Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil
Mother" is the state song/anthem.
^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed
Tamil Nadu on 14 January 1969
^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as
an additional official language for communication purposes.
Srivilliputhur Andal temple
"Invocation to Goddess Tamil"
Tamil Nadu (Tamil pronunciation: [t̪amiɻ
n̪aːᶑu] ( listen) literally 'The Land of Tamils' or
'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and
largest city is
Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu
lies in the southernmost part of the
Indian Peninsula and is bordered
by the union territory of
Puducherry and the South Indian states of
Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern
Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and
the west, by the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal in the east, by the
Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar and
Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the
south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh-largest state in
India by area and the
sixth-most populous. The state was ranked sixth among states in India
according to the
Human Development Index
Human Development Index in 2011, and is the
second-largest state economy in
India with ₹15.96 lakh crore
(US$240 billion) in gross domestic product after
Tamil Nadu was ranked as one of the top seven
developed states in
India based on a "Multidimensional Development
Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving
classical languages in the world.
Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources. In addition, its people
have developed and continue to develop classical arts, classical
music, and classical literature. The state is also home to a number of
historic buildings and religious sites including
Hindu temples of
Tamil architecture, historic hill stations, multi-religious pilgrimage
sites, and eight
UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
1.2 Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500 BCE
Sangam period (300 BCE – 300 CE)
1.5 Medieval period (600–1300)
1.5.1 Chola Empire
1.6 Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)
1.7 Power struggles of the 18th century (1692–1801)
1.8 During British rule (1801–1947)
3 Flora and fauna
4 National and state parks
5 Governance and administration
6 Administrative subdivisions
12.2 Festivals and traditions
12.4 Film industry
12.5 Television industry
13.2 Textiles and leather
13.4 Heavy industries and engineering
13.5 Electronics and software
17 See also
20 External links
Main article: History of Tamil Nadu
Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest
continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam,
archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated
ancient stone tools which suggests that humanlike population exists in
Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 ago before homo sapiens
arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi)
from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of
India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls,
skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the
Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have
proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil
Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site
for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total
epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in
India are from Tamil
Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language.
A new study of Indigenous Australian DNA suggests there was some form
of migration from
India to Australia about 4,000 years ago.
Genetic evidence suggests that just over 4 millennia ago a group of
Indian travellers landed in Australia and stayed. The evidence emerged
a few years ago after a group of Aboriginal men’s Y chromosomes
matched with Y chromosomes typically found in Indian men. The study
found a pattern of SNPs that is found in genetics of Dravidian
speakers from South India.
Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500 BCE
Neolithic stone celt (a hand-held axe) with the
Indus script on it
was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near
Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu.
According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first
datable artefact bearing the
Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu.
According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the
Harappan language, and therefore that the "
Neolithic people of the
Tamil country spoke a Harappan language". The date of the celt was
estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. .
Sangam period (300 BCE – 300 CE)
Main articles: Sangam period, Tamilakam, and Sangam landscape
Agastya father of Tamil literature, Sangam period
The early history of the people and rulers of
Tamil Nadu is a topic in
Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic,
archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period
lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300. The recent
Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that
Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in
Sambandar, one of the sixty-three Nayanars, (
Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India
and spread northwards through India. The
Bhakti Movement was a rapid
growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the
(4th–10th centuries) and the
Alvars who spread bhakti
poetry and devotion. The
instrumental in propagating the
Medieval period (600–1300)
Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the
Kaveri River in
Karikala Chola around the 2nd century
Shore Temple built by the
Mamallapuram during the 8th
century, now a
UNESCO World Heritage Site
During the 4th to 8th centuries,
Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the
Pallava dynasty under
Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla
Narasimhavarman I. The
Pallavas ruled parts of South
Kanchipuram as their capital.
Tamil architecture reached its peak
during Pallava rule.
Narasimhavarman II built the
Shore Temple which
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Meenakshi Amman Temple
Much later, the
Pallavas were replaced by the
Chola dynasty as the
dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by
Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai
was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade
links with the south east Asian maritime empires of
their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic
contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th
Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in
existence. Temples such as the
Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple at
Nellaiappar Temple at
Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan
temple architecture. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and
literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast
of India, between
Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the
finest pearls in the known ancient world.
Main article: Chola dynasty
Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra
Chola I in 1030
During the 9th century, the
Chola dynasty was once again revived by
Vijayalaya Chola, who established
Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by
Tamil Nadu from
Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king
Aditya I and his son
Parantaka I expanded the
kingdom to the northern parts of
Tamil Nadu by defeating the last
Pallava king, Aparajitavarman.
Parantaka Chola II
Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola
empire into what is now interior
Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka,
while under the great
Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the
Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia. Now the Chola
Empire stretched as far as
Bengal and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the
empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi).
Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south
India and parts of
Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts
from Burma (now ) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Philippines in South East Asia
and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to
commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it
Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the
first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen
of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son
Aditya I built several
temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The
Cholas went on
to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing
religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples
and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common
socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated
Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at
special significance for the
Cholas which have been mentioned in their
inscriptions as their tutelary deities.
Rajaraja Chola I and his son
Rajendra Chola built temples such as the
Brihadeshvara Temple of
Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the
Airavatesvara Temple of
Darasuram and the
Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple,
also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two
temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above
four temples are titled
Great Living Chola Temples
Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.
Architecture from Chola period From left to right: Airavatesvara
Temple at Darasuram; Natarajan, Shiva as celestial dancer; and
Parvathi, the consort of Shiva
Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal at Madurai
The Muslim invasions of southern
India triggered the establishment of
Vijayanagara Empire with
Vijayanagara in modern
its capital. The
Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire
Tamil country by c. 1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its
defeat in the
Battle of Talikota
Battle of Talikota in 1565 by a confederacy of Deccan
sultanates. Subsequently, as the
Vijayanagara Empire went into decline
after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called Nayaks,
succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually
resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared
themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of
Madurai and Tanjore
were the first to declare their independence, despite initially
maintaining loose links with the
Vijayanagara kingdom. The Nayaks
Madurai and Nayaks of
Thanjavur were the most prominent of Nayaks
in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples
Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple.
Power struggles of the 18th century (1692–1801)
By the early 18th century, the political scene in
Tamil Nadu saw a
major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers
aspiring to be independent. The fall of the
Vijayanagara empire and
the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to
expand into the Tamil heartland. When the sultanate was incorporated
into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil
Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat
Arcot from 1715 onward. Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the
Thanjavur Nayaks led to a short lived
Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. The
fall of the
Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern
Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams. The
chieftains of these Palayams were known as
Palaiyakkarar (or 'polygar'
as called by British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the
Fort Dansborg at
Tharangambadi built by the Danish
Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century
in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established a
settlement in Pulicat, while the
Danes had their establishment in
Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar. In 1639, the British,
under the East
India Company, established a settlement further south
of Pulicat, in present-day Chennai. British constructed Fort St.
George and established a trading post at Madras. By 1693, the
French established in trading posts at Pondichéry. The British and
French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of
Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash
as part of the Seven Years' War. British reduced the French
India to Puducherry. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax
revenue collection rights on the East
India Company for defeating the
Kingdom of Mysore. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his
territory to the East
India Company which firmly established the
British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty was signed
Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur
became a vassal of the
Nawab of the Carnatic
Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to
In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led
to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in
series of wars called
Polygar war to establish independent states by
the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.
Puli Thevar was one of the earliest
opponents of the British rule in South India. Thevar's prominent
exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later
rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Rani
Velu Nachiyar, was the first woman freedom fighter of
India and Queen
of Sivagangai. She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu
Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of
Sivaganga was murdered at
Kalayar Kovil temple by British. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi
granted powers to the
Maruthu brothers to rule Sivaganga.
Kattabomman (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who
fought the British in the First Polygar War. He was captured by
the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799.
Veeran Sundaralingam (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman
Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British
ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to
save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman,
took asylum under the Maruthu brothers, Periya Marudhu and Chinna
Marudhu and raised an army. They formed a coalition with Dheeran
Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in
Second Polygar Wars.
Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar
chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who fought the British
in the Second Polygar War. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the
India Company consolidated most of southern
India into the Madras
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Gopuram has been adopted as the official
Seal of Tamil Nadu
During British rule (1801–1947)
Main article: Madras Presidency
At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established
governance over the entire Tamil Nadu. The
Vellore mutiny on 10 July
1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by
Indian sepoys against the British East
India Company, predating the
Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. The revolt, which took
place in Vellore, was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as
mutineers broke into the
Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200
British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby
Arcot. The British crown took over the control governance from
the Company and the remainder of the 19th century did not witness any
native resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian
Independence movements. During the administration of Governor George
Harris(1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and
increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative
powers given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act
1861 and 1909
Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment
of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and
administrative shortcomings of the
Ryotwari system resulted in two
severe famine in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78
and the Indian famine of 1896–97. The famine led to migration of
people as bonded labours for British to various countries which
eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora.
India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras
state, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal
Andhra Pradesh up to
Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts
of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines.
In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning "Tamil
Topographic map of Tamil Nadu
Western Ghats traverse along the western border of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2
(50,216 sq mi), and is eleventh largest state in India. The
bordering states are
Kerala to the west,
Karnataka to the north west
Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal and
the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The
southernmost tip of the
Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the
meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian
The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich
in vegetation. The
Western Ghats and the
Eastern Ghats meet at the
Nilgiri hills. The
Western Ghats traverse the entire western border
with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of
the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are
fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and
plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and
receive less rainfall than the other regions.
Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest coastline at about
906.9 km (563.5 mi). Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the
brunt of the 2004
Indian Ocean tsunami
Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused
7,793 direct deaths in the state.
Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region
of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas
that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of
Indian Standards (BIS) map,
Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III.
Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity
in the M5.0 range.
Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone
to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges
from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of
south west monsoon from June to September, with strong southwest
North east monsoon from October to December, with dominant north east
The annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2 in)
of which 48 per cent is through the north east monsoon, and 32 per
cent through the south west monsoon. Since the state is entirely
dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon
failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought. Tamil
Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: north east, north
west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Kaveri
Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone).
Flora and fauna
Wildlife of Tamil Nadu
Wildlife of Tamil Nadu and List of birds of Tamil Nadu
There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil
Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including
elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs,
lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langurs, Nilgiri tahrs, grizzled giant
squirrels and sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as
cormorants, darters, herons, egrets, open-billed storks, spoonbills
and white ibises, little grebes, Indian moorhen, black-winged stilts,
a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans, marine species
such as the dugongs, turtles, dolphins,
Balanoglossus and a wide
variety of fish and insects.
Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu
leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for
1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of
medicinal plants, 533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives
of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species. The Gymnosperm
diversity of the country is 64 species of which
Tamil Nadu has four
indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes
India includes 1022 species of which
Tamil Nadu has about
184 species. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae and
bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.
Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus,
rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (
Bambusa arundinacea), common teak,
Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like
Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Rare and unique plant life
includes Combretum ovalifolium, ebony (Diospyros nilagrica), Habenaria
rariflora (orchid), Alsophila,
Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus
reniformis, and royal fern.
National and state parks
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve has the largest elephant population in
Protected areas of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu has a wide range of
Biomes extending east from the South
Western Ghats montane rain forests in the
Western Ghats through the
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub
forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches,
estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, and coral reefs of the Bay of
Bengal. The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and
habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected
Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas
of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The Gulf
of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem
with seaweed and sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and
mangrove forests. The
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western
Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala
and Karnataka. The
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the south west
of the state bordering
Kerala in the Western Ghats.
Tamil Nadu is home
to five declared National parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai,
Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar and Guindy located in the centre of Chennai
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve,
Mukurthi National Park
Mukurthi National Park and
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the
Governance and administration
Government of Tamil Nadu
Government of Tamil Nadu and
Tamil Nadu Legislature
Madras High Court, Chennai
The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the Chief
Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of
Chief Justice of the
Madras High Court
Madras High Court is the head
of the judiciary. The present Governor,
Chief Minister and the
Chief Justice are
Banwarilal Purohit (governor), Edappadi K.
Palaniswami and Indira Banerjee respectively. Administratively
the state is divided into 32 district.
Chennai (formerly known as
Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest urban
India and is also one of the major Metropolitan
cities of India. The state comprises 39
Lok Sabha constituencies and
234 Legislative Assembly constituencies.
Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was
replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in
India. The term length of the government is five years. The present
government is headed by Edappadi K. Palaniswami, after the demise of
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu,
J. Jayalalithaa of the All India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The
Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is
housed at the
Fort St. George
Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the
President's rule on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977,
next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest
Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of
E-Governance initiatives in
India. A large part of the government records like land ownership
records are digitised and all major offices of the state government
like Urban Local Bodies – all the corporations and municipal
office activities – revenue collection, land registration
offices, and transport offices have been computerised.
Tamil Nadu is
one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely
Tamil Nadu Police
Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old.
It is the fifth largest state police force in
India (as of 2015, total
police force of TN is 1,11,448) and has the highest proportion of
women police personnel in the country (total women police personnel of
TN is 13,842 which is about 12.42%) to specifically handled violence
against women in Tamil Nadu. In 2003, the state had a total
police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Districts of Tamil Nadu and Local bodies in Tamil Nadu
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 32 districts, which are listed below. A
district is administered by a
District Collector who is mostly an
Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service (IAS) member, appointed by State
Government. Districts are further divided into 226 Taluks
administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks. A District
has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) constituted by
many Revenue Blocks. 16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are
the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might
include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative
Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns
are administered by
Municipal corporations and Municipalities
respectively. The urban bodies include 12 city corporations, 125
municipalities and 529 town panchayats. The rural bodies
include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Main articles: Elections in Tamil Nadu, Politics of Tamil Nadu, and
Fort St. George
Fort St. George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil
Prior to Indian independence
Tamil Nadu was under British colonial
rule as part of the Madras Presidency. The main party in
Tamil Nadu at
that time was the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress (INC). Regional parties
have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional
parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to
Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was
called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents.
South Indian Liberal Federation
South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official
name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the
non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of
The Justice Party which was under E.V.Ramaswamy was renamed Dravidar
Kazhagam in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the
establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However,
due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and C.N. Annadurai,
the party was split.
Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956.
Source: Election Commission of India.
Source:Census of India
Main article: Demographics of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 48.4 per cent
of the state's population live in urban areas, the second highest
percentage among large states in India. The state has registered the
lowest fertility rate in
India in year 2005–06 with 1.7 children
born for each woman, lower than required for population
At the 2011
Tamil Nadu had a population of
72,147,030. The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975
males and 36,009,055 females. There are a total of 23,166,721
households. The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832. A
total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total
population belonged to
Scheduled Castes (SC) and 794,697 people
constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled
The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per
cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819
cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold
industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers,
377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural
labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and
929,733 other marginal workers.
Largest cities or towns in Tamil Nadu
As of the 2011 Census
Salem, Tamil Nadu
List of most populous towns in Tamil Nadu
Among the cities in 2011, the state capital, Chennai, was the most
populous city in the state, followed by Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy
and Salem respectively.
India has a human development index
calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for
Tamil Nadu is
0.736, placing it among the top states in the country. The
life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is
67.6 years. However, it has a high level of poverty especially in
the rural areas. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at ₹
351.86/month for rural areas and ₹ 547.42/month for urban areas.
Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per
cent in 2001 For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of
Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national
figure of 27.5 per cent. The World Bank is currently assisting the
state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of
secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the
population. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and
urban-rural disparities. Based on URP – Consumption for the
period 2004–2005, percentage of the state's population Below Poverty
Line was 27.5 per cent. The Oxford
Poverty & Human Development
Tamil Nadu to have a Multidimensional
of 0.141, which is in the level of Ghana among the developing
countries. Corruption is a major problem in the state with
Transparency International ranking it the second most corrupt among
the states of India.
Tamil Nadu (2011)
Other or not religious (0.3%)
As per the religious census of 2011,
Tamil Nadu had 87.6% Hindus, 6.1%
Christians, 5.9% Muslims, 0.1% Jains and 0.3% following other
religions or no religion.
Main article: Tamil language
Tamil (தமிழ்) is the official language of Tamil Nadu. When
India adopted national standards, Tamil was the first language to be
recognised as a classical language of India. As of
2001 census, Tamil is spoken as the first language by 89.43 percent of
Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Tamil Nadu
has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the
decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham
Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent Gross
Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. One of
the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the
rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent
is significant. The analysis of primary school education in the
Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but poor quality of state
education compared to other states.
Tamil Nadu has 37
universities, 552 engineering colleges 449 Polytechnic
Colleges and 566 arts and science colleges, 34335 elementary
schools, 5167 high schools, 5054 higher secondary schools and 5000
hospitals. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil
Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, College of
Engineering, Guindy, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli,
St. Joseph’s Institute of Management
St. Joseph’s Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Indian
Maritime University, National Institute of Technology,
Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Madras
Medical College, Loyola College, Chennai, Ethiraj College for Women,
Stella Maris College, Chennai, Anna University, Government College of
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions
for socially backward section of the society, the highest among all
Indian states. The
Midday Meal Scheme
Midday Meal Scheme programme in
Tamil Nadu was
first initiated by Kamaraj, then it was expanded by M G Ramachandran
Main articles: Tamil people, Temples of Tamil Nadu, and Tamil
Seventh century paintings in the Sittanavasal Cave, Pudukottai
Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu
is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance
which continue to flourish today.
Tamil Nadu is a land most known for
its monumental ancient
Hindu temples and classical form of dance
Bharata Natyam. Unique cultural features like Bharatanatyam
(dance), Tanjore painting, and
Tamil architecture were developed
and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu. 
Tamil written literature has existed for over 2000 years. The
earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from
ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It is the oldest Indian literature
amongst all others. The earliest epigraphic records found on rock
edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BC.
Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not
becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature
collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom
Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing
with everyday themes in a
Tamilakam context. The Sangam
literature also deals with human relationship and emotions. The
available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in
the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The
Pathinenmaelkanakku (The Major Eighteen Anthology
Series) comprising Eṭṭuttokai (The Eight Anthologies) and the
Pattupattu (Ten Idylls) and
Pathinenkilkanakku (The Minor Eighteen
Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known
grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam. Modern Tamil writing is
largely based on the 1000 B.C grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and
clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications.
Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu,
sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied
in poetry. Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural
Tiruvalluvar before 2000 years.
In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script
named 'Thambiraan Vanakkam', thus making Tamil the first Indian
language to be printed and published. Tamil Lexicon, published by
the University of Madras, is the first among the dictionaries
published in any Indian language. During the Indian freedom
struggle, many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national
spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man,
Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasan.
Festivals and traditions
Pongal is an important festival in Tamil Nadu
Thiruvalluvar was the great Tamil poet and philosopher
Pongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or
Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is
one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil
Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi
Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai
will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with
reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated
by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting
them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The
second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day
of the tenth Tamil month Thai (14 January or 15 January in western
calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to
the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the
lands.Jallikattu, a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this
Alanganallur is famous for its Jallikattu contest
usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum
Pongal – the word "kaanum", means 'to view' in Tamil. In 2011
Madras High Court
Madras High Court Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and
Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the
Pongal festival while
disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.
The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day
of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The
Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar,
i.e. Gregorian 2000 is
Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated
on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising
of the water level in the river Kaveri. Apart from the major
festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants
celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies
from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the
goddess Maariyamman, the mother goddess of rain. Other major Hindu
Deepavali (Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai,
Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara),
Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi
are also celebrated. Eid ul-Fitr, Bakrid, Milad un Nabi, Muharram are
Muslims whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are
Christians in the state. Mahamagam a bathing festival at
Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from
all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival.
This festival is also called as Kumbamela of South.
Ancient Tamil music
Ancient Tamil music and Carnatic music
M. S. Subbulakshmi, was the first musician to be awarded the Bharat
Ratna, India's highest civilian honour
In terms of modern cine-music,
Ilaiyaraaja was a prominent composer of
film music in
Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work
highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical
sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream.
Tamil Nadu is
also the home of the double Oscar Winner A.R. Rahman
who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi films, English and
Chinese films. He was once referred to by Time magazine as "The Mozart
Main article: Tamil cinema
Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as
"Kollywood", which released the most number of films in
2013. The term Kollywood is a portmanteau of
Tamil cinema is one of the largest industries of film
production in India. In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are
regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a
maximum of ₹50, while theaters with more than three screens may
charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket. The first silent film in
Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916. The first talkie was a
multi-lingual film, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely
7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara. Swamikannu
Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South
India in Coimbatore,
introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on
a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films.
The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's
Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons
were used for motion picture projectors.
There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in Tamil.
DD Podhigai, Doordarshan's
Tamil language regional channel was
launched on 14 April 1993. The first private Tamil channel, Sun
TV was founded in 1993 by Kalanidhi Maran. In Tamil Nadu, the
television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the
channels are owned by politicians or people with political links.
The government of
Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families
in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$55 million) of
which has led to high penetration of TV services. Cable used
to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government
run operator Arasu Cable. From the early 2010s, Direct to Home
has become increasingly popular replacing cable television
services. Tamil television serials form a major prime time source
of entertainment and are directed usually by one director unlike
American television series, where often several directors and writers
Vegetarian food from
Tamil Nadu served in a banana leaf
Main article: Tamil cuisine
Items that are native to
Tamil Nadu are Santhakai/Sandhavai,
Pongal and Kuli Paniyaram. Salem is renowned for
its unique mangoes,
Madurai is the place of origin of milk dessert
Palani is known for its Panchamirtham. Coffee
and tea are the staple drinks.
Main articles: Economy of Tamil Nadu, List of conglomerates in Tamil
Nadu, and List of rivers of Tamil Nadu
TIDEL Park, Coimbatore;
Coimbatore is one of the leading IT/ITS
centres in India
For the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu's GSDP was ₹9.767 trillion
(US$150 billion), and growth was 14.86. It ranks third in
foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of
₹ 225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra
Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the
country. The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was
₹ 72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10
million and has steadily been above the national average.
Gross State Domestic Product in ₹ Crores at Constant Prices
Share in India
According to the 2011 Census,
Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state
India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban
population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total
population. Services contributes to 45 per cent of the
economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per
cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. Government is the major investor
in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by
private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private
investors at 14.9 per cent.
Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113
industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting
infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu
government the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base
year 2004–2005) for the year 2011–2012 is ₹4.281 trillion
(US$66 billion), an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous
year. The per capita income at current price is ₹ 72,993.
Tamil Nadu has six Nationalised Home Banks which originated in this
state; Two government-sector banks
Indian Bank and Indian Overseas
Bank in Chennai, and Four private-sector banks
City Union Bank
City Union Bank in
Karur Vysya Bank,
Lakshmi Vilas Bank
Lakshmi Vilas Bank in Karur, and
Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited
Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited in Tuticorin.
Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a
leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil
Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice. The total cultivated
area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10.
The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil
Nadu.[better source needed] In terms of production,
Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in
vegetables, in India. Annual food grains production in the year
2007–08 was 10035,000 mt.
Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of turmeric
The state is the largest producer of bananas, turmeric, flowers,
tapioca, the second largest producer of mango, natural
rubber, coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of
coffee, sapota, Tea and Sugarcane. Tamil Nadu's sugarcane
yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000
hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in
Agriculture forms a major portion of state's economy
Dr M.S. Swaminathan, known as the "father of the Indian Green
Revolution" was from Tamil Nadu.
Tamil Nadu Agricultural
University with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations
spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop
varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension
agencies. Among states in India,
Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in
livestock, poultry and fisheries production.
Tamil Nadu had the second
largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for
17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India. In
Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of eggs,
which was the second highest in
India representing 9.37 per cent of
the total egg production in the country. With the second longest
coastline in India,
Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total
value of fish and fishery products exported by
India in 2006. Namakkal
is also one of the major centres of egg production in India.
Coimbatore is one of the major centres for poultry
Textiles and leather
Kanchipuram hand loom silk sarees
Tamil Nadu is one of the leading States in the textile sector and it
houses the country's largest spinning industry accounting for almost
80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to
yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total
production in the country. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25
per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units
(40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According
to official data, the textile industry in
Tamil Nadu accounts for 17
per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries.
Coimbatore is often referred to as the "
Manchester of South India" due
to its cotton production and textile industries.
Tirupur is the
country's largest exporter of knitwear. for its cotton
production. The region around Coimbatore, Tirupur, Palladam,
Erode is referred to[by whom?] as the "Textile Valley of India" with
the export from the
Tirupur ₹ 50,000 million ($1,000 million)
Karur generates around ₹ 35,500 million ($750 million) a
year in foreign exchange. Rajapalayam, Gobichettipalayam, Pollachi,
Theni and Vedasandur are known for its cotton spinning
Gobichettipalayam is a prominent producer of white silk with
the country's first automated silk reeling unit present here.
Kanchipuram and Arani are world-famous for their pure silk sarees and
hand loom silk weaving industries. Aruppukottai, Salem, and
Sathyamangalam are also famous for art-silk sarees. Rajapalayam,
Srivilliputhur, Sankarankovil, Andipatti, Tiruchengodu, Paramakudi,
Komarapalayam are major handloom centres.
Rajapalayam, Srivilliputhur, Sankarankovil, Negamam, Cinnalapatti,
Woraiyur, Pochampalli are famous for its soft cotton saree weaving.
Madurai is known for its Chungidi cotton sarees and Bhavani for its
Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over
many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks,
tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres
and heavy vehicles.
Chennai is known as the Detroit of India.
Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch,
Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin
as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra,
Ashok Leyland, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal
Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors,
DaimlerChrysler AG Company
also invested (₹) 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil
Heavy industries and engineering
Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Over
11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in
Tamil Nadu. Many heavy engineering and manufacturing companies are
located in and around the suburbs of Chennai. Bharat Heavy
Electricals, one of India's largest electrical equipment manufacturing
companies, has manufacturing plants at
Tiruchirapalli and Ranipet.
India's leading steel producer, the state-owned Steel Authority of
India has a steel plant in Salem.
Sterlite Industries has a copper
Tuticorin and an aluminium plant in Mettur. The Chennai
Petroleum Corporation is a state-owned oil and gas corporation
headquartered in Chennai, and owns refineries at Manali and Panangudi.
The state government owns the
Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers, in
Karur. Jointly with the Tata Group, the state owns the world's sixth
largest manufacturer of watches, under the brand name of Titan, at
Hosur. A number of large cement manufacturers, including the Chettinad
Group, Ramco Cements, Tancem, the Dalmia Group, UltraTech Cements and
ACC are present across the state.
Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies
two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is
one of the largest exporters of wet grinders and auto components and
the term "
Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical
TIDEL Park in Chennai
Electronics and software
Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with
many international companies like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola,
Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer, Lenovo, Samsung,
Texas Instruments having chosen
Chennai as their
south Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit
boards and cellular phone handsets.
Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India.
Software exports from
Tamil Nadu grew from ₹ 76 billion ($1.6
billion) in 2003–04 to ₹ 207 billion $5 billion by
2006–07 according to NASSCOM and to ₹ 366 billion in
2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according
to STPI. Major national and global IT Companies such as Syntel,
Infosys, Wipro, HCL, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon,
Hewlett-Packard, Bosch, Amazon.com, eBay, PayPal, IBM, Accenture,
Ramco Systems, DXC Technology,
Cognizant Technology solutions, Tech
Mahindra, Polaris, Aricent, MphasiS, Mindtree, Hexaware Technologies
and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. The top engineering
Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT
firms. According to estimates, about 50 per cent of the HR required
for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the State.
Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in the state, next
A view of the NH 47 Expressway between
Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil
Pamban road (left) and rail (right) bridges, connecting the Indian
mainland with the Pamban Island
Nilgiri Mountain Railway
Chennai International Airport, one of India's major international
Transport in Tamil Nadu
Transport in Tamil Nadu and Road network in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the
state.TNSTC Online Booking
Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive
road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural
market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the
state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km
(3,110.67 mi). The state is also a terminus for the
Golden Quadrilateral project, that connects Indian metropolises like
(New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru,
Chennai and Kolkata). The state has a
total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which
60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by Highways Department.
This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-
network. The major road junctions are Chennai, Vellore, Madurai,
Trichy, Coimbatore, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri,
Dindigul, Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned
Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation
Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport
Corporation. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24
hours a day. The State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in
the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road
accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries,
according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and
Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road
accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of
fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a
sustained awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased
from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.
Tamil Nadu has four international airports namely Chennai
Coimbatore International Airport,
Tiruchirapalli International Airport and
Airport. Salem Airport and
Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports.
Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and
aviation hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has
four air bases of the
Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force namely
Thanjavur AFS, Tambram
Coimbatore AFS and two naval air stations
INS Rajali and INS
Parundu of Indian Navy.
Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and
Tuticorin, as well as seven other minor ports including
Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on
the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country
for handling containers.
Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore
traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per
cent during 2005.
Wind farm in
Muppandal and Aralvaimozhi region near Nagercoil
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity
in the country. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal
Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants
Mettur Dam, hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural
Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. Tamil Nadu
generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable
sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW,
accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India
. It is presently adding the
Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant
Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant to
its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power
plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity. The total
installed capacity of electricity in the State by January 2014 was
Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based
thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34
per cent. From a power surplus state in 2005–06,
Tamil Nadu has
become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due
to lack of new power generation projects and delay in the commercial
power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. The Tuticorin
Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first
generator was commissioned in July 1979. The thermal power plants
under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW NLC TNEB Power
Plant. From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu
government's new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to
3000MW by 2016.
Main article: Sports in Tamil Nadu
Kabbadi, is recognised as the state game in Tamil Nadu. The
traditional sport of
Tamil Nadu include Silambam, a Tamil martial
arts played with a long bamboo staff, Cockfight, Jallikattu, a
bull taming sport famous on festival occasions, ox-wagon racing known
Kite flying also known as Pattam viduthal,
Goli, the game with marbles, Aadu Puli, the "goat and tiger"
Kabaddi also known as Sadugudu. Most of these
traditional sports are associated with festivals of land like Thai
Pongal and mostly played in rural areas. In urban areas of Tamil
Nadu, modern sports like bat and ball games are played. S.
Ilavazhagi carrom world champion from 2002–2016
The M. A.
Chidambaram Stadium chennai
Viswanathan Anand, world chess champion 2007–2013
The M. A.
Chidambaram Stadium in
Chennai is an international cricket
ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the
Tamil Nadu Cricket
Association. Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan,
Krishnamachari Srikkanth, Laxman Sivaramakrishnan,
Sadagoppan Ramesh, Laxmipathy Balaji, Murali Vijay,
Ravichandran Ashwin and
Dinesh Karthik are some prominent
cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The
MRF Pace Foundation in
Chennai is a
popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world.
Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular
in the state.
Chennai Super Kings represent the city of
Chennai in the
Indian Premier League, a popular
Twenty20 league. The Super Kings are
the most successful team in the league with two IPL titles and two
Tennis is also a popular sport in
Tamil Nadu with notable
international players including Ramesh Krishnan, Ramanathan
Krishnan, Vijay Amritraj and Mahesh Bhupathi. Nirupama
Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grandslam tournament
also hails from the state. The ATP
Chennai Open tournament is held in
Chennai every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu
(SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis stadium which hosts
Chennai Open and
Davis Cup play-off tournaments.
Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of Hockey in
Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that
won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The Mayor Radhakrishnan
Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded
International Hockey Federation
International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world
for its infrastructure.
Tamil Nadu also has Golf ground in Coimbatore, The
Club is an 18-hole golf course located in a place called Chettipalayam
in Coimbatore, located within the city limits in the state of Tamil
Nadu in India. The Club is also a popular venue for major Golf
Tournaments held in India.
The Sports Development Authority of
Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government
body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and
related infrastructure in the state. The SDAT owns and operates
world class stadiums and organises sporting events. It also
accommodates sporting events, both at domestic and international
level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The YMCA
College of Physical Education at Nandanam in
Chennai was established
in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. The
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in
Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting
football and track & field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation
and the Volleyball Federation of
India are headquartered in Chennai.
Chennai hosted India's first ever International Beach Volleyball
Championship in 2008. The SDAT – TNSRA Squash Academy in
Chennai is one of the very few academies in south Asia hosting
international squash events.Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Coimbatore, it
is a football stadium and also a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore
constructed in 1971.
Main article: Tourism in Tamil Nadu
Thanjavur is a
UNESCO world heritage site
Marina Beach, the longest urban beach in the country
The tourism industry of
Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an
annual growth rate of 16 per cent.
Tourism in Tamil Nadu
Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted
Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation
Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of
Tamil Nadu undertaking. According to Ministry of Tourism statistics,
4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country) and
333.5 million domestic tourists(23.3% share of the country)
visited the state in 2015 making it the most visited state in India
both domestic and foreign tourists. The state boasts some of the
Hindu temples built in Dravidian architecture. The Brihadishwara
Gangaikonda Cholapuram built by the Cholas,
the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram,the
Shore Temple and the
Arunachaleshwara Temple, Tiruvannamalai, along with the collection of
other monuments in
Mahabalipuram (also called Mamallapuram) have been
UNESCO World Heritage Sites..
Ramanathapuram district is one of the major Islamic tourist attraction
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Publications. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (2002) . A history of South
prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian
Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
Steever, Sanford (1998), "Introduction", in Steever, Sanford, The
Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 1–39,
"Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu", Tripoto, retrieved 2 November
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Animal: Nilgiri tahr
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