BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is
an American anti-tank missile. TOW replaced much smaller missiles like
SS.10 and ENTAC, offering roughly twice the effective range, a
more powerful warhead, and a greatly improved semi-automatic guidance
system that could also be equipped with infrared cameras for night
First produced in 1970, the TOW is one of the most widely used
anti-tank guided missiles. It can be found in a wide variety of
manually carried and vehicle mounted forms, as well as widespread use
on helicopters. Originally designed by
Hughes Aircraft in the 1960s,
the weapon is currently produced by Raytheon.
1 Design and development
1.1 Launch platforms
2 Service history
2.1 1972: Vietnam: first combat use
2.4 1991: Persian Gulf War
2.5 1993: Somalia
2.6 2001: War in Afghanistan
2.8 2011: Syrian Civil War
7 See also
11 External links
Design and development
A U.S. Army soldier in 1964, with the first concept mock-up of
Redstone Arsenal's proposed future HAW system (Heavy Antitank Weapon).
The HAW ultimately resulted in the modern-day TOW.
Initially developed by
Hughes Aircraft between 1963 and 1968, the
XBGM-71A was designed for both ground and heli-borne applications. In
Raytheon Co. purchased Hughes Electronics from General Motors
Corporation, so development and production of TOW systems now comes
Raytheon brand. The weapon is used in anti-armor,
anti-bunker, anti-fortification and anti-amphibious landing roles. The
TOW is in service with over 45 militaries and is integrated on over
15,000 ground, vehicle and helicopter platforms worldwide.
In its basic infantry form, the system breaks down into a number of
modules: a folding tripod mount, a launch tube which encased missiles
are inserted into the rear of, a mandatory daysight tracker unit which
can be augmented with an optional AN/TAS-4 or AN/TAS-4/A gas-cooled
night sight (or an all-in one tracker unit on the M41 ITAS version),
and a traversing unit which mounts into the tripod and carries the
launch tube and sight, and also includes the weapon's trigger and the
bridging clamp which mates with the missile's umbilical data
connector. In addition to this main assembly, there is a separate fire
control system (FCS) module which performs all guidance calculations,
and a battery pack to power the system. These two modules link to each
other, with the FCS then linked to the daysight via a cable.
When the target is sighted and the trigger is pulled, there is a 1.5
second firing delay while the missile spins up its internal gyroscope
and the thermal battery reaches operating temperature. Once this
concludes, the launch motor fires through the rear nozzle propelling
the missile from the tube: this soft-launch motor fires for only 0.05
seconds and burns out before the missile has exited the tube. As
the missile exits the launch tube, first four wings just forward of
the flight motor spring open forwards, followed by four tail control
surfaces which flip open rearwards as the missile completely exits the
launch tube. As the wings fully extend at about 7 meters from the
launcher the flight motor ignites, boosting the missile's speed to
approximately 600 miles per hour (~1,000 kilometers per hour) during
its burn time. 0.18 seconds after launch, at around 65 meters from the
launcher, the warhead is armed by G forces from acceleration by the
flight motor, a safety feature intended to protect the operator if the
flight motor fails to ignite. The flight motor burns out 1.6 seconds
after launch, with the missile gliding for the remainder of its flight
time. After the tracker captures the missile, IR sensors bore-sighted
to the daysight tracker continuously monitor the position of an IR
beacon on the missile's tail relative to the line-of-sight, with the
FCS generating course corrections which are sent via the command link
to the missile's integral flight control unit. The missile then
corrects its flight path via the control surface actuators. The
operator keeps the sight's crosshair centered over the target until
impact: if the missile fails to strike a target, the command wires are
automatically cut at 3,000 metres on the original TOW and 3,750 metres
on most current-production TOWs. An automatic wirecut also occurs if
the tracker fails to detect the missile's thermal beacon within 1.85
seconds of launching.
A TOW missile on display at the
White Sands Missile Range
White Sands Missile Range Museum.
The TOW missile was continually upgraded, with an improved TOW missile
(ITOW) appearing in 1978 that had a new warhead triggered by a long
probe, which was extended after launch, that gave a stand-off distance
of 15 in (380 mm) for improved armor penetration. The 1983
TOW 2 featured a larger 5.9 kg (13 lb) warhead with a
21.25 in (540 mm) extensible probe, improved guidance and a
motor that provided around 30% more thrust. This was followed by
the TOW 2A/B which appeared in 1987.
Hughes developed a TOW missile with a wireless data link in 1989,
referred to as TOW-2N, but this weapon was not adopted for use by the
Raytheon continued to develop improvements to the TOW
line, but its FOTT (Follow-On To TOW) program was canceled in 1998,
and its TOW-FF (TOW-Fire and Forget) program was cut short on 30
November 2001 because of funding limitations. In 2001 and 2002,
Raytheon and the U.S. Army worked together on an extended range TOW 2B
variant, initially referred to as TOW-2B (ER), but now called TOW-2B
Aero which has a special nose cap that increases range to 4.5 km.
Although this missile has been in production since 2004, no U.S. Army
designation has yet been assigned.
Wireless versions of the TOW-2A,
TOW-2B and TOW-2B Aero have been developed that uses a "stealthy" one
way radio link, identified with the suffix "RF." These missiles
require no special alterations to the launcher, since the RF
transmitter is encased along with the missile and uses the standard
umbilical data connector.
In 1999 TOW received the Improved Target Acquisition System
The TOW missile in its current variations is not a fire-and-forget
weapon, and like most second generation wire-guided missiles has
Semi-Automatic Command Line of Sight guidance. This means that the
guidance system is directly linked to the platform, and requires that
the target be kept in the shooter's line of sight until the missile
impacts. A fire-and-forget TOW variant (TOW-FF) was under development,
but was cancelled by the Army in 2002.
In October 2012,
Raytheon received a contract to produce 6,676 TOW
(wireless-guided) missiles for the U.S. military. Missiles that will
be produced include the BGM-71E TOW 2A, the BGM-71F TOW 2B, the TOW 2B
Aero, and the BGM-71H TOW Bunker Buster. By 2013, the U.S. Marine
Corps had retired the air-launched TOW missile.
A TOW missile being fired from an M151.
A U.S. Army M1134 Stryker ATGM carrier at the Yakima Training Center
fires a TOW missile in May 2011.
The TOW is designated as a BGM by the U.S. military: a multiple launch
environment (B) surface attack (G) guided missile (M). The B launch
environment prefix is used only when the system can be used
essentially unmodified when launched from a variety of launch
M151 and M220 launchers are used by infantry, but can also be
mounted on a number of vehicles, including the
M151 jeep, the M113
APC, the M966 HMMWV and the M1045 HMMWV (which replaced the M966).
These launchers are theoretically man-portable, but are quite bulky.
M151 launcher was upgraded to include thermal optics to
allow night time usage, and had been simplified to reduce weight. The
M220 was specifically developed to handle the TOW-2 series.
TOW systems have also been developed for vehicle specific applications
on the M2/
M3 Bradley IFV/CFV, the LAV-AT, the M1134 Stryker ATGM
carrier, and the now retired
M901 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle); they are
generally referred to as TOW Under Armor (TUA).
In helicopter applications, the M65 system used by the AH-1 series is
the primary system deployed, but the XM26 system was developed for the
UH-1, and a system was put into development for the later canceled
AH-56 helicopter. The TOW has also been used with AH.1 (TOW) and AH.7
Westland Lynx helicopters, with the attachment of 2
pylons, each carrying four missiles.
The M41 TOW improved target acquisition system (ITAS) is a block
upgrade to the M220 ground/high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
(HMMWV)-mounted TOW 2 missile system. The TOW ITAS is currently being
fielded to airborne, air assault, and light infantry forces throughout
the active and reserve components of the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine
Corps where it is called the SABER. The ITAS, in addition to providing
better anti-armor capabilities to antitank units, also has
capabilities that make it an integral part of the combined arms team.
Even when organized in heavy—light task forces, where the
preponderance of antiarmor capabilities traditionally has resided in
the heavy elements, TOW ITAS-equipped antitank units can not only
destroy threat targets but also provide superior reconnaissance,
surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA), rear area protection, and
urban operations capabilities.
The TOW ITAS consists of three new line replaceable units: the target
acquisition subsystem (TAS), the fire control subsystem (FCS), and the
lithium battery box (LBB); a modified TOW 2 traversing unit; the
existing TOW launch tube and tripod; and a TOW
kit. The TAS integrates into a single housing the direct view optics
and missile tracker, a second-generation forward looking infrared
(FLIR) night vision sight (NVS), and a laser rangefinder. TAS
electronics provide automatic boresighting for these components,
eliminating both tactical collimation and 180-day verification
requirements. The integral cooling system for the IR optics is a
modern SADA-II electrically powered cryocooler, removing the need to
carry a supply of high-pressure coolant gas cartridges as was
necessary for the previous AN/TAS-4 and AN/TAS-4A night sights.
The most recent addition to the ITAS system is the ITAS-FTL (far
target location) which incorporates a new module called PADS (position
attitude determination subsystem), a device which attaches to the top
of the ITAS sighting unit and uses differential GPS tracking to relay
precise coordinate data to the operator.
In 1968, a contract for full-scale production was awarded to Hughes,
and by 1970 the system was being fielded by the U.S. Army. When
adopted, the BGM-71 series replaced the M40 106 mm recoilless
rifle and the MGM-32
ENTAC missile system then in service. The missile
also replaced the AGM-22B then in service as a heli-borne anti-tank
1972: Vietnam: first combat use
On 24 April 1972, the U.S. 1st Combat Aerial TOW Team arrived in South
Vietnam; the team's mission was to test the new anti-armor missile
under combat conditions. The team consisted of three crews,
technical representatives from Bell
Helicopter and Hughes Aircraft,
members of the
United States Army Aviation and Missile Command, and
two UH-1B helicopters; each mounting the XM26 TOW weapons system,
which had been taken from storage. After displacing to the Central
Highlands for aerial gunnery, the unit commenced daily searches for
enemy armor. On 2 May 1972, U.S. Army UH-1 Huey helicopters firing
TOWs destroyed North Vietnamese tanks near An Loc. This was heralded
as the first time a U.S. unit neutralized enemy armor using
American-designed and built guided missiles (in this case, against a
captured American-made M41 operated by the North Vietnamese). On 9
May, elements of the North Vietnamese Army's 203rd Armored Regiment
Ben Het Camp
Ben Het Camp held by Army of the Republic of Vietnam
Rangers. The Rangers destroyed the first three
PT-76 amphibious light
tanks of the 203rd, thereby breaking up the attack. During the
battle for the city of Kontum, the TOW missile had proven to be a
significant weapon in disrupting enemy tank attacks within the region.
By the end of May,
BGM-71 TOW missiles had accumulated 24 confirmed
kills of both
PT-76 light and T-54 main battle tanks.
On 19 August, the South Vietnamese 5th Infantry Regiment abandoned
Firebase Ross in the Que Son Valley, 30 miles southwest of Da Nang, to
the North Vietnamese 711th Division. A dozen TOW missiles were left
with abandoned equipment and fell into Communist hands.
Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces used TOW missiles during the 1982 Lebanon
War. On 11 June, Israeli anti-tank teams armed with the TOW ambushed
Syrian armored forces destroyed a number of Syrian Soviet-made T-72
tanks. Estimates vary regarding the number of T-72s destroyed by TOWs
(vs. the number destroyed by
Merkava MBTs), with the lower end at 9
and the high end attributing "the majority" of the 30 T-72s destroyed
by Israeli forces in the war to Yossi Peled's anti-tank TOW units.
This was probably the first encounter of the American anti-tank
missile with the newer Soviet tank.
Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s, the Islamic Republic of
used TOW missiles purchased before the
Iranian Revolution in 1979, as
well as those purchased during the Iran–Contra affair.
Of the 202 AH-1J Internationals (export variant of the AH-1J SeaCobra)
Iran purchased from the USA, 62 were TOW-capable. Iranian AH-1Js
managed to slow down advances of Iraqi tanks into Iran. During the
"dogfights" between Iranian SeaCobras and Iraqi Mil Mi-24s, Iranians
achieved several "kills", usually using TOW missiles.
1991: Persian Gulf War
The TOW was used in multiple engagements during Operation Desert Storm
in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. During the war, both the M2 Bradley
Infantry fighting vehicle
Infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) and the
M3 Bradley Cavalry Fighting
Vehicle (CFV) carried TOW missiles. The M2 can also carry an
additional 7 rounds, while the M3 can carry an additional 12
rounds. Both M2 and M3 medium-weight Bradley Fighting Vehicles
destroyed more Iraqi tanks during the war than the M1A1 Abrams heavy
Main Battle Tanks did.
The British Army also deployed TOW-armed,
Westland Lynx helicopters to
the conflict, where they were used to attack Iraqi armored vehicles.
This was the first recorded use of the missile from a British
On June 5, 24 Pakistani soldiers were slaughtered by members of
Mohamed Farrah Aidid's
Habr Gidr militia; some were skinned.
Subsequently, the United Nations called for the arrest of those
responsible. Weeks later they would formally place the blame on Aidid,
leader of the
Habr Gidr clan. Subsequently, U.N. troops hunted Aidid.
Incidents between the two sides worsened, with fighting back and
forth. On 12 July, three months prior to the Battle of Mogadishu, the
United Nations and
United States attempted to defeat Aidid's
organization by attacking a strategy meeting of his native Habr Gidr
clan under Operation Michigan. The
Washington Post described the event
as a "slaughter" in which a "half-dozen"
AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters
fired 16 TOW missiles and 2,000 rounds from their 20 mm cannons
into the meeting of the elders, intellectuals, poets, religious
leaders, and senior combat commanders. The first TOW missile destroyed
the stairs, preventing escape. In the aftermath, it was revealed that
Aidid was not in the meeting. The
Red Cross claimed that 54 people had
Jonathan T. Howe
Jonathan T. Howe reported that 20 had died, while
Somali National Alliance produced a list of 73 people whom
they claimed had been killed.
2001: War in Afghanistan
TOW missiles were used during the War in Afghanistan.
10 Humvee-mounted TOW missiles were used by U.S. forces in
the 22 July 2003 assault that killed Uday and Qusay Hussein.
Although TOW missiles are generally used against armored vehicles,
these missiles were used on the house the two men were in.
2011: Syrian Civil War
A member of the
Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army – Southern Front's Sword of al-Sham
Brigades prepares to launch a BGM-71E TOW at a Syrian Arab Army
position in southern Syria (December 2014)
Army of Glory
Army of Glory fighter firing a
BGM-71 TOW at a Syrian Army target
north of Hama, Syria, in March 2017
The weapon was spotted as early as April 2014 in at least two videos
that surfaced showing
Syrian opposition forces in the Syrian Civil War
using BGM-71 TOWs, a weapon previously not seen in use by the
opposition. Such a video, showing a BGM-71E-3B with the serial
number removed, can be seen in a 27 May 2014 episode of the
In February 2015,
The Carter Center
The Carter Center listed 23 groups within the
Southern Front of the
Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army that have been documented using
US supplied TOWs.
A sudden influx of TOWs were supplied in May 2015, mostly to Free
Syrian Army affiliated factions, but also independent Islamist
battalions; as a requirement of being provided TOWs, these Syrian
opposition groups are required to document the use of the missiles by
filming their use, and are also required to save the spent missile
casings. Groups provided with TOWs include the Hazzm Movement, the
13th Division, 1st Coastal Division, Syria Revolutionaries Front,
Yarmouk Army, Knights of Justice Brigade, and the 101st Division.
Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army battalions widely and decisively used TOWs in the
2015 Jisr al-Shughur offensive. Russia attempted a rescue
operation after a Su-24M was shot down at the Syria–
Turkey border on
24 November 2015, a video of
Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army 1st Coastal Division
using a TOW missile to destroy a disabled Russian helicopter on the
ground after its crew had retreated was posted on YouTube. In
Saudi Arabia delivered 500 TOW missiles to anti-Assad
rebels. A video produced through Bulgarian Television provides
evidence of non rebel use of this weapon by Islamic affiliated
Reports indicate that small number of TOW missiles have ended up in
the hands of al-Qaeda in Syria and Islamic State of
Iraq and the
In August 2016 footage of the Syrian military inspecting a captured
BGM-71E missile system in Bani Zeit district, Aleppo, was leaked
online. On 2 September 2016, rebels released a video of a BGM-71
TOW destroying a French-manufactured Syrian Air Force Aérospatiale
Gazelle as it was landing on an airstrip near Khattab in Northern
Reports indicate that the TOW missile have successfully hit Russian
T-90s in Syria, which are equipped with active defenses designed to
defeat such missiles.
Raytheon has taken over for Hughes in recent years, and now handles
production of all current variants, as well as TOW development.
Armor penetration (est.)
Hughes Tube launched Optically tracked Wire command link guided (TOW)
3.9 kg (2.4 kg HE) HEAT
430 mm (exact value)
65–3,750 m (2.33 mi)
278 m/s
BGM-71A variant; improved range
BGM-71B variant; Improved TOW (ITOW) w/ improved shaped-charge warhead
1.41 m (probe extended)
1.17 m (probe folded)
630 mm (exact value)
BGM-71C variant; TOW-2, improved guidance, motor and enlarged main
1.51 m (probe extended)
1.17 m (probe folded)
(3.1 kg HE) HEAT
BGM-71D variant; TOW-2A optimized to defeat reactive armor with tandem
900 mm (behind a layer of ERA)
BGM-71D variant; TOW-2B top-down attack variant using explosively
6.14 kg EFP
200–4,500 m (2.8 mi)[N 1]
BGM-71F variant; different AP warhead; not produced
BGM-71E variant; "bunker buster" variant for use against fortified
200 mm double reinforced concrete
65–4,200 m (2.6 mi)
Original armor penetration estimates were 600 mm for BGM-71A/B
and 700–800 mm for BGM-71C. However, according to a now
declassified CIA study, the true penetration values against a vertical
target are much lower—just 430 mm for basic TOW and 630 mm
for Improved TOW.
Time to target at maximum range is 20 seconds therefore giving an
average speed of 187.5 m/s.
Iran has reverse engineered the type from examples acquired before
1979 and currently manufactures duplicate TOW missiles. These carry
the Iranian designation of Toophan.
Map with BGM-71 operators in blue
AgustaWestland AW109 A109 AH(L)-TOW helicopter only
Cameroon: Military of Cameroon
Canada: Canadian Armed Forces
Egypt: Produced under license
Iraq: Iranian version
Italy: Total of 432 launchers. 5,000 BGM-71 missiles and 130
launchers delivered in 1974; 10,000 missiles delivered in 1976–1978;
2,311 ITOW delivered in 1982–1984; 6,629 BGM-71C ITOW delivered in
1986–1989 for 67 million dollars (of which 1,239 practice missiles);
1,440 BGM-71D TOW2 for
A129 Mangusta delivered in 1990–1996
Lebanon: most carried by Humvee
Morocco: 70 launchers in service; 1,200 BGM-71-4B-RF TOW 2A
RF missiles on order, approved for export on 8 December 2016
South Korea: To be replaced by Raybolt. Still used in MD 500
Free Syrian Army
United Arab Emirates
Westland Lynx helicopters only
Netherlands: The decision to replace the
M47 Dragon (in use with
reconnaissance units) and TOW (in use with mechanized infantry) with
the "Gill MRAT" was made in 2001, with deliveries expected in
2002. The first Gill MRAT was actually issued in 2004 to the
Regiment van Heutsz.
Launch, trailing wire is clearly noticeable.
A US Marine carrying a BGM-71E missile tube.
A TOW fired from a US Marine Corps
Humvee during training, in 2014.
M901 ITV in Israel, in 2005.
A Greek TOW on the ground.
Greek soldiers manning a TOW unit.
The sight on an Hellenic Army BGM-71 TOW.
A ground-mounted TOW system.
A BGM-71 TOW-armed
Wiesel AWC of the German Army.
US Army soldiers assembling an ITAS (Improved Target Acquisition
System) TOW Missile system, in Iraq, in 2007.
An AH-1W SuperCobra of the
Republic of China Army
Republic of China Army armed with an XM65
launcher and four TOW missiles.
A Lynx AH.7 of the Royal Navy fitted with TOW missile launchers.
Joint Air-to-Ground Missile
History of UAVs decoys
List of U.S. Army Rocket Launchers By Model Number
^ 4,200m for TOW-2B Aero, 3,750 m for TOW-2B.
^ Pattie, Geoffrey. "Weapons and Equipment (Costs)". millbanksystems.
millbanksystems. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
^ Official US Army history of TOW (9th paragraph)
^ "M-220 Tube-launched, Optically tracked,
Wire-guided missile (TOW)".
fas.org. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
^ FM 23-24 TOW Weapon System, Headquarters, Department of the Army, 17
August 1994, p. 1-11, "The launch motor is a solid fuel rocket booster
that burns entirely inside the launch tube," p. 1-13 Table 1-2 gives
time of exit at launch +.05 seconds.
^ Gunston, p. 157.
^ a b c d http://www.army-technology.com/projects/tow/
^ John Pike. "TOW FIRE AND FORGET (TOW-F&F)".
Raytheon Company (8 October 2012). "
Raytheon awarded $349 million US
Army contract for TOW missiles".
^ "Air Weapons: TOW Fades".
^ a b Starry p. 215
^ Kontum: The Battle to Save South
Vietnam / Thomas P. McKenna
^ a b Starry p. 215–217
^ a b Dunstan
^ U.S. confirms enemy captured secret missiles.
Washington Post News
Service 22 August 1972
^ Pollack, Kenneth M. (2004). Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness,
1948-1991. University of Nebraska Press. p. 660.
^ עפר שלח ויואב לימור, "שבויים בלבנון,
האמת על מלחמת לבנון השנייה", הוצאת
ידיעות ספרים, 2007, עמוד 327 (Hebrew)
Ofer Shelah and Yoav Limor, "Captives in
Lebanon – The Truth about
Lebanon War", 2007 – page 327.
^ "[2.0] Second-Generation Cobras".
M2 Bradley – Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) – History, Specs
and Pictures – Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery".
M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle". TankNutDave.com.
^ "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia".
^ Rubin, Lyle Jeremy (12 April 2016). "As a Former Marine, America's
War-Making Haunts Me—It Should Haunt Our Politicians Too". The
Nation. Retrieved 30 October 2016. I remember watching about a half
dozen Marines unleash their fury on a village because stray rounds
were heard popping near our base, the unit was about to head home, and
there were weapon systems and ammunition yet to be deployed. First
they returned fire with their M-4 rifles. Then the M249 light machine
gun. Then the M240 machine gun. Then the MK-19 grenade launcher. Then
the AT4 anti-tank weapon. Then the
FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile.
Then the vehicle-mounted
BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile.
^ "Chronology: How the Mosul raid unfolded". BBC News. 23 July 2003.
Retrieved 16 June 2015.
^ Syria: Arming the Rebels. Frontline (Online Video). PBS. 27 May
2014. Event occurs at 8:07. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
^ "Syria Countrywide Conflict Report No. 5" (PDF). The Carter Center.
February 2015. p. 22. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
^ Mustafa, Hasan (8 May 2015). "THE MODERATE REBELS: A GROWING LIST OF
VETTED GROUPS FIELDING
BGM-71 TOW ANTI-TANK GUIDED MISSILES".
www.HasanMustafas.wordpress.com. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
^ Lucas, Scott (9 May 2015). "Syria: The 9 Insurgent Groups with
US-Made TOW Anti-Tank Missiles". EA WorldView. Retrieved 15 May
^ Gutman, Roy; Alhamadee, Mousab (3 May 2015). "Rebel worry: How to
control Islamists if Assad is pushed from northern Syria".
Ledger-Enquirer. The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on
7 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
^ Barnard, Anne; Saad, Hwaida (25 April 2015). "Islamists Seize
Control of Syrian City in Northwest". The New York Times. Retrieved 27
April 2015. Other video images posted by fighters and antigovernment
activists showed insurgents, including some with Fursan al-Haq, a Free
Syrian Army group, using what appeared to be guided antitank missiles
to blow up armored vehicles in the battles in Idlib Province in recent
^ "In Syria, the Stakes Are High for a Rebel Offensive". Stratfor. 24
April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
^ "Syria rebels destroy Russian helicopter". NOW Media.
Saudi Arabia just replenished Syrian rebels with one of the most
effective weapons against the Assad regime". Business Insider. 10
^ "I Wonder Why This is Being Censored."
^ "Syrian sniper: US TOW missiles transform CIA-backed Syria rebels
into ace marksmen in the fight against Assad". International Business
Times. 30 October 2015.
^ "ISIS used US-made anti-tank missiles near Palmyra". Business
Insider. 9 June 2015.
^ Sircliffe (2016-08-01), AnnaNews – Exclusive: Syrian Army Captured
American Arms Depot, retrieved 2016-08-12
^ TOW Missile Hits a
T-90 Tank with ‘Soft-Kill’ (SHTORA) APS and
Reactive Armor – Defense-Update.com, 27 February 2016
^ TOW-2B Aero ITAS vs
T-72 tank (test). Retrieved on 7 March 2011.
^ a b c TOW Weapon System Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback
^ "U.S. INTELLIGENCE AND SOVIET ARMOR" Paul F. Gorman, page 18
^ Mikhail Barabanov (2006-08-23). "Hezbollah's Examination".
Kommersant. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
^ "قوات الحشد الشعبي تتسلح بصواريخ
طوفان ( تاو ) المتطورة".
^ Army Recognition Alain Servaes. "Military army ground forces
^ "Government of
Morocco – TOW 2A, Radio Frequency (RF) Missiles
(BGM-71-4B-RF) and Support". Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 8
December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
^ "Foreign Military Sale:
Pakistan – TOW-2A Anti-Armor Guided
^ "Gill-antitankraket". Defensie.nl. Ministerie van Defensie.
^ van Hoof, H.A.L. (2001-06-22). "nr. 45 BRIEF VAN DE STAATSSECRETARIS
VAN DEFENSIE". Retrieved 2018-02-13.
^ van Westerhoven, Leo. "
Netherlands fire their first GILL". Dutch
Defence Press. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
The TOW Family
TOW Improved Target Acquisition System (ITAS)
The TOW Anti-Tank Missile in Vietnam
Dunstan, Simon (1982).
Vietnam Tracks-Armor in Battle. Osprey
Publications. ISBN 0-89141-171-2.
Gunston, Bill (1983). An Illustrated Guide to Modern Airborne
Missiles. London: Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 0-86101-160-0.
Starry, Donn A. General. Mounted Combat in Vietnam.
Department of the Army. First printed 1978-CMH Pub 90-17.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BGM-71 TOW.
From early developmental XBGM-71 testing to the BGM-71A TOW
TOW project history at Redstone Arsenal
More information at Designation Systems.net
The Early TOW Missile Story & Photos
Tank vs Missile – 1974 article
Iranian Copies of the TOW and DRAGON
Discovery Channel program on "Modern Missiles" with best video
information on TOW today. TOW part starts at two minutes
TOW 2A Wireless
TOW 2B Aero Wireless
TOW Bunker Buster Wireless
Tube-Launched, Optically-Tracked, Wire-Guided (TOW) Missiles
United States Tri-Service missile and drone designation system
Kinetic Energy Interceptor
United States tri-service rocket designations post-1962
Drones designated in UAV sequence
History of the Canadian Army
First Canadian Army
Military History of Canada
Fort Frontenac Library
Structure of the Canadian Army
2nd Canadian Division
3rd Canadian Division
4th Canadian Division
5th Canadian Division
List of Units
Mechanized brigade groups
C7A1 rifle/C8A1 carbine/C7A2 rifle
Browning .50 calibre heavy machine gun
Browning-HP 9 mm pistol
C15 Long Range Sniper Weapon (LRSW)
C3A1 sniper rifle
C13 fragmentation grenade
M203 grenade launcher
Carl Gustav SRAAW(M)
81 mm mortar
60 mm mortar
Javelin short-range air defence missile
C3 close support howitzer
LG1 Mark II 105 mm towed howitzer
M777 lightweight 155mm howitzer
Armoured fighting vehicles
Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle
M113A3 and MTVL
Canadian Army Command and Staff College
Peace Support Training Centre
Canadian Army Advanced Warfare Centre