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Tangier
Tangier
(/tænˈdʒɪər/; Arabic: طَنجة‎ Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; French: Tanger; Spanish: Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is located on the Maghreb
Maghreb
coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. The town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco. Many civilisations and cultures have impacted the history of Tangier starting from before the 5th century BC. Between the period of being a strategic Berber town and then a Phoenician trading centre to the independence era around the 1950s, Tangier
Tangier
was a nexus for many cultures. In 1923, it was considered as having international status by foreign colonial powers, and became a destination for many European and American diplomats, spies, writers and businessmen. The city is currently undergoing rapid development and modernisation. Projects include new tourism projects along the bay, a modern business district called Tangier
Tangier
City Center, a new airport terminal and a new football stadium. Tangier's economy is also set to benefit greatly from the new Tanger-Med
Tanger-Med
port.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 International status 2.2 Ecclesiastical history 2.3 Espionage

3 Climate 4 Subdivisions 5 Culture

5.1 Sport

6 Economy 7 Notable landmarks 8 Transport 9 Language 10 Education

10.1 Primary education 10.2 International primary institutions 10.3 International high schools

11 In popular culture 12 Notable people 13 Twin towns/sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 16 Bibliography 17 External links

Etymology[edit] The city's name is said to come from Tingis, the daughter of Atlas, the mythical supporter of the Heavens. However, it more likely derives from the Semitic word tigisis, meaning "harbour".[2] Tangier
Tangier
is also referred to as Boughaz or nicknamed as "the bride of the north" by the Moroccans and "the door of Africa" for its particular location in the peak of the continent. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Tangier

Two views of the Palace of Justice in the Tangier
Tangier
Kasbah, one from the turn of the 20th century (left) and the other from 2015 (right).

Panoramic view of the Jewish
Jewish
Cemetery in Tangier

Tangier
Tangier
was founded in the early 5th century BC by Carthaginian colonists, who were probably the first ones to settle around the coast. The Greeks ascribed the city's establishment to the giant Antaios, whose tomb and skeleton are pointed out in the vicinity, calling Syphax
Syphax
the son of Hercules
Hercules
by the widow of Antaeus. The caves of Hercules, a few kilometres from the city, are a major tourist attraction. It is believed that Hercules
Hercules
slept there before attempting one of his twelve labours.

The souk

The commercial town of Tingi
Tingi
(Τιγγίς in Ancient Greek) came under Roman rule during the 2nd century BC (146 BC). It was initially autonomous, and then, under Augustus, became a colony (Colonia Julia, under Claudius) and capital of Mauritania Tingitana
Mauritania Tingitana
of Hispania
Hispania
(since 38 BC). It was the scene of the martyrdoms of Saint Marcellus of Tangier. Tingis
Tingis
was the main Roman city of Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
in the 4th century and enjoyed huge development and importance. In the 5th century, Vandals
Vandals
conquered and occupied "Tingi" and from here swept across the Maghreb. A century later (between 534 and 682), Tangier
Tangier
fell to the Byzantine Empire, before coming under the control of the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
in 702. Due to its Christian
Christian
past, it is still a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.[3] When the Portuguese, driven in good part by religious fervour, started their colonial expansion by taking Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1415,[4] Tangier
Tangier
was always a primary goal. They failed to capture the city in 1437 but finally occupied it in 1471 (see List of colonial heads of Tangier). A partial plan of the original kasbah (Arabic: القصبة al-qaṣbah) was found in 2009–12, in a Portuguese document now preserved in the Military Archives of Sweden
Military Archives of Sweden
in Stockholm (Krigsarkivet/Riksarkivet).[5] The Portuguese rule lasted until 1662, when it was given to England's King Charles II as part of the dowry from the Portuguese Infanta Catherine of Braganza, becoming English Tangier.[6] The English gave the city a garrison and a charter which made it equal to English towns. The English planned to improve the harbour by building a mole. With an improved harbour the town would have played the same role that Gibraltar
Gibraltar
later played in British naval strategy. The mole cost £340,000 and reached 1,436 feet (438 m) long, before being blown up during the evacuation.[7] An attempt of Sultan Moulay Ismail of Morocco
Morocco
to seize the town in 1679 was unsuccessful; but a crippling blockade by his Jaysh al-Rifi ultimately forced the English to withdraw. The English destroyed the town and its port facilities prior to their departure in 1684. Under Moulay Ismail the city was reconstructed to some extent, but it gradually declined until, by 1810, the population was no more than 5,000. The United States
United States
dedicated its first consulate in Tangier
Tangier
during the George Washington administration.[8] In 1821, the Legation Building in Tangier
Tangier
became the first piece of property acquired abroad by the U.S. government—a gift to the U.S. from Sultan Moulay Suliman. In 1828, Great Britain blockaded the port in retaliation for piracy.[9] It was bombarded by the French Prince of Joinville in 1844. Italian revolutionary hero Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
lived in exile at Tangier
Tangier
in late 1849 and the first half of 1850, following the fall of the revolutionary Roman Republic. Tangier's geographic location made it a centre for European diplomatic and commercial rivalry in Morocco
Morocco
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[10] By the opening of the 20th century, it had a population of about 40,000, including 20,000 Muslims, 10,000 Jews and 9,000 Europeans (of whom 7,500 were Spanish). The city was increasingly coming under French influence, and it was here in 1905 that Kaiser Wilhelm II triggered an international crisis that almost led to war between his country and France
France
by pronouncing himself in favour of Morocco's continued independence, with an eye to its future acquisition by the German Empire. In 1912, Morocco
Morocco
was effectively partitioned between France
France
and Spain, the latter occupying the country's far north and far south, while France
France
declared a protectorate over the remainder. The last Sultan of independent Morocco, Moulay Hafid, was exiled to the Sultanate Palace in the Tangier
Tangier
Kasbah
Kasbah
after his forced abdication in favour of his brother Moulay Yusef. International status[edit] Main article: Tangier
Tangier
International Zone Tangier
Tangier
was made an international zone in 1923 under the joint administration of France, Spain
Spain
and Britain under an international convention signed in Paris on 18 December 1923. Ratifications were exchanged in Paris on 14 May 1924. The convention was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 13 September 1924.[11] The convention was amended in 1928.[12] The governments of Italy, Portugal and Belgium
Belgium
adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1929.

Tangier's ancient wall

The International zone of Tangier
Tangier
had a 373 square kilometer area and, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants.[13] Spanish troops occupied Tangier
Tangier
on 14 June 1940, the same day Paris fell to the Germans. Despite calls by Spanish nationalists to annex "Tánger español", the Franco regime publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure.[14] A diplomatic dispute between Britain and Spain
Spain
over the latter's abolition of the city's international institutions in November 1940 led to a further guarantee of British rights and a Spanish promise not to fortify the area.[15] The territory was restored to its pre-war status on October 11, 1945.[16] In July 1952 the protecting powers met at Rabat
Rabat
to discuss the Zone's future, agreeing to abolish it. Tangier
Tangier
joined with the rest of Morocco
Morocco
following the restoration of full sovereignty in 1956.[17] Pre-1956 Tangier
Tangier
had a population of 40,000 Muslims, 31,000 Christians and 15,000 Jews.[18] Ecclesiastical history[edit] Originally, the city was part of the larger Roman province of Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis, which included much of North Africa. Later the area was subdivided, with the eastern part keeping the former name and the newer part receiving the name of Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana. It is not known exactly at what period there may have been an episcopal see at Tangier
Tangier
in ancient times, but in the Middle Ages Tangier
Tangier
was used as a titular see (i.e., an honorific fiction for the appointment of curial and auxiliary bishops), placing it in Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana. For the historical reasons given above, one official list of the Roman Curia places the see in Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesarea. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Tangier
Tangier
was the scene of the martyrdom of Saint Marcellus of Tangier, mentioned in the Roman Martyrology on 30 October, and of St. Cassian, mentioned on 3 December. Under the Portuguese domination, there was a Bishop of Tangier
Tangier
who was a suffragan of the diocese of Lisbon
Lisbon
but in 1570 the diocese was united to the diocese of Ceuta. Six Bishops of Tangier
Tangier
from this period are known, the first, who did not reside in his see, in 1468. During the era of the French-Spanish protectorate over Morocco, Tangier
Tangier
was the residence of the Prefect Apostolic
Prefect Apostolic
of Morocco, the mission having been founded on 28 November 1630, and entrusted to the Friars Minor. At the time it had a Catholic church, several chapels, schools and a hospital. The Prefecture Apostolic was raised to the status of a Vicariate Apostolic of Marocco 14 April 1908, and on 14 November 1956, became the Archdiocese of Tangier.[19] The city also has the Anglican church of Saint Andrew. Espionage[edit] Tangier
Tangier
has been reputed as a safe house for international spying activities.[20] Its position during the Cold War
Cold War
and during other spying periods of the 19th and 20th centuries is legendary. Tangier
Tangier
acquired the reputation of a spying and smuggling centre and attracted foreign capital due to political neutrality and commercial liberty at that time. It was via a British bank in Tangier
Tangier
that the Bank of England
Bank of England
in 1943 for the first time obtained samples of the high-quality forged British currency produced by the Nazis in "Operation Bernhard". The city has also been a subject for many spy fiction books and films (see Tangier
Tangier
in popular culture). Climate[edit] Tangier
Tangier
has a mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with heavier rainfall than most parts of North Africa
North Africa
and nearby areas on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
owing to its exposed location. The summers are relatively hot and sunny and the winters are wet and mild: frost is rare, however in January 2005 a low of −4.2 °C was recorded. [21]

Climate data for Tangier
Tangier
( Tangier
Tangier
Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1961–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.0 (71.6) 27.0 (80.6) 25.0 (77) 27.0 (80.6) 34.0 (93.2) 36.0 (96.8) 41.0 (105.8) 39.0 (102.2) 39.5 (103.1) 30.0 (86) 27.0 (80.6) 24.5 (76.1) 41.0 (105.8)

Average high °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 16.8 (62.2) 17.9 (64.2) 19.2 (66.6) 21.9 (71.4) 24.9 (76.8) 28.3 (82.9) 28.6 (83.5) 27.3 (81.1) 23.7 (74.7) 19.6 (67.3) 17.0 (62.6) 21.8 (71.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 13.1 (55.6) 14.0 (57.2) 15.2 (59.4) 17.7 (63.9) 20.6 (69.1) 23.5 (74.3) 23.9 (75) 22.8 (73) 19.7 (67.5) 15.9 (60.6) 13.3 (55.9) 17.7 (63.9)

Average low °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 9.4 (48.9) 10.1 (50.2) 11.2 (52.2) 13.4 (56.1) 16.2 (61.2) 18.7 (65.7) 19.1 (66.4) 18.3 (64.9) 15.6 (60.1) 12.2 (54) 9.7 (49.5) 13.6 (56.5)

Record low °C (°F) −4.2 (24.4) 1.0 (33.8) 3.5 (38.3) 1.0 (33.8) 7.0 (44.6) 10.0 (50) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 10.0 (50) 7.0 (44.6) 3.0 (37.4) 4.0 (39.2) −4.2 (24.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 103.5 (4.075) 98.7 (3.886) 71.8 (2.827) 62.2 (2.449) 37.3 (1.469) 13.9 (0.547) 2.1 (0.083) 2.5 (0.098) 14.9 (0.587) 65.1 (2.563) 134.6 (5.299) 129.3 (5.091) 735.9 (28.972)

Average precipitation days 11.2 11.4 10.1 9.3 6.1 3.7 0.8 0.8 3.1 8.0 11.1 12.0 87.6

Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 78 78 76 74 70 72 73 76 79 81 76

Mean monthly sunshine hours 169.2 166.9 231.7 251.7 298.9 306.8 344.0 330.7 275.6 238.2 180.6 166.9 2,960.7

Source #1: NOAA[22]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(humidity, 1973–1993)[23] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[24]

Subdivisions[edit] The prefecture is divided administratively into the following:[25]

Name Geographic code Type Households Population (2004) Foreign population Moroccan population Notes

Assilah 511.01.01. Municipality 6,245 28,217 66 28,151

Bni Makada 511.01.03. Arrondissement 47,384 238,382 74 238,308

Charf-Mghogha 511.01.05. Arrondissement 30,036 141,987 342 141,645

Charf-Souani 511.01.06. Arrondissement 25,948 115,839 273 115,566

Tanger-Medina 511.01.07. Arrondissement 40,929 173,477 2,323 171,154

Al Manzla 511.03.01. Rural commune 555 3,031 0 3,031

Aquouass Briech 511.03.03. Rural commune 787 4,132 3 4,129

Azzinate 511.03.05. Rural commune 920 4,895 0 4,895

Dar Chaoui 511.03.07. Rural commune 877 4,495 0 4,495 1,424 residents live in the centre, called Dar Chaoui; 3,071 residents live in rural areas.

Lkhaloua 511.03.09. Rural commune 2,405 12,946 1 12,945

Sahel Chamali 511.03.11. Rural commune 1,087 5,588 2 5,586

Sidi Lyamani 511.03.13. Rural commune 1,883 10,895 1 10,894 1,101 residents live in the centre, called Sidi Lyamani; 9,794 residents live in rural areas.

Boukhalef 511.81.03. Rural commune 3,657 18,699 4 18,695 3,187 residents live in the centre, called Gueznaia; 15,512 residents live in rural areas.

Culture[edit]

Young ladies on a terrace in Tangiers (1880s) by Rudolf Ernst

The multicultural placement of Muslim, Christian
Christian
and Jewish communities and the foreign immigrants attracted writer and composer Paul Bowles, playwright Tennessee Williams, the beat writers William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
and Jack Kerouac, the painter Brion Gysin and the music group the Rolling Stones, who all lived in or visited Tangier
Tangier
during different periods of the 20th century. The writer George Orwell
George Orwell
and his wife (travelling as Mr. & Mrs. Blair) visited Tangier
Tangier
in September, 1938. Orwell reported newspapers on sale: "La Press Morocain, strongly pro-Franco; Le Petite Morocain, impartial; La Dépêche Morocain, somewhat pro-Franco; Le Journal De Tanger, seemingly non-political; Tangier
Tangier
Gazette & Morocco
Morocco
Mail, an English weekly, slightly antifascist and strongly anti-Japanese." He also noted "There are four post offices, one French, one British and two Spanish – Franco and government. Stamps are British surcharged Tangier. Coinage as in French Morocco."[26] It was after Delacroix that Tangier
Tangier
became an obligatory stop for artists seeking to experience the colours and light he spoke of for themselves—with varying results. Matisse
Matisse
made several sojourns in Tangier, always staying at the Grand Hotel
Hotel
Villa de France. "I have found landscapes in Morocco," he claimed, "exactly as they are described in Delacroix's paintings." The Californian artist Richard Diebenkorn was directly influenced by the haunting colours and rhythmic patterns of Matisse's Morocco
Morocco
paintings. Antonio Fuentes
Antonio Fuentes
was born in Tangier
Tangier
in 1905 from a Spanish family. An article in La Gazette du Maroc described Antonio Fuentes
Antonio Fuentes
as the Picasso of Tangier,[27] and he died in the city 90 years later.[28] In the 1940s and until 1956 when the city was an International Zone, the city served as a playground for eccentric millionaires, a meeting place for secret agents and all kinds of crooks and a mecca for speculators and gamblers, an Eldorado for the fun-loving "Haute Volée". During the Second World War
Second World War
the Office of Strategic Services operated out of Tangier
Tangier
for various operations in North Africa.[29] Around the same time, a circle of writers emerged which was to have a profound and lasting literary influence. This included Paul Bowles, who lived and wrote for over half a century in the city, Tennessee Williams and Jean Genet
Jean Genet
as well as Mohamed Choukri (one of North Africa's most controversial and widely read authors), Abdeslam Boulaich, Larbi Layachi, Mohammed Mrabet and Ahmed Yacoubi. Among the best known works from this period is Choukri's For Bread Alone. Originally written in Classical Arabic, the English edition was the result of close collaboration with Bowles (who worked with Choukri to provide the translation and supplied the introduction). Tennessee Williams described it as "a true document of human desperation, shattering in its impact." Independently, William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs
lived in Tangier
Tangier
for four years and wrote Naked Lunch, whose locale of Interzone is an allusion to the city. After several years of gradual disentanglement from Spanish and French colonial control, Morocco
Morocco
reintegrated the city of Tangier
Tangier
at the signing of the Tangier Protocol
Tangier Protocol
on 29 October 1956. Tangier
Tangier
remains a very popular tourist destination for cruise ships and day visitors from Spain
Spain
and Gibraltar. Sport[edit] I.R.T. (or Ittihad Riadi de Tanger) is a football club. Tangier
Tangier
would be one of the host cities for the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations
2015 Africa Cup of Nations
football tournament, which would be played at the new Ibn Batouta Stadium and in other cities across Morocco, until Morocco
Morocco
was banned from participating the Africa Cup of Nations
Africa Cup of Nations
due to their denial.[30] National Cricket Stadium is the only top-class cricket stadium in Morocco. Stadium hosted its first International Tournament from 12 to 21 August 2002. Pakistan, South Africa and Sri Lanka competed in a 50-overs one day triangular series. The International Cricket Council
International Cricket Council
has granted international status to the Tangier
Tangier
Cricket Stadium, official approval that will allow it to become North Africa's first international cricket venue. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Tangier

Port
Port
of Tangier

Street in Medina (Old City)

Tangier
Tangier
is Morocco's second most important industrial centre after Casablanca. The industrial sectors are diversified: textile, chemical, mechanical, metallurgical and naval. Currently, the city has four industrial parks of which two have the status of free economic zone (see Tangier
Tangier
Free Zone). Tangier's economy relies heavily on tourism. Seaside resorts have been increasing with projects funded by foreign investments. Real estate and construction companies have been investing heavily in tourist infrastructures. A bay delimiting the city centre extends for more than 7 kilometres (4 miles). The years 2007 and 2008 were particularly important for the city because of the completion of large construction projects; These include the Tangier-Mediterranean port ("Tanger-Med") and its industrial parks, a 45,000-seat sports stadium, an expanded business district, and a renovated tourist infrastructure. Tangier
Tangier
Med, a new port 40 kilometers outside the traditional Tangier city, began construction in 2004 and became functional in 2007. Its site plays a key role in connecting maritime regions, as it is in a very critical position on the Strait of Gibraltar, which passes between Europe
Europe
and Africa. The makeup of the new port is 85% transhipment 15% for domestic import and export activities.[31] The port is distinguished by its size, infrastructure, and efficiency in managing the flow of ships. Tangier
Tangier
Med has linked Morocco
Morocco
to Europe’s freight industry. It has also helped connect Morocco
Morocco
to countries in the Mediterranean, Africa, and America. The port has allowed Tangier
Tangier
to become a more globalized city with new international opportunities that will help facilitate economic growth.[32] The construction and operation of the port aimed to create 120,000 new jobs, 20,000 at the port and 100,000 resulting from growing economic activity. Agriculture
Agriculture
in the area of Tangier
Tangier
is tertiary and mainly cereal. The infrastructure of this city on the strait of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
consists of a port that manages flows of goods and travellers (more than one million travellers per annum) and integrates a marina with a fishing port. Artisanal
Artisanal
trade in the old medina (old city) specializes mainly in leather working, handicrafts made from wood and silver, traditional clothing, and shoes of Moroccan origin. The city has grown quickly due to rural exodus from other smaller cities and villages. The 2014 population is more than three-times larger than 32 years ago (850.000 inhabitants in 2014 vs. 250,000 in 1982).[citation needed] This phenomenon has resulted in the appearance of peripheral suburban districts, mainly inhabited by poor people, that often lack sufficient infrastructure. Notable landmarks[edit]

American Legation entrance

Mohammed V Mosque

Hotel
Hotel
Continental

Dar el Makhzen (Sultan's palace) Ancien Palais du Mendoub Perdicaris Parc Named after the notable Ion H. Percifaris (Greek-American communitist of Tangiers). Sidi Bou Abib Mosque Tangier
Tangier
Grand Mosque Church of the Immaculate Conception Anglican Church of St. Andrew Plaza de Toros (bullring arena) on Rue de Tetouan Gran Teatro Cervantes Tangier
Tangier
American Legation Museum Museum of Moroccan Arts and Antiquities Museum of Contemporary Art Fondation Lorin Musée de Carmen-Macein Grand Socco
Grand Socco
souk and square Petit Socco
Petit Socco
souk Casabarata souk or giant flea market Hotel
Hotel
Continental Rue Es-Siaghine Rue de la Liberté Avenue Pasteur Avenue Mohammed VI beach Parc de la Mendoubia Quartier du Marshan Colline du Charf Café Hafa

Transport[edit]

Tangier
Tangier
Ibn Battouta Airport

A railway line connects the Tangier
Tangier
area with Rabat, Casablanca
Casablanca
and Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in the south, and with Fes
Fes
and Oujda
Oujda
in the east. The service is operated by ONCF. The Rabat–Tangier expressway
Rabat–Tangier expressway
connects Tangier
Tangier
to Fès via Rabat
Rabat
250 kilometres (155 miles), and Settat
Settat
via Casablanca
Casablanca
330 km (205 mi) and Tanger-Med
Tanger-Med
port. The Ibn Batouta International Airport (formerly known as Tangier-Boukhalef) is located 15 km (9 mi) south-west of the city centre. The new Tanger-Med
Tanger-Med
Port
Port
is managed by the Danish firm A. P. Moller–Maersk Group and will free up the old port for tourist and recreational development. Tangier's Ibn Batouta International Airport
Ibn Batouta International Airport
and the rail tunnel will serve as the gateway to the Moroccan Riviera, the littoral area between Tangier
Tangier
and Oujda. Traditionally, the northern coast was a rural stronghold, with some of the best beaches on the Mediterranean. It is slated for rapid urban development. The Ibn Batouta International Airport has been modernized to accommodate more flights. The biggest airline at the airport is Royal Air Maroc. In addition, a TGV high-speed train system is being built. It will take a few years to complete, and will become the fastest train system in the Maghreb. Language[edit] Most of the inhabitants of Tangier
Tangier
speak Darija, mainly influenced by Spanish. About 25% of the city inhabitants speak Berber in their daily lives. Tangerian, as the residents refer to their language, is different from the rest of Morocco, with a lexicon derived from Berber, Spanish, English, and old Tangerian words. Written Arabic is used in government documentation and on road signs together with French. French is used in universities and large businesses. English and Spanish are well understood in all hotels and tourist areas. Education[edit]

Lycée Moulay Rachid
Lycée Moulay Rachid
("Moulay Rachid High School") in Tangier

Tangier
Tangier
offers four types of education systems: Arabic, French, Spanish and English. Each offers classes starting from pre-Kindergarten up to the 12th grade, as for German in the three last years of high school. The Baccalaureat, or high school diploma are the diplomas offered after clearing the 12 grades. Many universities are inside and outside the city. Universities like the Institut Superieur International de Tourisme (ISIT), which grants diplomas, offer courses ranging from business administration to hotel management. The institute is one of the most prestigious tourism schools in the country. Other colleges such as the École Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion (ENCG-T) is among the biggest business schools in the country as well as École Nationale des Sciences appliquées (ENSA-T), a rising engineering school for applied sciences. University known as Abdelmaled Essaadi holding many what they mainly known as faculties; Law, Economics and Social sciences (FSJEST) and the FST of Technical Sciences. and the most attended Institut of ISTA of the OFPPT. Primary education[edit] There are more than a hundred Moroccan primary schools, dispersed across the city. Private and public schools, they offer education in Arabic, French and some school English until the 5th grade. Mathematics, Arts, Science Activities and nonreligious modules are commonly taught in the primary school. International primary institutions[edit]

American School of Tangier École Adrien Berchet (French primary school) Groupe scolaire Le Détroit (French school) Colegio Ramón y Cajal (Spanish primary school) English College of Tangier

International high schools[edit]

American School of Tangier Lycée Regnault de Tanger (French high school) Groupe scolaire Le Détroit (French school) Instituto Español Severo Ochoa
Instituto Español Severo Ochoa
(Spanish high school) English College of Tangier Mohammed Fatih Turkish School of Tangier Tangier
Tangier
Anglo Moroccan School

In popular culture[edit] Main article: Tangier
Tangier
in popular culture Notable people[edit]

Yasser Harrak
Yasser Harrak
– Writer and human rights activist. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
– Moroccan scholar and traveler who went on a worldwide quest. Ralph Benmergui – Canadian TV and radio host at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Paul Bowles
Paul Bowles
– American writer, composer and ethnomusicologist William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs
– Beat Generation Writer, wrote Naked Lunch during the 1950s in Tangier. Alexandre Rey Colaço
Alexandre Rey Colaço
– Portuguese pianist Ion Perdicaris
Ion Perdicaris
– Greek-American became the unofficial head of Tangier's foreign community Karim Debbagh – Moroccan Film producer Roger Elliott
Roger Elliott
– first British Governor of Gibraltar Antonio Fuentes
Antonio Fuentes
– Painter described as the 'Picasso of Tangier'[1] Abdullah al-Ghumari Muslim
Muslim
cleric Sanaa Hamri – Moroccan music video director. Walter Harris - British writer Emmanuel Hocquard – French poet Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
– French politician, currently MEP Claude-Jean Philippe – French film critic Alexander Spotswood
Alexander Spotswood
– American Lieutenant-Colonel and Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Heinz Tietjen – German music composer Abderrahmane Youssoufi – former Prime Minister of Morocco Ahmed Yacoubi – international painter extraordinaire

Twin towns/sister cities[edit] Tangier
Tangier
is twinned with:

Faro, Portugal
Portugal
(since 1954)[33] Algeciras, Spain Cádiz, Spain Bizerta, Tunisia Liège, Belgium
Belgium
(since 2006) Casablanca, Morocco
Morocco
(since 2004)

Metz, France Moulins, France Pasadena, California, USA Beaugency, France Saint-Denis de la Réunion, France Dagupan, Philippines

See also[edit]

History of Morocco List of cities in Morocco List of Colonial Heads of Tangier Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Tingis English Tangier Tangier
Tangier
International Zone

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Note de présentation des premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2017.  ^ "Tangier". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Tingis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ B. W. Diffie, Prelude to Empire, Portugal
Portugal
Overseas before Henry the Navigator, University of Nebraska Press, Ann Arbor, 1960, pp. 83–90. ^ Martin Malcolm Elbl, "Tangier's Qasba Before the Trace Italienne Citadel of 1558–1566: The 'Virtual' Archaeology of a Vanished Islamic and Portuguese Fortress," Portuguese Studies Review 17 (2) (2009; publ. 2012): 1–44.[1] ^ Winston S. Churchill, Marlborough: His Life and Times, Book I (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1933) p. 35. ^ Enid M. G. Routh — Tangier: England's lost Atlantic outpost, 1912; Martin Malcolm Elbl, "(Re)claiming Walls: The Fortified Médina of Tangier
Tangier
under Portuguese Rule (1471–1661) and as a Modern Heritage Artefact," Portuguese Studies Review 15 (1–2) (2007; publ. 2009): 103–192; a long study of the previous Portuguese Breakwater at Tangier, and interesting notes on the English Mole and its contractors are found in Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, Chapter Eight. ^ Power, Faith and Fantasy: In the beginning, for America, was the Middle East, Matt Buckingham, week, February 14, 2007. ^ "'Abd ar-Rasham". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  ^ Bensoussan, David (2010). Il Était Une Fois Le Maroc: Témoignages Du Passé Judéo-Marocain (in French). Québec: Éditions Du Lys. ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4.  ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 28, pp. 542–631. ^ Text in League on Nations Treaty Series, vol. 87, pp. 212–251. ^ "City states". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-09-21.  ^ Payne, S.G. The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987. 268. ^ Payne 1987, p. 274, note 28. ^ Benton, Assistant Secretary (October 21, 1945). "Reestablishment of the International Regime in Tangier". Department of State Bulletin. 330. XIII: 613–618.  ^ "Final Declaration of the International Conference in Tangier
Tangier
and annexed Protocol. Signed at Tangier, on 29 October 1956 [1957] UNTSer 130; 263 UNTS 165". 1956.  ^ "Tangier(s)". Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.  ^ Annuario Pontificio 2010, p. 721 ^ Pennell, C. R. (1999). "Wars: The Second World War
Second World War
in Morocco". Morocco
Morocco
since 1830: A History. New York University Press. p. 257. ISBN 1-85065-426-3.  ^ Valor, G. Ballester. "Synop report summary".  ^ " Tangier
Tangier
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 14, 2016.  ^ "Klimatafel von Tanger / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved October 14, 2016.  ^ "Station Tangier
Tangier
Airport" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved October 14, 2016.  ^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004" (PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Retrieved 27 April 2012.  ^ George Orwell
George Orwell
Diaries. W.W. Norton & Co. 2012. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-87140-410-7.  ^ La Gazette Du Maroc. La Gazette Du Maroc. Retrieved on 2011-06-04. ^ www.antoniofuentes.org. www.antoniofuentes.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-04. ^ The American Legation at Tangier, Morocco
Morocco
Archived January 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Morocco
Morocco
then South Africa to host Cups. FIFA.com (2011-01-29). Retrieved on 2011-06-04. ^ César Ducruet, Fatima Mohamed-Chérif, Najib Cherfaoui. Maghreb Port
Port
Cities in Transition: The Case of Tangier
Tangier
(n.d.): n. pag. Web. ^ Ouail El Im Rani Et Al., International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce, ISSN 2250-057X, Impact Factor: 6.384, Volume 06 Issue 07, July 2016, Page 73-81. Tangier
Tangier
Med Port: What Role for the Moroccan Economy and the International Trade? (n.d.): n. pag. Web. ^ "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas". Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-07-20. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Tangier External links[edit]

liste des emails pour plusieurs société a tanger

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tangier.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Tangier.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tangier.

Official site of The Tangier
Tangier
American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies History, description, and images of Tangier
Tangier
on Archnet Tangier
Tangier
photo gallery Navigating Tangier's Labyrinth – slideshow by The New York Times "Tangier". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on 2013-04-27.  Tangier
Tangier
on Archnet – History, sites, photos (historic and contemporary), and media

v t e

Tangier

History

History of Tangier

Timeline

European Governors of Tangier Battle of Tangier
Tangier
(1664) English Tangier Tangier
Tangier
Garrison Tangier
Tangier
Regiment 2nd Tangier
Tangier
Regiment Battle of Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
(1782) Treaty of Tangiers First Moroccan Crisis Tangier
Tangier
Protocol Tangier
Tangier
International Zone Administrators of the Tangier
Tangier
International Zone Battle of Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
(1936)

Economy

Economy of Tangier Tangier
Tangier
Exportation Free Zone Tanger-med

Districts and streets

Tangier
Tangier
City Center Grand Socco Petit Socco Quartier du Marshan Rue Es-Siaghine Rue de la Liberté Avenue Pasteur Avenue d'Espagne Avenue Mohammed VI beach

Religious buildings

Tangier
Tangier
Grand Mosque Kasbah
Kasbah
Mosque Sidi Bou Abib Mosque Church of the Immaculate Conception Anglican Church of St. Andrew

Palaces and museums

Dar el Makhzen American Legation Forbes Museum of Tangier Museum of Contemporary Art Fondation Lorin Musée de Carmen-Macein

Other buildings

Plaza de Toros bullring Borj en Naam Gran Teatro Cervantes Hotel
Hotel
Continental (Tangier) Café Hafa Tangerinn Villa Muniria

Schools and colleges

Tangier
Tangier
Anglo-Moroccan School The American School of Tangier

Transport

Rabat- Tangier
Tangier
expressway Tangier
Tangier
Ibn Battouta Airport

Sport and culture

Atletico Tanger IR Tanger Stade de Tanger Stade de Marchan Cap Radio (Morocco) National Cricket Stadium

Geography

Bay of Tangier Parc de la Mendoubia Colline du Charf Cape Spartel Cape Malabata

v t e

Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
region

Capital: Tangier

Prefectures and provinces

Al Hoceima
Al Hoceima
Province Chefchaouen
Chefchaouen
Province Fahs-Anjra Province Larache
Larache
Province M'diq- Fnideq
Fnideq
Prefecture Ouezzane
Ouezzane
Province Tangier-Assilah Prefecture Tetouan Province

Cities

Al Hoceima Asilah Bab Taza Bni Bouayach Brikcha Chefchawn Fnideq Jebha Imzouren Karia Ba Mohamed Khemis Sahel Ksar El Kbir Ksar es-Seghir Larache Martil M'dyaq Moqrisset Ouad Laou Ouezzane Tangier Targuist Tétouan Zoumi

v t e

Prefectures and provinces of Morocco

Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima

Prefectures

Tangier-Assilah M'diq-Fnideq

Provinces

Fahs-Anjra Tétouan Al Hoceïma Larache Chefchaouen Ouezzane

Oriental

Prefecture

Oujda-Angad

Provinces

Berkane Taourirt Jerada Figuig Nador Driouch Guercif

Fès-Meknès

Prefectures

Fès Meknès

Provinces

Boulemane Sefrou Moulay Yacoub El Hajeb Ifrane Taounate Taza

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra

Prefectures

Rabat Salé Skhirate-Témara

Provinces

Kénitra Khémisset Sidi Kacem Sidi Slimane

Béni Mellal-Khénifra

Provinces

Béni-Mellal Khouribga Khénifra Azilal Fquih Ben Salah

Casablanca-Settat

Prefectures

Casablanca Mohammedia

Provinces

Settat Berrechid Benslimane Sidi Bennour Nouaceur Médiouna El Jadida

Marrakesh-Safi

Prefecture

Marrakesh

Provinces

Al Haouz Chichaoua El Kelâa des Sraghna Essaouira Safi Rehamna Youssoufia

Drâa-Tafilalet

Provinces

Errachidia Zagora Midelt Ouarzazate Tinghir

Souss-Massa

Prefectures

Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane Inezgane-Aït Melloul

Provinces

Taroudant Tiznit Chtouka Aït Baha Tata

Guelmim-Oued Noun

Provinces

Assa-Zag Guelmim Tan-Tan Sidi Ifni

Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra

Provinces

Laâyoune Tarfaya Boujdour Es Semara

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab

Provinces

Aousserd Oued Ed-Dahab

v t e

Romano-Berber cities in Roman North Africa

Morocco

Anfa Iulia Constantia Zilil Iulia Valentia Banasa Iulia Campestris Babba Lixus 2 Mogador Sala 1 Tamuda
Tamuda
1 Thamusida Tingi Volubilis
Volubilis
1

Algeria

Aquae Calidae Albulae Altava Auzia Calama Caesarea Cartennas Castellum Dimmidi Castellum Tingitanum Castra Nova Cirta Civitas Popthensis Collo Cohors Breucorum Cuicul
Cuicul
1 Diana Veteranorum Gemellae Gunugus Hippo Regius Icosium
Icosium
1 Igilgili Iomnium Lamasba Lambaesis Madauros Mascula Mesarfelta Milevum Numerus Syrorum Oppidum Novum Parthenia Pomaria Portus Divinus Portus Magnus Quiza Xenitana Rapidum Rusazu Rusguniae Rusucurru Saldae Setifis Siga Thagaste Thamugadi
Thamugadi
1 Theveste Thibilis Thubursicum Tiddis Tingartia Tipasa
Tipasa
1 Tubusuctu Tubunae Unica Colonia Uzinaza Vescera Zaraï Zuccabar

Tunisia

Althiburos Bulla Regia Capsa Carthago 1 Cillium Dougga
Dougga
1 Gightis Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
1 Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Leptis Parva Mactaris Pheradi Majus Pupput Rucuma Ruspae Scillium Sicca Simitthus Sufetula Tacapae Taparura Sufes Thabraca Thanae Thapsus Thuburbo Majus Thuburnica Thysdrus Turris Tamalleni Utica Uthina Vaga Zama Regia

Libya

Cydamus
Cydamus
1 Gerisa Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
1 Oea Sabratha
Sabratha
1

Spain

Septem Rusadir

Kingdoms and Provinces

Mauretania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Numidia Roman Africa Creta et Cyrenaica Roman Egypt Diocese of Africa Zeugitana Byzacena Vandal Kingdom Praetorian prefecture of Africa Exarchate of Africa

Related articles

North Africa
North Africa
during Antiquity African Romance Limes Tripolitanus Christianity in Roman Africa

1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites 2 Proposed

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Coordinates: 35°46′N 5°48′W / 35.767°N 5.800°W / 35.767; -5.800

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152467358 GND: 4105771-5 BNF:

.