Tajik (Dari: تاجيک: Tājīk, Tajik: Тоҷик) is a general
designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking people of Iranian
origin, with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan,
Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more
or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several
decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central
Asia. Alternative names for the
Tajiks are Fārsī (Persian),
Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Tajik: Деҳқон)
literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in
contrast to "nomadic" and also described as a class of land-owning
magnates during the
Sassanid and early Islamic period).
Tajiks speak a variety of modern Persian. They may speak any
one of the extant Iranian languages. For example, the
Tajiks of China
Pamiris and speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages
and are distinct from more western Tajiks.
4 Physical characteristics and genetics
6 Recent developments
6.1 Cultural revival
7 See also
8 Notes and references
9 Further reading
10 External links
Samanid Empire, Ghurid Empire, and Kartids
Amir Ismail Samani. His reign saw the emergence of the
Samanids as a powerful force and the spread of Sunni
Islam deep into
Tajiks are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian,
concentrated in the
Oxus Basin, the Farḡāna valley (
parts of Uzbekistan) and on both banks of the upper Oxus, i.e., the
Pamir Mountains (Mountain Badaḵšān, in Tajikistan) and
Afghanistan (Badaḵšān and Kābol). Historically
Tajiks were agriculturalists. Contemporary
Tajiks are the
descendants of ancient Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in
particular the Sogdians and the Bactrians, and possibly other groups,
with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians and non-Iranian
peoples. According to Richard Nelson Frye, a leading historian of
Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central
Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, and
ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians
and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks. In later
works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the
Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must
be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose
remnants are the
Tajiks in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of
Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture,
one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only
language separating them."
Regarding Tajiks, the
Encyclopædia Britannica states:
Tajiks are the direct descendants of the
Iranian peoples whose
continuous presence in Central Asia and northern
attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. The ancestors of
Tajiks constituted the core of the ancient population of Khwārezm
(Khorezm) and Bactria, which formed part of Transoxania (Sogdiana).
Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect that was used by
Tajiks eventually gave way to Farsi, a western dialect
Iran and Afghanistan.
The geographical division between the eastern and western Iranians is
often considered historically and currently to be the desert Dasht-e
Kavir, situated in the center of the Iranian plateau.
Samanid Empire (819–999) is considered as the first Tajik
According to Encyclopaedia Iranica:
The most plausible and generally accepted origin of the word is Middle
Persian tāzīk ‘Arab’ (cf. New Persian tāzi), or an Iranian
(Sogdian or Parthian) cognate word. The Muslim armies that invaded
Transoxiana early in the eighth century, conquering the Sogdian
principalities and clashing with the
Qarluq Turks (see Bregel, Atlas,
Maps 8–10) consisted not only of Arabs, but also of Persian converts
from Fārs and the central
Zagros region (Bartol’d [Barthold],
“Tadžiki,” pp. 455–57). Hence the Turks of Central Asia adopted
a variant of the Iranian word, täžik, to designate their Muslim
adversaries in general. For example, the rulers of the south Indian
Chalukya dynasty and
Rashtrakuta dynasty also referred to the Arabs as
"Tajika" in the 8th and 9th century. By the eleventh century
(Yusof Ḵāṣṣ-ḥājeb, Qutadḡu bilig, lines 280, 282, 3265),
Qarakhanid Turks applied this term more specifically to the
Persian Muslims in the
Oxus basin and Khorasan, who were variously the
Turks’ rivals, models, overlords (under the
Samanid Dynasty), and
Ghaznavid times on). Persian writers of the Ghaznavid,
Seljuq and Atābak periods (ca. 1000–1260) adopted the term and
extended its use to cover Persians in the rest of Greater Iran, now
under Turkish rule, as early as the poet ʿOnṣori, ca. 1025
(Dabirsiāqi, pp. 3377, 3408). Iranians soon accepted it as an
ethnonym, as is shown by a Persian court official’s referring to mā
tāzikān “we Tajiks” (Bayhaqi, ed. Fayyāz, p. 594). The
distinction between Turk and Tajik became stereotyped to express the
symbiosis and rivalry of the (ideally) nomadic military executive and
the urban civil bureaucracy (Niẓām al-Molk: tāzik, pp. 146,
178–79; Fragner, “Tādjīk. 2” in EI2 10, p. 63).
According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, however, the oldest known
usage of the word Tajik as a reference to Persians in Persian
literature can be found in the writings of the Persian poet Jalal
ad-Din Rumi. The 15th century Turkic-speaking poet Mīr Alī Šer
Navā'ī also used Tajik as a reference to Persians.
An example for the usage of the word Tajik in Persian literature is,
for example, the writing of Sa'adi:
شایَد کِه بَه پادشاه بگویند
ترک تو بریخت خون تاجیک
Šâyad ki ba pâdšâh bigoyand
Turke tu birext xune Tâjik
It's appropriate to tell the King,
Your Turk shed the blood of Tajik
Tajik young girls during Navrūz They are holding sprouting plants
which symbolize rebirth.
Tajiks Celebrate Nawrooz in Afghanistan. Haft-Seen, White House
ceremony for new Persian Year, prepared by Laura Bush.
Tajiks are the principal ethnic group in most of Tajikistan, as
well as in northern and western Afghanistan, though there are more
Afghanistan than in Tajikistan.
Tajiks are a substantial
minority in Uzbekistan, as well as in overseas communities.
Historically, the ancestors of the
Tajiks lived in a larger territory
in Central Asia than now.
Main article: Demography of Afghanistan
Burhanuddin Rabbani served as President of Afghanistan
According to the World Factbook,
Tajiks make up about 27% of the
population in Afghanistan, but according to other sources they are
from 37%-39% of the population. According to the Encyclopædia
Britannica claims that they constitute about one-fifth of the
population. They are predominant in four of the largest cities in
Afghanistan (Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, and Ghazni) and make up the
largest ethnic group in the northern and western provinces of Balkh,
Takhar, Badakhshan, Samangan, Parwan, Panjshir, Kapisa, Baghlan, Ghor,
Badghis and Herat.
In Afghanistan, the
Tajiks do not organize themselves by tribes and
refer to themselves by the region, province, city, town, or village
that they are from; such as Badakhshi, Baghlani, Mazari, Panjsheri,
Kabuli, Herati, Kohistani etc. Although in the past, some
Pashto speaking tribes were identified as Tajik, for example the
Main article: Demographics of Tajikistan
Tajiks comprise around 84.3% of the population of Tajikistan. This
number includes speakers of the Pamiri languages, including Wakhi and
Shughni, and the
Yaghnobi people who in the past were considered by
the government of the
Soviet Union nationalities separate from the
Tajiks. In the 1926 and 1937 Soviet censuses, the Yaghnobis and Pamiri
language speakers were counted as separate nationalities. After 1937,
these groups were required to register as Tajiks.
Main article: Demographics of Uzbekistan
View of the Registan in Samarkand – although the second largest
city of Uzbekistan, it is predominantly a Tajik populated city, along
In Uzbekistan, the
Tajiks are the largest part of the population of
the ancient cities of
Bukhara and Samarkand, and are found in large
numbers in the
Surxondaryo Province in the south and along
Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. According to official
Surxondaryo Province accounts for 24.4% of all
Tajiks in Uzbekistan, with another 34.3% in Samarqand and Bukhara
Official statistics in
Uzbekistan state that the Tajik community
comprises 5% of the nation's total population. However, these
numbers do not include ethnic
Tajiks who, for a variety of reasons,
choose to identify themselves as
Uzbeks in population census
forms. During the Soviet "Uzbekization" supervised by Sharof
Rashidov, the head of the Uzbek Communist Party,
Tajiks had to choose
either stay in
Uzbekistan and get registered as Uzbek in their
passports or leave the republic for Tajikistan, which is mountainous
and less agricultural. It is only in the last population census
(1989) that the nationality could be reported not according to the
passport, but freely declared on the basis of the respondent's ethnic
self-identification. This had the effect of increasing the Tajik
Uzbekistan from 3.9% in 1979 to 4.7% in 1989. Expert
estimates suggest that
Tajiks may make up 35% of Uzbekistan's
Main article: Demographics of Kazakhstan
According to the 1999 population census, there were 26,000
Kazakhstan (0.17% of the total population), about the same number as
in the 1989 census.
Main article: Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
According to official statistics, there were about 47,500
Kyrgyzstan in 2007 (0.9% of the total population), up from 42,600 in
the 1999 census and 33,500 in the 1989 census.
Main article: Demographics of Turkmenistan
According to the last Soviet census in 1989, there were 3,149
Tajiks in Turkmenistan, or less than 0.1% of the total population of
3.5 million at that time. The first population census of independent
Turkmenistan conducted in 1995 showed 3,103
Tajiks in a population of
4.4 million (0.07%), most of them (1,922) concentrated in the eastern
provinces of Lebap and Mary adjoining the borders with
The population of
Russia is about 200,303 according to the
2010 census, up from 38,000 in the last Soviet census of 1989.
Tajiks came to
Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union,
often as guest workers.
Tajiks in Pakistan
There are an estimated 220,000
Tajiks in Pakistan, mainly refugees
Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Their number was higher in the
1990s, but in the last decade many have left
Pakistan and returned to
their native countries.
Tajiks in China
Tajiks or Mountain
China (Sarikoli: [tudʒik],
Tujik; Chinese: 塔吉克族; pinyin: Tǎjíkè Zú), including
Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension
of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur
Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. They are Mountain
Tajiks, unlike Plain
Tajikistan and Afghanistan. They are
one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the government of
Physical characteristics and genetics
Pamiri children in Tajikistan
A group of boys from Tajikistan.
On the whole,
Tajiks are a genetically diverse population, displaying
a wide range of phenotypes. Around 10% of
said to have blond hair, more prevalent in the Zarafshan and Pamir
region, where they are known as Pamiri people. Some ethnic Tajiks,
particularly those from Tajikistan, show clear Mongoloid admixture
possibly originating from their Kyrgyz and Uzbek neighbors. The
dominant haplogroup among modern
Tajiks is the
Haplogroup R1a Y-DNA.
~45% of Tajik men share R1a (M17), ~18% J (M172), and ~8% R2 (M124).
Tajiks of Panjikent score 68% R1a,
Tajiks of Khojant score 64%
R1a. The high frequency of haplogroup R1a in the
reflects a strong founder effect.
Part of a series on
History and culture
Main articles: Tajik language, Persian language, and Dari (Persian)
Tajik Republic coat of Arms with Persian language: جمهوری
اجتماعی شوروى مختار تاجيكستان
The language of the
Tajiks is an eastern dialect of Persian, called
Dari (derived from Darbārī, "[of/from the] royal courts", in the
sense of "courtly language"), or also Parsi-e Darbari. In Tajikistan,
Cyrillic script is used, it is called the Tajiki language. In
Afghanistan, unlike in Tajikistan,
Tajiks continue to use the
Perso-Arabic script, as well as in Iran. However, when the Soviet
Union introduced the Latin script in 1928, and later the Cyrillic
script, the Persian dialect of
Tajikistan came to be considered a
separate (Persian) language.[dubious – discuss]
Since the 19th century, Tajiki has been strongly influenced by the
Russian language and has incorporated many
Russian language loan
words. It has also adopted fewer Arabic loan words than Iranian
Persian, while retaining vocabulary that has fallen out of use in the
latter language. In Tajikistan, in ordinary speech, also known as
“zaboni kucha” (lit. "street language", as opposed to “zaboni
adabi”, lit. "literary language", which is used in schools, media
etc.), many urban
Tajiks prefer to use Russian loanwords instead of
their literary Persian analogs.
The dialects of the Persians of
Iran and of the
Tajiks of central Asia
have a common origin.[dubious – discuss] This is
underscored by the Tajiks' claim to such famous writers as Rudaki,
Ferdowsi, Anwari, Rumi, Avicenna,
Hafez and other famous Persian
poets. Russian is widely used in government and
Tajikistan as well. Since
Tajikistan gained independence,
there has been a public debate about whether Tajiki should revert to
the Perso-Arabic script.
Islam in Tajikistan
Atta Muhammad Nur
Atta Muhammad Nur after visiting the Blue Mosque in
Mazar-i-Sharif's in northern Afghanistan.
Various scholars have recorded the Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Aryan
pre-Islamic heritage of the Tajik people. Early temples for fire
worship have been found in
Bactria and excavations in
Uzbekistan show remnants of Zoroastrian
Today, however, the great majority of
Tajiks follow Sunni Islam,
Shia minorities also exist in
scattered pockets. Areas with large numbers of Shias include Herat,
Bamyan, Badakhshan provinces in Afghanistan, the Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Province in Tajikistan, and Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous
County in China. Some of the famous Islamic scholars were from
East-Iranian regions lying in
Tajikistan today and
therefore can arguably be viewed as Tajiks. They include Abu Hanifa,
Imam Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Abu Mansur Maturidi, Nasir Khusraw
and many others. Since the
Tajiks generally follow Islamic belief
patterns. Belief in the supernatural, outside of formal Islam, falls
into several categories: curative customs, fortune-telling, and
ascription of bad fortune to the power of fate or of evil beings
According to a 2009
U.S. State Department
U.S. State Department release, the population of
Tajikistan is 98% Muslim, (approximately 85% Sunni and 5% Shia).
In Afghanistan, the great number of
Tajiks adhere to Sunni Islam. The
smaller number of
Tajiks who may follow
Islam are locally
called Farsiwan. The community of
Bukharian Jews in
Central Asia speak a dialect of Persian. The Bukharian Jewish
Uzbekistan is the largest remaining community of Central
Asian Jews and resides primarily in
Bukhara and Samarkand, while the
Bukharaian Jews of
Tajikistan live in Dushanbe and number only a few
hundred. From the 1970s to the 1990s the majority of these
Tajik-speaking Jews emigrated to the
United States and to
accordance with Aliyah. Recently, the Protestant community of Tajiks
descent has experienced significant growth, a 2015 study estimates
some 2,600 Muslim Tajik converted to Christianity.
Tajikistan marked 2009 as the year to commemorate the Tajik Sunni
Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa, whose ancestry hailed from Parwan Province
of Afghanistan, as the nation hosted an international symposium that
drew scientific and religious leaders. The construction of one of
the largest mosques in the world, funded by Qatar, was announced in
October 2009. The mosque is planned to be built in Dushanbe and
construction is said to be completed by 2014.
Emomalii Rahmon with then Russian President
Dmitry Medvedev in 2009
The collapse of the
Soviet Union and the civil war in
gave rise to a resurgence in Tajik nationalism across the
Tajikistan in particular has been a focal
point for this movement, and the government there has made a conscious
effort to revive the legacy of the
Samanid empire, the first
Tajik-dominated state in the region after the
Arab advance. For
instance, the President of Tajikistan, Emomalii Rahmon, dropped the
Russian suffix "-ov" from his surname and directed others to adopt
Tajik names when registering births. According to a government
announcement in October 2009, approximately 4,000 Tajik nationals have
dropped "ov" and "ev" from their surnames since the start of the
In an interview to Iranian news media in May 2008, Tajikistan's deputy
culture minister said that
Tajikistan would study the issue of
switching its Tajik alphabet from
Cyrillic to the Persian script used
Afghanistan when the government feels that "the Tajik
people became familiar with the Persian alphabet". More recently,
the Islamic Renaissance Party of
Tajikistan seeks to have the nation's
language referred to as "Tajiki-Farsi" rather than "Tajik." The
proposal has drawn criticism from Russian media since the bill seeks
to remove the
Russian language as the mode of interethnic
communication. In 1989, the original name of the language (Farsi)
was added to its official name in brackets. However, Rahmon's
government renamed the language to simply 'Tajiki' in 1994. On October
Tajikistan adopted the law that removes Russian as the "language
for interethnic communication."
Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County
Tajiks of Xinjiang
Notes and references
^ Country Factfiles. — Afghanistan, page 153. // Atlas. Fourth
Edition. Editors: Ben Hoare, Margaret Parrish. Publisher: Jonathan
Metcalf. First published in Great Britain in 2001 by Dorling
Kindersley Limited. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2010, 432 pages.
ISBN 9781405350396 "Population: 28.1 million
Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Ethnic Mix: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, Uzbek, Turkmen, other
^ a b "Population of Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-08-09.
^ a b "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
May 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
^ a b
Richard Foltz (1996). "The
Tajiks of Uzbekistan". Central Asian
Survey. 15 (2): 213–216. doi:10.1080/02634939608400946.
^ Karl Cordell, "Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe",
Routledge, 1998. p. 201: "Consequently, the number of citizens who
regard themselves as
Tajiks is difficult to determine. Tajikis within
and outside of the republic,
Samarkand State University (SamGU)
academic and international commentators suggest that there may be
between six and seven million
Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30%
of the republic's 22 million population, rather than the official
figure of 4.7%(Foltz 1996;213; Carlisle 1995:88).
^ Lena Jonson (1976) "
Tajikistan in the New Central Asia", I.B.Tauris,
p. 108: "According to official Uzbek statistics there are slightly
over 1 million
Uzbekistan or about 3% of the population. The
unofficial figure is over 6 million Tajiks. They are concentrated in
the Sukhandarya, Samarqand and
^ a b United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2002-10-01).
"Long-time Tajik refugees return home from Pakistan". UNHCR. Retrieved
^ Russian 2010 Census results; see also Ethnic groups in Russia
^ This figure only includes
Tajiks from Afghanistan. The population of
United States is estimated as 80,414
United States Census Bureau. "US demographic census".
Retrieved 2008-01-23. Of this number, approximately 65% are
Tajiks according to a group of American researchers (Barbara Robson,
Juliene Lipson, Farid Younos, Mariam Mehdi). Robson, Barbara and
Lipson, Juliene (2002) "Chapter 5(B)- The People: The
Tajiks and Other
Dari-Speaking Groups" Archived 2010-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. The
Afghans – their history and culture Cultural Orientation
Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.,
^ "Ethnic composition of the population in
(PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-11.
^ "塔吉克族". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
^ This figure only includes
Tajiks from Afghanistan. The population of
people with descent from
Canada is 48,090 according to
Canada's 2006 Census.
Tajiks make up an estimated 27% of the
population of Afghanistan. The Tajik population in
Canada is estimated
from these two figures. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada.
^ State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition
of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
^ a b C.E. Bosworth; B.G. Fragner (1999). "TĀDJĪK". Encyclopaedia of
Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands:
Koninklijke Brill NV.
^ M. Longworth Dames; G. Morgenstierne & R. Ghirshman (1999).
"AFGHĀNISTĀN". Encyclopaedia of
Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.).
Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
^ Aḥmad Tafażżolī,"DEHQĀN" at Encyclopaedia Iranica
^ Arlund, Pamela S. (2006). An Acoustic, Historical, And Developmental
Analysis Of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. PhD Dissertation. The University
of Texas at Arlington. p. 191.
^ Felmy, Sabine (1996). The voice of the nightingale: a personal
account of the Wakhi culture in Hunza. Karachi: Oxford University
Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-577599-6.
^ a b "TAJIK i. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION".
^ Zerjal, Tatiana; Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev,
Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by
Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American
Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (3): 466–482. doi:10.1086/342096.
PMC 419996 . PMID 12145751.
^ Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and
Uzbekistan : country studies Federal Research Division, Library
of Congress, page 206
^ Richard Nelson Frye, "Persien: bis zum Einbruch des Islam" (original
English title: "The Heritage Of Persia"), German version, tr. by Paul
Baudisch, Kindler Verlag AG, Zürich 1964, pp. 485–498
^ Frye, Richard Nelson (1996). The heritage of Central Asia from
antiquity to the Turkish expansion. Princeton: Markus Wiener
Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 1-55876-110-1.
^ Tajikistan: History Britannica Online Encyclopedia
^ Lena Jonson,
Tajikistan in the new Central Asia, (I.B.Tauris, 2006),
^ Political History of the Chālukyas of Badami by Durga Prasad
^ The First Spring: The Golden Age of India by Abraham Eraly p.91
^ C.E. Bosworth/B.G. Fragner, "Tādjīk", in Encyclopaedia of Islam,
Online Edition: "... In Islamic usage, [Tādjīk] eventually came
to designate the Persians, as opposed to Turks [...] the oldest
citation for it which Schraeder could find was in verses of Djalāl
al-Dīn Rūmī ..."
^ Ali Shir Nava'i Muhakamat al-lughatain tr. & ed. Robert
Devereaux (Leiden: Brill) 1966 p6
^ "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll - Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (PDF).
Kabul, Afghanistan: ABC News. pp. 38–40. Retrieved
^ "Tajik". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2011. There
were about 5,000,000 in Afghanistan, where they constituted about
one-fifth of the population.
^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (1997).
"Afghanistan: Tajik". Country Studies Series. Library of Congress.
^ Bellew, Henry Walter (1891) An inquiry into the ethnography of
Afghanistan The Oriental Institute, Woking, Butler & Tanner,
Frome, United Kingdom, page 126, OCLC 182913077
^ Markham, C. R. (January 1879) "The Mountain Passes on the Afghan
Frontier of British India" Proceedings of the Royal Geographical
Society and Monthly Record of Geography (New Monthly Series) 1(1): pp.
^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2006). "History and Foreign Policy: From
Constructed Identities to "Ancient Hatreds" East of the Caspian". In
Shaffer, Brenda. The Limits of Culture:
Islam and Foreign Policy. MIT
Press. pp. 100–110. ISBN 0-262-69321-6.
^ Ethnic Atlas of
Uzbekistan Archived 2008-10-06 at the Wayback
Machine., Part 1: Ethnic minorities, Open Society Institute, table
with number of
Tajiks by province (in Russian).
^ "Uzbekistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. May
6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (February 23, 2000).
"Uzbekistan". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 1999.
U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-12-19. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Rahim Masov, The History of the Clumsy Delimitation, Irfon Publ.
House, Dushanbe, 1991 (in Russian). English translation: The History
of a National Catastrophe, transl. Iraj Bashiri, 1996.
^ Ethnic Atlas of
Uzbekistan Archived 2008-10-06 at the Wayback
Machine., Part 1: Ethnic minorities, Open Society Institute, p. 195
^ Svante E. Cornell, "Uzbekistan: A Regional Player in Eurasian
Geopolitics?" Archived 2009-05-05 at the Wayback Machine., European
Security, vol. 20, no. 2, Summer 2000.
^ Population census of Turkmenistan 1995, Vol. 1, State Statistical
Committee of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 1996, pp. 75–100.
^ "2002 Russian census". Perepis2002.ru. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
^ The ethnic composition of the 1.7 million registered Afghan refugees
Pakistan are believed to be 85% Pashtun and 15% Tajik, Uzbek
and others. "2012 UNHCR country operations profile – Pakistan".
^ Around the Roof of the World. Nicholas Shoumatoff, Nina Shoumatoff
(2000). University of Michigan Press. p.9. ISBN 0-472-08669-3
^ Wells, RS; Yuldasheva, N; Ruzibakiev, R; et al. (August 2001). "The
Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome
diversity" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 10244–9.
doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946 .
^ Zerjal, T; Wells, RS; Yuldasheva, N; Ruzibakiev, R; Tyler-Smith, C
(September 2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events:
Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American Journal of
Human Genetics. 71: 466–82. doi:10.1086/342096. PMC 419996 .
^ Michael Knüppel. Turkic Loanwords in Persian. Encyclopædia
^ Lena Jonson,
Tajikistan in the New Central Asia: Geopolitics, Great
Power Rivalry and Radical
Islam (International Library of Central Asia
Studies), page 21
^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". State.gov. 2012-01-24. Retrieved
^ J. Sloame, "Bukharan Jews", Jewish Virtual Library, (LINK)
^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in
Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10):
1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
^ "Today marks 18th year of Tajik independence and success".
Todayszaman.com. 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
^ Daniel Bardsley (2010-05-25). "
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Ancient Iranian peoples
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