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Tanit[1] was a Punic and Phoenician goddess, the chief deity of Carthage
Carthage
alongside her consort Ba`al Hammon.[2][3] She was also adopted by the Berber people. Tanit
Tanit
is also called Tinnit, Tannou or Tangou. The name appears to have originated in Carthage
Carthage
(modern day Tunisia), though it does not appear in local theophorous names.[4] She was equivalent to the moon-goddess Astarte, and later worshipped in Roman Carthage
Carthage
in her Romanized form as Dea Caelestis, Juno Caelestis
Juno Caelestis
or simply Caelestis. In modern-day Tunisian Arabic, it is customary to invoke "Omek Tannou" or "Oumouk Tangou" (Mother Tannou or Tangou depending on the region), in years of drought to bring rain.[5] Similarly, Tunisian and many other spoken forms of Arabic refer to Baali farming to refer to non-irrigated agriculture.[6]

Contents

1 Worship 2 Child sacrifice

2.1 Archaeological evidence

3 Other usage 4 Cultural references 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Worship[edit]

A Punic coin featuring Tanit, minted in Punic Carthage
Carthage
between 215-205 BC.

Tanit
Tanit
was worshiped in Punic contexts in the Western Mediterranean, from Malta
Malta
to Gades into Hellenistic times. From the fifth century BCE onwards, Tanit's worship is associated with that of Ba`al Hammon. She is given the epithet pene baal ("face of Baal") and the title rabat, the female form of rab (chief).[7] In North Africa, where the inscriptions and material remains are more plentiful, she was, as well as a consort of Baal
Baal
Hammon, a heavenly goddess of war, a virginal (not married) mother goddess and nurse, and, less specifically, a symbol of fertility, as are most female forms.[8] Several of the major Greek goddesses were identified with Tanit
Tanit
by the syncretic interpretatio graeca, which recognized as Greek deities in foreign guise the gods of most of the surrounding non-Hellene cultures.

Tanit
Tanit
with a lion's head

Her shrine excavated at Sarepta
Sarepta
in southern Phoenicia
Phoenicia
revealed an inscription that identified her for the first time in her homeland and related her securely to the Phoenician goddess Astarte
Astarte
(Ishtar).[9] One site where Tanit
Tanit
is uncovered is at Kerkouane, in the Cap Bon peninsula in Tunisia. Child sacrifice[edit] The origins of Tanit
Tanit
are to be found in the pantheon of Ugarit, especially in the Ugaritic goddess Anat
Anat
(Hvidberg-Hansen 1982), a consumer of blood and flesh. There is significant, albeit disputed, evidence, both archaeological and within ancient written sources, pointing towards child sacrifice forming part of the worship of Tanit and Baal
Baal
Hammon.[10] Some archaeologists theorised that infant sacrifices have occurred. Lawrence E. Stager, who directed the excavations of the Carthage Tophet in the 1970s, believes that infant sacrifice was practiced there. Paolo Xella of the National Research Council in Rome summarized the textual, epigraphical, and archaeological evidence for Carthaginian infant sacrifice.[11] Archaeological evidence[edit]

Stelae in the Tophet of Salammbó covered by a vault built in the Roman period

"Tophet" is a term derived from the Bible, used to refer to a site near Jerusalem at which Canaanites and Israelites who strayed from Judaism by practicing Canaanite idolatry would sacrifice children. It is now used as a general term for all such sites with cremated human and animal remains. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
does not specify that the Israelite victims were buried, only burned, although the "place of burning" was probably adjacent to the place of burial. We have no idea how the Phoenicians themselves referred to the places of burning or burial, or to the practice itself. Several apparent "Tophets" have been identified, chiefly a large one in Carthage, dubbed the "Tophet of Salammbó", after the neighbourhood where it was unearthed in 1921.[12] Soil in the Tophet of Salammbó was found to be full of olive wood charcoal, probably from the sacrificial pyres. It was the location of the temple of the goddess Tanit
Tanit
and the necropolis. Animal remains, mostly sheep and goats, found inside some of the Tophet urns, strongly suggest that this was not a burial ground for children who died prematurely. The animals were sacrificed to the gods, presumably in place of children (one surviving inscription refers to the animal as "a substitute"). It is conjectured that the children unlucky enough not to have substitutes were also sacrificed and then buried in the Tophet. The remains include the bodies of both very young children and small animals, and those who argue in favor of child sacrifice have argued that if the animals were sacrificed then so too were the children.[13] The area covered by the Tophet in Carthage
Carthage
was probably over an acre and a half by the fourth century BCE,[14] with nine different levels of burials. About 20,000 urns were deposited between 400 BCE and 200 BCE,[14] with the practice continuing until the early years of the Christian period. The urns contained the charred bones of newborns and in some cases the bones of fetuses and two-year-olds. These double remains have been interpreted to mean that in the cases of stillborn babies, the parents would sacrifice their youngest child.[15] A detailed breakdown of the age of the buried children includes pre-natal individuals – that is, still births. It is also argued that the age distribution of remains at this site is consistent with the burial of children who died of natural causes, shortly before or after birth.[13][16] Sergio Ribichini has argued that the Tophet was "a child necropolis designed to receive the remains of infants who had died prematurely of sickness or other natural causes, and who for this reason were "offered" to specific deities and buried in a place different from the one reserved for the ordinary dead".[17] He adds that this was probably part of "an effort to ensure the benevolent protection of the same deities for the survivors."[18] However, this analysis is disputed; Patricia Smith and colleagues from the Hebrew University and Harvard University
Harvard University
show from the teeth and skeletal analysis at the Carthage
Carthage
Tophet that infant ages at death (about two months) do not correlate with the expected ages of natural mortality (perinatal).[19] Other usage[edit]

Stele
Stele
with Tanit's symbol in Carthage's Tophet, including a crescent moon over the figure

Long after the fall of Carthage, Tanit
Tanit
was still venerated in North Africa under the Latin
Latin
name of Juno Caelestis, for her identification with the Roman goddess Juno.[20] The ancient Berber people
Berber people
of North Africa also adopted the Punic cult of Tanit.[21] In Egyptian, her name means Land of Neith, Neith
Neith
being a war goddess. Her symbol (the Sign of Tanit), found on many ancient stone carvings, appears as a trapezium (trapezoid) closed by a horizontal line at the top and surmounted in the middle by a circle: the horizontal arm is often terminated either by two short upright lines at right angles to it or by hooks. Later, the trapezium is frequently replaced by an isosceles triangle. The symbol is interpreted by Hvidberg-Hansen as a woman raising her hands. Hvidberg-Hansen (Danish professor of Semitic philology), notes that Tanit
Tanit
is sometimes depicted with a lion's head, showing her warrior quality.[22] In modern times the name, with the spelling "Tanith", has been used as a female given name, both for real people such as the writer Tanith Lee, model Tanit Phoenix
Tanit Phoenix
and, more frequently, in occult fiction. Cultural references[edit] In Gustave Flaubert's historical novel Salammbô
Salammbô
(1862), the title character is a priestess of Tanit. Mâtho, the chief male protagonist, a Libyan mercenary rebel at war with Carthage, breaks into the goddess' temple and steals her veil.[23] In Kate Elliot's Spiritwalker Trilogy, a romanticised version of Tanit is one of many deities commonly worshiped in a polytheistic Europa. The narrator, Catherine, frequently appeals to "Blessed Tanit, Protector of Women", and the goddess occasionally appears to her. G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
refers to Tanit
Tanit
in his account of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
"War of the Gods and Demons" (a chapter of his book The Everlasting Man). Describing the cultural shock of foreign armies invading Italy when Hannibal
Hannibal
crossed the Alps, Chesterton writes:

It was Moloch
Moloch
upon the mountain of the Latins, looking with his appalling face across the plain; it was Baal
Baal
who trampled the vineyards with his feet of stone; it was the voice of Tanit
Tanit
the invisible, behind her trailing veils, whispering of the love that is more horrible than hate.

In Margaret Atwood's The Blind Assassin
The Blind Assassin
there is an epigraph on a Carthaginian funerary urn that reads, "I swam, the sea was boundless, I saw no shore./ Tanit
Tanit
was merciless, my prayers were answered./O you who drown in love, remember me." In John Maddox Roberts's alternate history novel "Hannibal's Children", in which the Carthaginians won the Second Punic War, one of the characters is Princess Zarabel, leader of the Cult of Tanit Isaac Asimov's 1956 science fiction short story "The Dead Past", tells of Arnold Potterley, a professor of ancient history, who is obsessed with exonerating the Carthaginians of child sacrifice and tries to gain access to the chronoscope, a device which allows direct observation of past events. Eventually, Potterley's obsession with the Carthaginian past has far-reaching effects on the society of the present. See also[edit]

Mythology portal Ancient Near East portal

Ishtar Isis Aicha Kandicha

Notes[edit]

^ 'TNT in Phoenician and Punic inscriptions. ^ Richard Miles Carthage
Carthage
Must Be Destroyed (Penguin, 2011), p.68 ^ F. O. Hvidberg-Hansen, La déesse TNT: une Etude sur la réligion canaanéo-punique (Copenhagen: Gad) 1982, is the standard survey. An extensive critical review by G. W. Ahlström appeared in Journal of Near Eastern Studies 45.4 (October 1986), pp. 311–314. ^ Claas Jouco Bleeker; Geo Widengren (1988). Historia Religionum, Volume 1 Religions of the Past. BRILL. pp. 209–. ISBN 90-04-08928-4. At Carthage
Carthage
the great goddess is called Tinnit (formerly read Tanit) ... It would seem that Tinnit is the specific Carthaginian form of Astarte, but strangely enough there are no theophorous names containing the element Tinnit, while there are a few with Astarte. The name seems to have originated in Carthage ...  ^ Rezgui, Sadok (1989). Les chants tunisiens. Maison tunisienne de l'édition, Tunis.  ^ Ottavo contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico Arnaldo Momigliano - 1987 p240. ^ Markoe 2000:130. ^ " Tanit
Tanit
ancient deity". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-08.  ^ James B. Pritchard, Recovering Sarepta, a Phoenician City (Princeton: Princeton University Press) 1978.; see Sarepta. The inscription reads TNT TTRT and could identify Tanit
Tanit
as an epithet of Astarte
Astarte
at Sarepta, for the TNT element does not appear in theophoric names in Punic contexts (Ahlström 1986 review, p 314). ^ Markoe, p. 136 ^ Xella, Paolo; Quin, Josephine; Melchiorri, Valentina; van Dommelen, Peter. Phoenician bones of contention. 87 Number: 338. p. 1199–1207. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ Briand-Ponsart, Claude and Crogiez, Sylvie (2002). L'Afrique du nord antique et médievale: mémoire, identité et imaginaire. Publication Univ Rouen Havre, p. 13. ISBN 2-87775-325-5. (in French) ^ a b Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca (17 February 2010). "Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage
Carthage
Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants". PLOS ONE. 5 (2): e9177. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...5.9177S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009177 – via PLoS Journals.  ^ a b Stager 1980, p. 3. ^ Stager 1980, p. 6. ^ Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Frank Houghton, Roberto Macchiarelli, Luca Bondioli. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage
Carthage
Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants. PLOS One. Published: 17 February 2010. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009177 accessed 23 January 2014 ^ Took, Thalia. "Tanit, the Carthaginian Great Goddess". www.thaliatook.com. Retrieved 2017-08-08.  ^ Ribichini 1988, p. 141. ^ Patricia Smith, Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene and Gal Avishai. Archaeology. Volume: 87 Number: 338 Page: 1191–1199. Age estimations attest to infant sacrifice at the Carthage
Carthage
Tophet accessed 23 January 2014 ^ Tate, Karen (2008). Sacred Places of Goddess. CCC Publishing, p. 137. ISBN 1-888729-11-2 ^ Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress The Berbers (Blackwell, 1997), p.269 ^ The Phoenician solar theology by Joseph Azize, page 177. ^ Laurence M. Porter Gustave Flaubert's "Madame Bovary": A Reference Guide (Greenwood, 2002), p.xxxi

References[edit]

Markoe, Glenn E. (2000). Phoenicians. Peoples of the Past. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520226142. OCLC 45096924. 

External links[edit] Media related to Tanit
Tanit
at Wikimedia Commons

Limestone stela with images of the goddess Tanit

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2969735

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