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Tajik (Dari: تاجيک‎: Tājīk, Tajik: Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin,[14] with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan. As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia.[14] Alternative names for the Tajiks
Tajiks
are Fārsī (Persian), Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Tajik: Деҳқон) literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and also described as a class of land-owning magnates during the Sassanid
Sassanid
and early Islamic period).[15][16] Not all Tajiks
Tajiks
speak a variety of modern Persian. They may speak any one of the extant Iranian languages. For example, the Tajiks
Tajiks
of China are actually Pamiris
Pamiris
and speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages and are distinct from more western Tajiks.[17][18]

Contents

1 History 2 Name 3 Location

3.1 Afghanistan 3.2 Tajikistan 3.3 Uzbekistan 3.4 Kazakhstan 3.5 Kyrgyzstan 3.6 Turkmenistan 3.7 Russia 3.8 Pakistan 3.9 China

4 Physical characteristics and genetics 5 Culture

5.1 Language 5.2 Religion

6 Recent developments

6.1 Cultural revival

7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Further information: Samanid
Samanid
Empire, Ghurid Empire, and Kartids

Monument of Amir
Amir
Ismail Samani. His reign saw the emergence of the Samanids as a powerful force and the spread of Sunni Islam
Islam
deep into Central Asia.

The Tajiks
Tajiks
are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian, concentrated in the Oxus
Oxus
Basin, the Farḡāna valley ( Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and parts of Uzbekistan) and on both banks of the upper Oxus, i.e., the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
(Mountain Badaḵšān, in Tajikistan) and northeastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Badaḵšān and Kābol).[19] Historically the Tajiks
Tajiks
were agriculturalists.[20] Contemporary Tajiks
Tajiks
are the descendants of ancient Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular the Sogdians and the Bactrians, and possibly other groups, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians and non-Iranian peoples.[21] According to Richard Nelson Frye, a leading historian of Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, and ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks.[22] In later works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose remnants are the Tajiks
Tajiks
in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them."[23] Regarding Tajiks, the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
states:

The Tajiks
Tajiks
are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. The ancestors of the Tajiks
Tajiks
constituted the core of the ancient population of Khwārezm (Khorezm) and Bactria, which formed part of Transoxania (Sogdiana). Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect that was used by the ancient Tajiks
Tajiks
eventually gave way to Farsi, a western dialect spoken in Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan.[24]

The geographical division between the eastern and western Iranians is often considered historically and currently to be the desert Dasht-e Kavir, situated in the center of the Iranian plateau.[citation needed] Name[edit]

The Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
(819–999) is considered as the first Tajik state[25]

According to Encyclopaedia Iranica:[19]

The most plausible and generally accepted origin of the word is Middle Persian tāzīk ‘Arab’ (cf. New Persian tāzi), or an Iranian (Sogdian or Parthian) cognate word. The Muslim armies that invaded Transoxiana early in the eighth century, conquering the Sogdian principalities and clashing with the Qarluq Turks
Qarluq Turks
(see Bregel, Atlas, Maps 8–10) consisted not only of Arabs, but also of Persian converts from Fārs and the central Zagros
Zagros
region (Bartol’d [Barthold], “Tadžiki,” pp. 455–57). Hence the Turks of Central Asia adopted a variant of the Iranian word, täžik, to designate their Muslim adversaries in general. For example, the rulers of the south Indian Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and Rashtrakuta dynasty
Rashtrakuta dynasty
also referred to the Arabs as "Tajika" in the 8th and 9th century.[26][27] By the eleventh century (Yusof Ḵāṣṣ-ḥājeb, Qutadḡu bilig, lines 280, 282, 3265), the Qarakhanid Turks
Qarakhanid Turks
applied this term more specifically to the Persian Muslims in the Oxus
Oxus
basin and Khorasan, who were variously the Turks’ rivals, models, overlords (under the Samanid
Samanid
Dynasty), and subjects (from Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
times on). Persian writers of the Ghaznavid, Seljuq and Atābak periods (ca. 1000–1260) adopted the term and extended its use to cover Persians in the rest of Greater Iran, now under Turkish rule, as early as the poet ʿOnṣori, ca. 1025 (Dabirsiāqi, pp. 3377, 3408). Iranians soon accepted it as an ethnonym, as is shown by a Persian court official’s referring to mā tāzikān “we Tajiks” (Bayhaqi, ed. Fayyāz, p. 594). The distinction between Turk and Tajik became stereotyped to express the symbiosis and rivalry of the (ideally) nomadic military executive and the urban civil bureaucracy (Niẓām al-Molk: tāzik, pp. 146, 178–79; Fragner, “Tādjīk. 2” in EI2 10, p. 63).

According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, however, the oldest known usage of the word Tajik as a reference to Persians in Persian literature can be found in the writings of the Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Rumi.[28] The 15th century Turkic-speaking poet Mīr Alī Šer Navā'ī also used Tajik as a reference to Persians.[29] An example for the usage of the word Tajik in Persian literature is, for example, the writing of Sa'adi:

شایَد کِه بَه پادشاه بگویند ترک تو بریخت خون تاجیک

Šâyad ki ba pâdšâh bigoyand Turke tu birext xune Tâjik

It's appropriate to tell the King, Your Turk shed the blood of Tajik

Location[edit]

Tajik young girls during Navrūz They are holding sprouting plants which symbolize rebirth.

Tajiks
Tajiks
Celebrate Nawrooz in Afghanistan. Haft-Seen, White House ceremony for new Persian Year, prepared by Laura Bush.

The Tajiks
Tajiks
are the principal ethnic group in most of Tajikistan, as well as in northern and western Afghanistan, though there are more Tajiks
Tajiks
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
than in Tajikistan. Tajiks
Tajiks
are a substantial minority in Uzbekistan, as well as in overseas communities. Historically, the ancestors of the Tajiks
Tajiks
lived in a larger territory in Central Asia than now. Afghanistan[edit] Main article: Demography of Afghanistan

Burhanuddin Rabbani
Burhanuddin Rabbani
served as President of Afghanistan

According to the World Factbook, Tajiks
Tajiks
make up about 27% of the population in Afghanistan,[2] but according to other sources they are from 37%-39% of the population.[30] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica claims that they constitute about one-fifth of the population.[31] They are predominant in four of the largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, and Ghazni) and make up the largest ethnic group in the northern and western provinces of Balkh, Takhar, Badakhshan, Samangan, Parwan, Panjshir, Kapisa, Baghlan, Ghor, Badghis and Herat. In Afghanistan, the Tajiks
Tajiks
do not organize themselves by tribes and refer to themselves by the region, province, city, town, or village that they are from; such as Badakhshi, Baghlani, Mazari, Panjsheri, Kabuli, Herati, Kohistani etc.[32] Although in the past, some non- Pashto
Pashto
speaking tribes were identified as Tajik, for example the Furmuli.[33][34] Tajikistan[edit] Main article: Demographics of Tajikistan Tajiks
Tajiks
comprise around 84.3% of the population of Tajikistan.[3] This number includes speakers of the Pamiri languages, including Wakhi and Shughni, and the Yaghnobi people
Yaghnobi people
who in the past were considered by the government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
nationalities separate from the Tajiks. In the 1926 and 1937 Soviet censuses, the Yaghnobis and Pamiri language speakers were counted as separate nationalities. After 1937, these groups were required to register as Tajiks.[35] Uzbekistan[edit] Main article: Demographics of Uzbekistan

View of the Registan in Samarkand – although the second largest city of Uzbekistan, it is predominantly a Tajik populated city, along with Bukhara

In Uzbekistan, the Tajiks
Tajiks
are the largest part of the population of the ancient cities of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand, and are found in large numbers in the Surxondaryo Province
Surxondaryo Province
in the south and along Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. According to official statistics (2000), Surxondaryo Province
Surxondaryo Province
accounts for 24.4% of all Tajiks
Tajiks
in Uzbekistan, with another 34.3% in Samarqand and Bukhara provinces.[36] Official statistics in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
state that the Tajik community comprises 5% of the nation's total population.[37] However, these numbers do not include ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
who, for a variety of reasons, choose to identify themselves as Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in population census forms.[38] During the Soviet "Uzbekization" supervised by Sharof Rashidov, the head of the Uzbek Communist Party, Tajiks
Tajiks
had to choose either stay in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and get registered as Uzbek in their passports or leave the republic for Tajikistan, which is mountainous and less agricultural.[39] It is only in the last population census (1989) that the nationality could be reported not according to the passport, but freely declared on the basis of the respondent's ethnic self-identification.[40] This had the effect of increasing the Tajik population in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
from 3.9% in 1979 to 4.7% in 1989. Expert estimates suggest that Tajiks
Tajiks
may make up 35% of Uzbekistan's population.[4][41] Kazakhstan[edit] Main article: Demographics of Kazakhstan According to the 1999 population census, there were 26,000 Tajiks
Tajiks
in Kazakhstan (0.17% of the total population), about the same number as in the 1989 census. Kyrgyzstan[edit] Main article: Demographics of Kyrgyzstan According to official statistics, there were about 47,500 Tajiks
Tajiks
in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in 2007 (0.9% of the total population), up from 42,600 in the 1999 census and 33,500 in the 1989 census. Turkmenistan[edit] Main article: Demographics of Turkmenistan According to the last Soviet census in 1989,[42] there were 3,149 Tajiks
Tajiks
in Turkmenistan, or less than 0.1% of the total population of 3.5 million at that time. The first population census of independent Turkmenistan conducted in 1995 showed 3,103 Tajiks
Tajiks
in a population of 4.4 million (0.07%), most of them (1,922) concentrated in the eastern provinces of Lebap and Mary adjoining the borders with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan.[43] Russia[edit] The population of Tajiks
Tajiks
in Russia
Russia
is about 200,303 according to the 2010 census, up from 38,000 in the last Soviet census of 1989.[44] Most Tajiks
Tajiks
came to Russia
Russia
after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, often as guest workers. Pakistan[edit] Main article: Tajiks
Tajiks
in Pakistan There are an estimated 220,000 Tajiks
Tajiks
in Pakistan, mainly refugees from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan.[45] Their number was higher in the 1990s, but in the last decade many have left Pakistan
Pakistan
and returned to their native countries.[7] China[edit] Main article: Tajiks
Tajiks
in China Chinese Tajiks
Tajiks
or Mountain Tajiks
Tajiks
in China
China
(Sarikoli: [tudʒik], Tujik; Chinese: 塔吉克族; pinyin: Tǎjíkè Zú), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. They are Mountain Tajiks, unlike Plain Tajiks
Tajiks
in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Afghanistan. They are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the government of China. Physical characteristics and genetics[edit]

Pamiri children in Tajikistan

A group of boys from Tajikistan.

On the whole, Tajiks
Tajiks
are a genetically diverse population, displaying a wide range of phenotypes.[citation needed] Around 10% of Tajiks
Tajiks
are said to have blond hair, more prevalent in the Zarafshan and Pamir region, where they are known as Pamiri people.[46] Some ethnic Tajiks, particularly those from Tajikistan, show clear Mongoloid admixture possibly originating from their Kyrgyz and Uzbek neighbors. The dominant haplogroup among modern Tajiks
Tajiks
is the Haplogroup
Haplogroup
R1a Y-DNA. ~45% of Tajik men share R1a (M17), ~18% J (M172), and ~8% R2 (M124). Tajiks
Tajiks
of Panjikent score 68% R1a, Tajiks
Tajiks
of Khojant score 64% R1a.[47] The high frequency of haplogroup R1a in the Tajiks
Tajiks
probably reflects a strong founder effect.[48] Culture[edit]

Part of a series on

Tajiks

History and culture

Language Culture Art Sart

Population

Afghanistan Tajikistan Uzbekistan

v t e

Language[edit] Main articles: Tajik language, Persian language, and Dari (Persian)

Tajik Republic coat of Arms with Persian language: جمهوری اجتماعی شوروى مختار تاجيكستان

The language of the Tajiks
Tajiks
is an eastern dialect of Persian, called Dari (derived from Darbārī, "[of/from the] royal courts", in the sense of "courtly language"), or also Parsi-e Darbari. In Tajikistan, where Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script is used, it is called the Tajiki language. In Afghanistan, unlike in Tajikistan, Tajiks
Tajiks
continue to use the Perso-Arabic script, as well as in Iran. However, when the Soviet Union introduced the Latin script in 1928, and later the Cyrillic script, the Persian dialect of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
came to be considered a separate (Persian) language.[dubious – discuss][citation needed] Since the 19th century, Tajiki has been strongly influenced by the Russian language
Russian language
and has incorporated many Russian language
Russian language
loan words.[49] It has also adopted fewer Arabic loan words than Iranian Persian, while retaining vocabulary that has fallen out of use in the latter language. In Tajikistan, in ordinary speech, also known as “zaboni kucha” (lit. "street language", as opposed to “zaboni adabi”, lit. "literary language", which is used in schools, media etc.), many urban Tajiks
Tajiks
prefer to use Russian loanwords instead of their literary Persian analogs. The dialects of the Persians of Iran
Iran
and of the Tajiks
Tajiks
of central Asia have a common origin.[dubious – discuss][citation needed] This is underscored by the Tajiks' claim to such famous writers as Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Anwari, Rumi, Avicenna, Hafez
Hafez
and other famous Persian poets.[citation needed] Russian is widely used in government and business in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
as well. Since Tajikistan
Tajikistan
gained independence, there has been a public debate about whether Tajiki should revert to the Perso-Arabic script.[citation needed] Religion[edit] Main articles: Islam
Islam
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Islam
Islam
in Tajikistan

Balkh
Balkh
Governor Atta Muhammad Nur
Atta Muhammad Nur
after visiting the Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif's in northern Afghanistan.

Various scholars have recorded the Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Aryan pre-Islamic heritage of the Tajik people. Early temples for fire worship have been found in Balkh
Balkh
and Bactria
Bactria
and excavations in present-day Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
show remnants of Zoroastrian fire temples.[50] Today, however, the great majority of Tajiks
Tajiks
follow Sunni Islam, although small Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
minorities also exist in scattered pockets. Areas with large numbers of Shias include Herat, Bamyan, Badakhshan provinces in Afghanistan, the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan, and Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County in China. Some of the famous Islamic scholars were from East-Iranian regions lying in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
today and therefore can arguably be viewed as Tajiks. They include Abu Hanifa, Imam Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Abu Mansur Maturidi, Nasir Khusraw and many others. Since the Tajiks
Tajiks
generally follow Islamic belief patterns. Belief in the supernatural, outside of formal Islam, falls into several categories: curative customs, fortune-telling, and ascription of bad fortune to the power of fate or of evil beings called jinn. According to a 2009 U.S. State Department
U.S. State Department
release, the population of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is 98% Muslim, (approximately 85% Sunni and 5% Shia).[51] In Afghanistan, the great number of Tajiks
Tajiks
adhere to Sunni Islam. The smaller number of Tajiks
Tajiks
who may follow Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
are locally called Farsiwan[citation needed]. The community of Bukharian Jews
Bukharian Jews
in Central Asia speak a dialect of Persian. The Bukharian Jewish community in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
is the largest remaining community of Central Asian Jews and resides primarily in Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand, while the Bukharaian Jews of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
live in Dushanbe and number only a few hundred.[52] From the 1970s to the 1990s the majority of these Tajik-speaking Jews emigrated to the United States
United States
and to Israel
Israel
in accordance with Aliyah. Recently, the Protestant community of Tajiks descent has experienced significant growth, a 2015 study estimates some 2,600 Muslim Tajik converted to Christianity.[53] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
marked 2009 as the year to commemorate the Tajik Sunni Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa, whose ancestry hailed from Parwan Province of Afghanistan, as the nation hosted an international symposium that drew scientific and religious leaders.[54] The construction of one of the largest mosques in the world, funded by Qatar, was announced in October 2009. The mosque is planned to be built in Dushanbe and construction is said to be completed by 2014.[55] Recent developments[edit] Cultural revival[edit]

Emomalii Rahmon
Emomalii Rahmon
with then Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
in 2009

The collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the civil war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
both gave rise to a resurgence in Tajik nationalism across the region.[citation needed] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in particular has been a focal point for this movement, and the government there has made a conscious effort to revive the legacy of the Samanid
Samanid
empire, the first Tajik-dominated state in the region after the Arab
Arab
advance. For instance, the President of Tajikistan, Emomalii Rahmon, dropped the Russian suffix "-ov" from his surname and directed others to adopt Tajik names when registering births.[56] According to a government announcement in October 2009, approximately 4,000 Tajik nationals have dropped "ov" and "ev" from their surnames since the start of the year.[57] In an interview to Iranian news media in May 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said that Tajikistan
Tajikistan
would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet from Cyrillic
Cyrillic
to the Persian script used in Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
when the government feels that "the Tajik people became familiar with the Persian alphabet".[58] More recently, the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
seeks to have the nation's language referred to as "Tajiki-Farsi" rather than "Tajik." The proposal has drawn criticism from Russian media since the bill seeks to remove the Russian language
Russian language
as the mode of interethnic communication.[59] In 1989, the original name of the language (Farsi) was added to its official name in brackets. However, Rahmon's government renamed the language to simply 'Tajiki' in 1994. On October 2009, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
adopted the law that removes Russian as the "language for interethnic communication."[60] See also[edit]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal

Dehqan Farsiwan Persian people Chagatai Tajiks Kharduri Tajiks Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County Tajiks
Tajiks
of Xinjiang Bukharan Jews

Notes and references[edit]

^ Country Factfiles. — Afghanistan, page 153. // Atlas. Fourth Edition. Editors: Ben Hoare, Margaret Parrish. Publisher: Jonathan Metcalf. First published in Great Britain in 2001 by Dorling Kindersley Limited. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2010, 432 pages. ISBN 9781405350396 "Population: 28.1 million Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% Ethnic Mix: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, Uzbek, Turkmen, other 18%" ^ a b "Population of Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-08-09.  ^ a b "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. May 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26.  ^ a b Richard Foltz
Richard Foltz
(1996). "The Tajiks
Tajiks
of Uzbekistan". Central Asian Survey. 15 (2): 213–216. doi:10.1080/02634939608400946.  ^ Karl Cordell, "Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe", Routledge, 1998. p. 201: "Consequently, the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks
Tajiks
is difficult to determine. Tajikis within and outside of the republic, Samarkand
Samarkand
State University (SamGU) academic and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks
Tajiks
in Uzbekistan, constituting 30% of the republic's 22 million population, rather than the official figure of 4.7%(Foltz 1996;213; Carlisle 1995:88). ^ Lena Jonson (1976) " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the New Central Asia", I.B.Tauris, p. 108: "According to official Uzbek statistics there are slightly over 1 million Tajiks
Tajiks
in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
or about 3% of the population. The unofficial figure is over 6 million Tajiks. They are concentrated in the Sukhandarya, Samarqand and Bukhara
Bukhara
regions." ^ a b United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2002-10-01). "Long-time Tajik refugees return home from Pakistan". UNHCR. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ Russian 2010 Census results; see also Ethnic groups in Russia ^ This figure only includes Tajiks
Tajiks
from Afghanistan. The population of people from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
the United States
United States
is estimated as 80,414 (2005). United States
United States
Census Bureau. "US demographic census". Retrieved 2008-01-23.  Of this number, approximately 65% are Tajiks
Tajiks
according to a group of American researchers (Barbara Robson, Juliene Lipson, Farid Younos, Mariam Mehdi). Robson, Barbara and Lipson, Juliene (2002) "Chapter 5(B)- The People: The Tajiks
Tajiks
and Other Dari-Speaking Groups" Archived 2010-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. The Afghans – their history and culture Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C., OCLC
OCLC
56081073. ^ "Ethnic composition of the population in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
1999–2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ "塔吉克族". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ This figure only includes Tajiks
Tajiks
from Afghanistan. The population of people with descent from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Canada
Canada
is 48,090 according to Canada's 2006 Census. Tajiks
Tajiks
make up an estimated 27% of the population of Afghanistan. The Tajik population in Canada
Canada
is estimated from these two figures. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian) ^ a b C.E. Bosworth; B.G. Fragner (1999). "TĀDJĪK". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.  ^ M. Longworth Dames; G. Morgenstierne & R. Ghirshman (1999). "AFGHĀNISTĀN". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.  ^ Aḥmad Tafażżolī,"DEHQĀN" at Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ Arlund, Pamela S. (2006). An Acoustic, Historical, And Developmental Analysis Of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. PhD Dissertation. The University of Texas at Arlington. p. 191.  ^ Felmy, Sabine (1996). The voice of the nightingale: a personal account of the Wakhi culture in Hunza. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-577599-6.  ^ a b "TAJIK i. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION".  ^ Zerjal, Tatiana; Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (3): 466–482. doi:10.1086/342096. PMC 419996 . PMID 12145751.  ^ Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan : country studies Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, page 206 ^ Richard Nelson Frye, "Persien: bis zum Einbruch des Islam" (original English title: "The Heritage Of Persia"), German version, tr. by Paul Baudisch, Kindler Verlag AG, Zürich 1964, pp. 485–498 ^ Frye, Richard Nelson (1996). The heritage of Central Asia from antiquity to the Turkish expansion. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 1-55876-110-1.  ^ Tajikistan: History Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Lena Jonson, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the new Central Asia, (I.B.Tauris, 2006), 18. ^ Political History of the Chālukyas of Badami by Durga Prasad Dikshit p.192 ^ The First Spring: The Golden Age of India by Abraham Eraly p.91 ^ C.E. Bosworth/B.G. Fragner, "Tādjīk", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition: "... In Islamic usage, [Tādjīk] eventually came to designate the Persians, as opposed to Turks [...] the oldest citation for it which Schraeder could find was in verses of Djalāl al-Dīn Rūmī ..." ^ Ali Shir Nava'i Muhakamat al-lughatain tr. & ed. Robert Devereaux (Leiden: Brill) 1966 p6 ^ "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll - Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: ABC News. pp. 38–40. Retrieved 2010-10-29.  ^ "Tajik". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2011. There were about 5,000,000 in Afghanistan, where they constituted about one-fifth of the population.  ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (1997). "Afghanistan: Tajik". Country Studies Series. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-12-19.  ^ Bellew, Henry Walter (1891) An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
The Oriental Institute, Woking, Butler & Tanner, Frome, United Kingdom, page 126, OCLC 182913077 ^ Markham, C. R. (January 1879) "The Mountain Passes on the Afghan Frontier of British India" Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography (New Monthly Series) 1(1): pp. 38–62, p.48 ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2006). "History and Foreign Policy: From Constructed Identities to "Ancient Hatreds" East of the Caspian". In Shaffer, Brenda. The Limits of Culture: Islam
Islam
and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. pp. 100–110. ISBN 0-262-69321-6.  ^ Ethnic Atlas of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Archived 2008-10-06 at the Wayback Machine., Part 1: Ethnic minorities, Open Society Institute, table with number of Tajiks
Tajiks
by province (in Russian). ^ "Uzbekistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26.  ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (February 23, 2000). "Uzbekistan". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 1999. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-12-19. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Rahim Masov, The History of the Clumsy Delimitation, Irfon Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1991 (in Russian). English translation: The History of a National Catastrophe, transl. Iraj Bashiri, 1996. ^ Ethnic Atlas of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Archived 2008-10-06 at the Wayback Machine., Part 1: Ethnic minorities, Open Society Institute, p. 195 (in Russian). ^ Svante E. Cornell, "Uzbekistan: A Regional Player in Eurasian Geopolitics?" Archived 2009-05-05 at the Wayback Machine., European Security, vol. 20, no. 2, Summer 2000. ^ http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_nac_89.php?reg=14 ^ Population census of Turkmenistan 1995, Vol. 1, State Statistical Committee of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 1996, pp. 75–100. ^ "2002 Russian census". Perepis2002.ru. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ The ethnic composition of the 1.7 million registered Afghan refugees living in Pakistan
Pakistan
are believed to be 85% Pashtun and 15% Tajik, Uzbek and others. "2012 UNHCR country operations profile – Pakistan". Retrieved 2012-08-08.  ^ Around the Roof of the World. Nicholas Shoumatoff, Nina Shoumatoff (2000). University of Michigan Press. p.9. ISBN 0-472-08669-3 ^ Wells, RS; Yuldasheva, N; Ruzibakiev, R; et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 10244–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946 . PMID 11526236.  ^ Zerjal, T; Wells, RS; Yuldasheva, N; Ruzibakiev, R; Tyler-Smith, C (September 2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 71: 466–82. doi:10.1086/342096. PMC 419996 . PMID 12145751.  ^ Michael Knüppel. Turkic Loanwords in Persian. Encyclopædia Iranica. ^ Lena Jonson, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the New Central Asia: Geopolitics, Great Power Rivalry and Radical Islam
Islam
(International Library of Central Asia Studies), page 21 ^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". State.gov. 2012-01-24. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ J. Sloame, "Bukharan Jews", Jewish Virtual Library, (LINK) ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ "Today marks 18th year of Tajik independence and success". Todayszaman.com. 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ Daniel Bardsley (2010-05-25). " Qatar
Qatar
paying for giant mosque in Tajikistan". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ McDermott, Roger (2007-04-25). " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
restates its strategic partnership with Russia, while sending mixed signals". The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2007-12-19.  ^ "Some 4,000 Tajiks
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opt to use the traditional version of their names this year". Asiaplus.tj. 1962-10-17. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ " Tajikistan
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may consider using Persian script when the conditions are met", interview of Tajikistan's Deputy Culture Minister with Iranian News Agency, 2 May 2008. ^ Tajik Islamic Party Seeks Tajiki-Farsi Designation. ^ " Tajikistan
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Drops Russian As Official Language". Rferl.org. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 

Further reading[edit]

Dupree, Louis (1980). Afghanistan. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.  Jawad, Nassim (1992). Afghanistan: A Nation of Minorities. London: Minority Rights Group International. ISBN 0-946690-76-6.  Rahmonov, Emomali (2001). The Tajiks
Tajiks
in the Mirror of History: From the Aryans to the Samanids. Guernsey, United Kingdom: London River Editions. p. 272. ISBN 0-9540425-0-6.  World Almanac and Book of Facts
World Almanac and Book of Facts
(2003 ed.). World Almanac Books. ISBN 0-88687-882-9. 

External links[edit]

Tajiks
Tajiks
at Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Tajik – The Ethnonym: Origins and Application at Encyclopædia Iranica

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Ethnic groups in Tajikistan

Tajiks

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