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Tannaim (Hebrew: תנאים‬ [tanaˈʔim], singular Hebrew: תנא‬ [taˈna], Tanna "repeaters", "teachers"[1]) were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim, also referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years. It came after the period of the Zugot ("pairs"), and was immediately followed by the period of the Amoraim
Amoraim
("interpreters").[2] The root tanna (אתנא‬) is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah (שנה‬), which also is the root-word of Mishnah. The verb shanah (שנה‬) literally means "to repeat [what one was taught]" and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is commonly divided up into five periods according to generations. There are approximately 120 known Tannaim. The Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel. The spiritual center of Judaism
Judaism
at that time was Jerusalem, but after the destruction of the city and the Second Temple, Rabbi
Rabbi
Johanan ben Zakai and his students founded a new religious center in Yavne. Other places of Judaic learning were founded by his students in Lod
Lod
and in Bnei Brak. Some Tannaim worked as laborers (e.g., charcoal burners, cobblers) in addition to their positions as teachers and legislators. They were also leaders of the people and negotiators with the Roman Empire.

Contents

1 History 2 Language of the Mishnah 3 Prominent Tannaim

3.1 Titles 3.2 Nesi'im

4 Generations

4.1 Before the destruction of the Temple 4.2 Generation of the destruction (1st generation of Tannaim) 4.3 Between the destruction of the Temple and Bar Kokhba's revolt (2nd generation) 4.4 Generation of Bar Kokhba's revolt (3rd generation of Tannaim) 4.5 After the revolt 4.6 Compilers of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(5th generation of Tannaim)

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] The Tannaim operated under the occupation of the Roman Empire. During this time, the Kohanim (priests) of the Temple became increasingly corrupt and were seen by the Jewish people as collaborators with the Romans, whose mismanagement of Iudaea province
Iudaea province
(composed of Samaria, Idumea
Idumea
and Judea
Judea
proper[3]) led to riots, revolts and general resentment. Until the days of Hillel and Shammai
Shammai
(the last generation of the Zugot), there were few disagreements among Rabbinic scholars. After this period, though, the "House of Hillel" and the "House of Shammai" came to represent two distinct perspectives on Jewish law, and disagreements between the two schools of thought are found throughout the Mishnah, see also Hillel and Shammai. The Tannaim, as teachers of the Oral Law, are said to be direct transmitters of an oral tradition passed from teacher to student that was written and codified as the basis for the Mishnah, Tosefta, and tannaitic teachings of the Talmud. According to rabbinic tradition, the Tannaim were the last generation in a long sequence of oral teachers that began with Moses. Language of the Mishnah[edit] The language in which the Tannaim of Palestine and Babylonia wrote is referred to as Mishnaic Hebrew (MH), or in Hebrew Lešon hakhamim, meaning ‘‘the language of the Sages.’’ Texts were written in MH between roughly 70 CE to 500 CE. Tannaitic literature, which includes the Mishnah, the Tosefta, the halachic midrashim, and Seder ‘olam Rabba was redacted between roughly 70 CE to 250 CE. Research has demonstrated that Hebrew was spoken in Palestine until about 200 CE, and it is generally agreed that tannaitic literature reflects the language and speech used in various regions of Palestine during that time period.[4] Prominent Tannaim[edit] Titles[edit] The Nasi (plural Nesi'im) was the highest-ranking member and presided over the Sanhedrin. Rabban was a higher title than Rabbi, and it was given to the Nasi starting with Rabban Gamaliel
Gamaliel
Hazaken ( Gamaliel
Gamaliel
the Elder). The title Rabban was limited to the descendants of Hillel, the sole exception being Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai, the leader in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the siege, who safeguarded the future of the Jewish people after the Great Revolt by pleading with Vespasian. Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, who was also Nasi, was not given the title Rabban, perhaps because he only held the position of Nasi for a short while and it eventually reverted to the descendants of Hillel. Prior to Rabban Gamliel Hazaken, no titles were used before someone's name, based on the Talmudic adage "Gadol miRabban shmo" ("Greater than the title Rabban is a person's own name"). For this reason Hillel has no title before his name: his name in itself is his title, just as Moses and Abraham
Abraham
have no titles before their names. (An addition is sometimes given after a name to denote significance or to differentiate between two people with the same name. Examples include Avraham Avinu ( Abraham
Abraham
our father) and Moshe Rabbeinu ( Moses
Moses
our teacher).) Starting with Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah haNasi
Judah haNasi
(Judah the Nasi), often referred to simply as "Rabbi", not even the Nasi is given the title Rabban, but instead, Judah haNasi
Judah haNasi
is given the lofty title Rabbeinu HaKadosh ("Our holy rabbi [teacher]"). Nesi'im[edit] The following were Nesi'im, that is to say presidents of the Sanhedrin.

Hillel Shammai Shimon ben Hillel, about whom very little is known Gamaliel
Gamaliel
Hazaken ( Gamaliel
Gamaliel
the Elder) Shimon ben Gamliel Yochanan ben Zakai Gamaliel
Gamaliel
of Yavne Eleazar ben Azariah, who was Nasi for a short time after Rabban Gamliel was removed from his position Shimon ben Gamliel of Yavne Judah HaNasi
Judah HaNasi
(Judah the Nasi), known simply as "Rabbi", who compiled the Mishnah

Generations[edit] The Mishnaic period is commonly divided into five periods according to generations of the Tannaim. The generations of the Tannaim included:

First Generation: Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai's generation (c. 40 BCE-80 CE). Second Generation: Rabban Gamaliel
Gamaliel
II of Yavneh, Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer and Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehoshua's generation, the teachers of Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva. Third Generation: The generation of Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva and his colleagues. Fourth Generation: The generation of Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda and their colleagues. Fifth Generation: Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah haNasi's generation. Sixth Generation: The interim generation between the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud: Rabbis Shimon ben Judah HaNasi
Judah HaNasi
and Yehoshua ben Levi, etc.

Before the destruction of the Temple[edit]

Hillel Shammai Gamliel Hazaken (Gamliel the Elder)

Generation of the destruction (1st generation of Tannaim)[edit]

Shimon ben Gamliel Yochanan ben Zakai Yehuda ben Baba

Between the destruction of the Temple and Bar Kokhba's revolt (2nd generation)[edit]

Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua ben Hannania Eliezer ben Hurcanus Gamaliel
Gamaliel
of Yavne Eleazar ben Arach

Generation of Bar Kokhba's revolt (3rd generation of Tannaim)[edit]

Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva Rabbi
Rabbi
Tarfon Ishmael ben Elisha Eleazar ben Azariah Yose HaGelili Elisha ben Abuyah (the "Other" or apostate)

After the revolt[edit]

Shimon ben Gamliel of Yavne Meir Shimon bar Yochai, who, according to traditional lore, wrote the Zohar Yose ben Halafta Yehuda ben Ilai Rabbi
Rabbi
Nehemiah

Compilers of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(5th generation of Tannaim)[edit]

Rabbi
Rabbi
Yose Rabbi
Rabbi
Yishmael Rabbi
Rabbi
Shimon Rabbi
Rabbi
Nathan Rabbi
Rabbi
Hiyya Judah HaNasi
Judah HaNasi
(known simply as Rabbi
Rabbi
or Rebbi); compiled the Mishnah

See also[edit]

Oral law Amoraim Pharisees

References[edit]

^ Sol Scharfstein Torah and Commentary: The Five Books of Moses: Translation 2008 p523 "The rabbis educated at Yavneh would be links in the great unbroken chain of teachers of the Torah. Yohanan and those who followed him were called tannaim, meaning "repeaters" or "teachers." ^ Sol Scharfstein, Dorcas Gelabert Understanding Jewish History: From the patriarchs to the expulsion 1996 p116 "... both in Palestine and in Babylonia, were called amoraim, meaning 'speakers' or 'interpreters'." ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea
Judea
proper, Samaria
Samaria
and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea." ^ The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol 4, CHAPTER 15, MISHNAIC HEBREW: AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY, MOSHE BAR-ASHER, pg369

External links[edit]

JewishEncyclopedia Biographies of the Tannaim Tannaim entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith

v t e

Tannaim

Last Generation of Zugot Era

Hillel the Elder Shammai Bnei Bathyra Menahem Akabia ben Mahalalel Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Garon

First Generation

Gamaliel
Gamaliel
I, the Elder Shimon ben Gamliel (I) Ishmael ben Elisha ha-Kohen Johanan ben Zakai Jonathan ben Uzziel Baba ben Buta Hanina Ben Dosa Hanina Segan ha-Kohanim Abba Saul
Abba Saul
ben Batnit Admon Dosa ben Harkinas Judah ben Bathyra Eliezer ben Jacob I Nahum the Mede

Second Generation (Destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
and thereafter)

Gamaliel
Gamaliel
II Joshua ben Hananiah Eliezer ben Hurcanus Eleazar ben Arach Nehunya ben HaKanah Nachum Ish Gamzu Abba Hilkiah Rabbi
Rabbi
Zadok

Third Generation

Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva Rabbi
Rabbi
Tarfon Judah ben Bava Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Eleazar ben Azariah Jose the Galilean Eliezer ben Jose Haninah ben Teradion Johanan ben Baroka Simon ben Zoma Simeon ben Azzai Onkelos Hanina ben Antigonus Hanina ben Hakinai Yochanan ben Nuri Eleazar Chisma Elisha ben Abuyah Rabbi
Rabbi
Ilai I Eleazar of Modi'im Halafta Haninah ben Ahi R. Joshua Abtolemus Jose ben Kisma Jeshbab the Scribe Aquila of Sinope Johanan ben Torta Eleazar ben Judah of Bartota Matteya ben Heresh Hanan the Egyptian Simeon the Yemenite

Fourth Generation

Shimon ben Gamaliel
Gamaliel
(II) Judah bar Ilai Jose ben Halafta Rabbi
Rabbi
Jonathan Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir (and wife Bruriah) Simeon bar Yochai Eleazar ben Shammua Rabbi
Rabbi
Nehemiah Rabbi
Rabbi
Nathan Joshua ben Karha Abba Saul Yochanan HaSandlar Phinehas ben Jair Simeon Shezuri

Fifth Generation

Judah I Huna Kamma Jose b. Judah Ishmael ben Jose Eleazar b. Simeon Simeon ben Eleazar Eleazar ha-Kappar Symmachus ben Joseph Issi ben Judah Bar Kappara Jose ben Zimra Levi ben Sisi Rabbi
Rabbi
Bana'ah Simeon b. Menasya Yadua the Babylonian Joshua ben Levi

v t e

Rabbis of the Mishnah: chronology and hierarchy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teacher→Student

 

 

 

 

 

 

Father→Son

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hillel

 

Shammai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rabban Gamliel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yochanan ben Zakai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shimon ben Gamliel

 

Yose the Galilean

 

Eliezer ben Hurcanus

 

Yehoshua ben Hananiah

 

Elazar ben Arach

 

Elazar ben Azariah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gamaliel
Gamaliel
of Yavne

 

Elisha ben Abuyah

 

 

 

Akiva

 

Ishmael ben Elisha

 

Tarfon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shimon ben Gamliel II

 

Meir

 

Yehudah

 

Yose ben Halafta

 

Shimon bar Yochai

 

Elazar ben Shammua

 

Natan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yehudah ha Nasi

 

 

Hiyya

 

 

 

 

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