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Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way.[1][2] This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal.[3] Basic requirements for effective teamwork are an adequate team size. The context is important, and team sizes can vary depending upon the objective. A team must include at least 2 or more members, and most teams range in size from 2 to 100. Sports teams generally have fixed sizes based upon set rules, and work teams may change in size depending upon the phase and complexity of the objective. Teams need to be able to leverage resources to be productive (i.e. playing fields or meeting spaces, scheduled times for planning, guidance from coaches or supervisors, support from the organization, etc.), and clearly defined roles within the team in order for everyone to have a clear purpose.[4][5][6][7] Teamwork is present in any context where a group of people are working together to achieve a common goal.[1] These contexts include an industrial organization (formal work teams), athletics (sports teams), a school (classmates working on a project), and the healthcare system (operating room teams). In each of these settings, the level of teamwork and interdependence can vary from low (e.g golf, track and field), to intermediate (e.g. baseball, football), to high (e.g. basketball, soccer), depending on the amount of communication, interaction, and collaboration present between team members.

Specific teamwork processes have been ide

Specific teamwork processes have been identified fall into three categories:[11][12]

Transition processes

These processes occur between periods of action. In this period, the team members can evaluate their overall performance as a team as well

These processes occur between periods of action. In this period, the team members can evaluate their overall performance as a team as well as on an individual level, give feedback to each other, make clarifications about the upcoming tasks, and make any changes that would improve the process of collaborating.

Action processes

Utilizing teamwork is sometimes unnecessary and can lead to teams not reaching their performance peak. Some of those disadvantages include:[17][18]