle sharing system, in which 150 stations of bicycles for rent were installed within the city limits.[225] As of October 2011, there are 125 active stations, providing more than 1,000 bicycles. Twin towns and sister cities

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See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities

Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is twinned with:

Asia

Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 1999) Beijing, China
China
(since 2004) Incheon, South Korea
South Korea
(since 2000) İzmir, Turkey
Turkey
(since 1998)

Europe

Southern Europe

Barcelona, Spain
Spain
(since 1998) Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia
(since 1990) (Partner) Milan, Italy
Italy
(since 1994) Thessaloniki, Greece
Greece
(since 1994)

Eastern Europe

Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1989) (Partner)[226] Chișinău, Moldova
Moldova
(since 2000)[227] Łódź, Poland
Poland
(since 1994)[228] Moscow, Russia
Russia
(since 2001) Sofia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(since 1992) Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(since 1992)

Western Europe

Bonn, Germany
Germany
(since 1980) (Partner)[229] Essen, Germany
Germany
(since 1992) (Partner) Frankfurt, Germany
Germany
(since 1980)[230] Toulouse, France
France
(since 1962)[231]

North America

Los Angeles, United States
United States
(Partner)[232] New York City, United States
United States
(since 1996)[233] Philadelphia, United States
United States
(since 1966) Panama
Panama
City, Panama
Panama
(since 2013)[234]

South America

Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
(since 1988) São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(since 2004)[235][236]

Future The Israeli Interior Ministry is planning on eventually annexing the neighboring city of Bat Yam
Bat Yam
into Tel Aviv. Current plans call for the merger to take place in 2023 after a few years' preparation.[237][238] It has been suggested that if this proves successful, other neighboring cities such as Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
and Givatayim
Givatayim
would then be merged into Tel Aviv. Some officials envision that as part of these mergers, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
will become a supercity with several sub-municipalities in the style of Greater London.[239] People born in Tel Aviv Main category: People from Tel Aviv In alphabetical order by surname; stage names are treated as single names:

Ron Arad, architect and industrial designer Miri Ben-Ari, "The Hip Hop Violinist" Borgore, dubstep producer and DJ Dana International, musician and singer Daniel Samohin, figure ice skater Noam Dar, professional wrestler Oded Fehr, actor Uri Geller, illusionist, Esti Ginzburg, model and actress Ofra Haza, singer Erez Komarovsky, chef, baker, educator, and author Yair Lapid, politician TJ Leaf, professional basketball player Tzipi Livni, politician Shlomit Malka, model Benjamin Netanyahu, politician Ido Pariente, mixed martial artist fighter and trainer Itzhak Perlman, musician and conductor Sasha Roiz, actor Denis Shapovalov, Canadian tennis player Orli Shoshan, Star Wars film actress Subliminal, rapper and record producer Ayelet Zurer, actress Hila Klein, artist and YouTube personality

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Bibliography

Michael Turner, Catherine Weill-Rochant, Geneviève Blondiau, Silvina Sosnovsky, Philippe Brandeis, Sur les traces du modernisme, Tel-Aviv-Haïfa-Jérusalem, CIVA (ed.), Bruxelles 2004. (Hebrew and French) Catherine Weill-Rochant, L'Atlas de Tel-Aviv 1908–2008, Paris, CNRS Editions, 2008. (Historical maps and photos, French, soon in Hebrew and English) Catherine Weill-Rochant, Bauhaus
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The White City, Photographs by Stefan Boness, JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-939633-75-4

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tel Aviv-Yafo.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tel Aviv.

The official Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
municipality website The History of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(in Arabic) The Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Foundation Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
bus map

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Summer Paralympic Games
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1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

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