Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Alemannic German:
Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch,[note 1] and
others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking
Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy
bordering Switzerland. Occasionally, the Alemannic dialects spoken in
other countries are grouped together with Swiss German, as well,
especially the dialects of
Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg,
which are closely associated to Switzerland's.
Swiss German forms no unity. The linguistic division
of Alemannic is rather into Low, High and Highest Alemannic, varieties
of all of which are spoken both inside and outside Switzerland. The
only exception within
German-speaking Switzerland is the municipality
Samnaun where a Bavarian dialect is spoken. The reason "Swiss
German" dialects constitute a special group is their almost
unrestricted use as a spoken language in practically all situations of
daily life, whereas the use of the Alemannic dialects in other
countries is restricted or even endangered.
The dialects of
Swiss German must not be confused with Swiss Standard
German, the variety of
Standard German used in Switzerland. Most
people in Germany do not understand Swiss German. Therefore, when an
interview with a
Swiss German speaker is shown on German television,
subtitles are required. Although
Swiss German is the native
language, from age 6, Swiss school students additionally learn Swiss
Standard German at school and are thus capable of understanding,
writing and speaking
Standard German with varying abilities mainly
based on the level of education.
2 Variation and distribution
8 See also
12 External links
Unlike most regional languages in modern Europe,
Swiss German is the
spoken everyday language of all social levels in industrial cities, as
well as in the countryside. Using the dialect conveys neither social
nor educational inferiority and is done with pride. There are a few
settings where speaking
Standard German is demanded or polite, e.g.,
in education (but not during breaks in school lessons, where the
teachers will speak in the dialect with students), in multilingual
parliaments (the federal parliaments and a few cantonal and municipal
ones), in the main news broadcast or in the presence of non-Alemannic
speakers. This situation has been called a "medial diglossia", since
the spoken language is mainly the dialect, whereas the written
language is mainly (the Swiss variety of) Standard German.
Swiss German is intelligible to speakers of other Alemannic dialects,
but largely unintelligible to speakers of
Standard German without
adequate prior exposure, including for French- or Italian-speaking
Swiss who learn
Standard German at school.
Swiss German speakers on TV
or in films are thus usually dubbed or subtitled if shown in Germany.
Dialect rock is a music genre using the language; many Swiss rock
bands, however, alternatively rather sing in English.
Swiss Amish of
Adams County, Indiana
Adams County, Indiana and their daughter
settlements also use Swiss German.
Variation and distribution
Swiss German is a regional or political umbrella term, not a
linguistic unity. For all dialects, there are idioms spoken outside
Switzerland that are more closely related to them than some Swiss
German dialects. The main linguistic divisions within
Swiss German are
those of Low, High and Highest Alemannic, and mutual intelligibility
across those groups is almost fully seamless, though with some minor
exceptions, mainly regarding vocabulary. Low Alemannic is only spoken
in the northernmost parts of Switzerland, in
Basel and around Lake
High Alemannic is spoken in most of the Swiss Plateau, and
is divided in an eastern and a western group. Highest Alemannic is
spoken in the Alps.
Language distribution in Switzerland
Basel German in
Basel-Stadt (BS), closely related to Alsatian
Bernese German, in the
Swiss Plateau parts of
dialects of Solothurn (SO)
dialects of the western part of
in a middle position between eastern and western are
dialects in the eastern part of
dialects of Lucerne (LU)
dialects of Zug (ZG)
Zürich German, in Zürich (ZH)
dialects of St. Gallen (SG)
Appenzell (AR & AI)
dialects of Schaffhausen (SH)
dialects in parts of
dialects in parts of
Canton of Fribourg
Canton of Fribourg (FR)
dialects of the
Bernese Oberland (BE)
Unterwalden (OW & NW) and Uri (UR)
dialects of Schwyz (SZ)
dialects of Glarus (GL)
Walliser German in parts of the Valais (VS)
Walser German: Via the medieval migration of the Walser, Highest
Alemannic spread to pockets of what are now parts of northern Italy
(P), the north west of
Ticino (TI), parts of
Liechtenstein and Vorarlberg.
Each dialect is separable into numerous local subdialects, sometimes
down to a resolution of individual villages. Speaking the dialect is
an important part of regional, cantonal and national identities. In
the more urban areas of the Swiss plateau, regional differences are
fading due to increasing mobility, and a growing population of
non-Alemannic descent. Despite the varied dialects, the Swiss can
still understand one another, but may particularly have trouble
understanding Walliser dialects.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering
support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead
Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see
Swiss German dialects, being High German dialects, have completed
High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift (synonyms: Second Germanic consonant
shift, High German sound shift), that is, they have not only
changed t to [t͡s] or [s] and p to [p͡f] or [f], but also k to
[k͡x] or [x]. There are, however, exceptions, namely the idioms of
Chur and Basel.
Basel German is a Low Alemannic dialect (mostly spoken
in Germany near the Swiss border), and
Chur German is basically High
Alemannic without initial [x] or [k͡x].
High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift happened between the fourth and 9th
centuries south of the Benrath line, separating High German from Low
German, where high refers to the geographically higher regions of the
German-speaking area of those days (combining
Upper German and Central
German varieties - also referring to their geographical locations).
North of the
Benrath line up to the North Sea, this consonant shift
did not happen.
Walser migration, going on between the 12th and 13th centuries,
spread upper Wallis varieties towards the east and south, into Grisons
and even further to western Austria and northern Italy. Informally, a
distinction is made between the German-speaking people living in the
canton of Valais, the Walliser, and the migrated ones, the Walsers (to
be found mainly in Graubünden,
Vorarlberg in Western Austria, Ticino
in South Switzerland, south of the Monte Rosa mountain chain in Italy
Issime in the Aosta valley), Tirol in North Italy, and
Allgäu in Bavaria).
Walser communities were situated on higher alpine
regions, so were able to stay independent of the reigning forces of
those days, who did not or were not able to follow and monitor them
all the time necessary at these hostile and hard to survive areas. So,
Walser were pioneers of the liberalisation from serfdom and
Walser villages are easily distinguishable from
Grisonian ones, since
Walser houses are made of wood instead of stone.
Like all other Southern German dialects,
Swiss German dialects have no
voiced obstruents. However, they have an opposition of consonant pairs
such as [t] and [d] or [p] and [b]. Traditionally, that distinction is
said to be a distinction of fortis and lenis, but it has been claimed
to be a distinction of quantity.
Swiss German keeps the fortis–lenis opposition at the end of words.
There can be minimal pairs such as graad [ɡ̊raːd̥] 'straight' and
Graat [ɡ̊raːt] 'arête' or bis [b̥ɪz̥] 'be (imp.)' and Biss
[b̥ɪs] 'bite'. That distinguishes
Swiss German and Swiss Standard
German from German Standard German, which neutralizes the
fortis–lenis opposition at the ends of words. The phenomenon is
usually called final-obstruent devoicing even though, in the case of
German, phonetic voice may not be involved.
Swiss German /p, t, k/ are not aspirated. Aspirated [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ]
have (in most dialects) secondarily developed by combinations of
prefixes with word-initial /h/ or by borrowings from other languages
(mainly Standard German): /ˈphaltə/ 'keep' (standard German
behalten [bəˈhaltn̩]); /ˈtheː/ 'tea' (standard German Tee
[ˈtʰeː]); /ˈkhalt/ 'salary' (standard German Gehalt
[ɡəˈhalt]). In the dialects of
Basel and Chur, aspirated /k/ is
also present in native words. All typically-voiced consonant sounds
are voiceless. Stop sounds being /b̥ d̥ ɡ̊/, and fricatives as
Unlike Standard German,
Swiss German /x/ does not have the allophone
[ç] but is typically [x], with the allophone [χ]. The typical Swiss
shibboleth features this sound: Chuchichäschtli ('kitchen cupboard'),
Swiss German dialects have gone through the Alemannic n-apocope,
which has led to the loss of final -n in words such as Garte 'garden'
(standard German Garten) or mache 'to make' (standard German machen).
In some Highest Alemannic dialects, the n-apocope has also been
effective in consonant clusters, for instance in Hore 'horn' (High
Alemannic Horn) or däiche 'to think' (
High Alemannic dänke). Only
the Highest Alemannic dialects of the
Lötschental and of the Haslital
have preserved the -n.
The phoneme /r/ is pronounced as an alveolar trill [r] in many
dialects, but some dialects, especially in the Northeast or in the
Basel region, have a uvular trill [ʀ], like in many German varieties
A labiodental approximant [ʋ] is used in Swiss German, as the [v]
sound is present in Standard German.
Monophthongs of the Zürich dialect, from Fleischer & Schmid
Swiss German dialects have rounded front vowels, unlike other
High German dialects. Only in Low Alemannic dialects of
Switzerland (mainly Basel) and in Walliser dialects have
rounded front vowels been unrounded. In Basel, rounding is being
reintroduced because of the influence of other
Swiss German dialects.
Like Bavarian dialects,
Swiss German dialects have preserved the
opening diphthongs of Middle High German: /iə̯, uə̯, yə̯/: in
/liə̯b̥/ 'lovely' (standard German lieb but pronounced /liːp/);
/huə̯t/ 'hat' (standard German Hut /huːt/); /xyə̯l/ 'cool'
Standard German kühl /kyːl/). Some diphthongs have become unrounded
in several dialects.
Like in Low German, most
Swiss German dialects have preserved the old
West-Germanic monophthongs /iː, uː, yː/: /pfiːl/ 'arrow' (Standard
German Pfeil /pfaɪ̯l/); /b̥uːx/ 'belly' (
Standard German Bauch
/baʊ̯x/); /z̥yːlə/ 'pillar' (
Standard German Säule
/zɔʏ̯lə/). A few Alpine dialects show diphthongization, like in
Standard German, especially some dialects of
Unterwalden and Schanfigg
(Graubünden) and the dialect of
Diphthongization in some dialects
Middle High German/many
Swiss German dialects
Swiss German dialects like
Bernese German have preserved
the old diphthongs /ei̯, ou̯/, but the other dialects have /ai̯,
Standard German or /æi̯, æu̯/. Zurich German, and some
other dialects distinguish primary diphthongs from secondary ones that
arose in hiatus:
Zurich German /ai̯, au̯/ from Middle High German
/ei̯, ou̯/ versus
Zurich German /ei̯, ou̯/ from Middle High German
Zurich German /bai̯, frau̯/ 'leg, woman' from Middle
High German bein, vrouwe versus
Zurich German /frei̯, bou̯/ 'free,
Middle High German
Middle High German frī, būw.
Swiss German dialects, consonant length and vowel length are
independent from each other, unlike other modern Germanic languages.
Here are examples from Bernese German:
/d̥i b̥raːfə/ 'the honest ones'
/ʃlaːfːə/ 'to sleep'
Lexical stress is more often on the first syllable than in Standard
German, even in French loans like [ˈmɛrsːi] or [ˈmersːi]
"thanks". However, there are many different stress patterns, even
Bernese German has many words that are stressed on
the first syllable: [ˈkaz̥ino] 'casino' while
Standard German has
[kʰaˈziːno]. However, no
Swiss German dialect is as consistent as
Icelandic in that respect.
The grammar of Swiss dialects has some specialties compared to
There is no preterite indicative (yet there is a preterite
The preterite is replaced by perfect constructs (this also happens in
spoken Standard German, particularly in Southern Germany and Austria).
It is still possible to form pluperfect phrases, by applying the
perfect construct twice to the same sentence.
There is no genitive case, though certain dialects have preserved a
possessive genitive (for instance in rural Bernese German). The
genitive case is replaced by two constructions: The first of these is
often acceptable in
Standard German as well: possession + Prp. vo
(std. German von) + possessor: es Buech vomene Profässer vs. Standard
German ein Buch von einem Professor ("a book of a professor"), s Buech
vom Profässer vs.
Standard German das Buch des Professors ("the
professor's book"). The second is still frowned on where it appears in
Standard German (from dialects and spoken language): dative of the
possessor + the possessive pronoun referring to the possessor +
possession: em Profässer sis Buech ("the professor his book").
The order within verb groups may vary, e.g. wo du bisch cho/wo du cho
bisch vs. standard German als du gekommen bist "when you have
All relative clauses are introduced by the relative particle wo
(‘where’), never by the relative pronouns der, die, das, welcher,
welches as in Standard German, e.g. ds Bispil, wo si schrybt vs.
Standard German das Beispiel, das sie schreibt (‘the example that
she writes’); ds Bispil, wo si dra dänkt vs.
Standard German das
Beispiel, woran sie denkt (‘the example that she thinks of’).
Whereas the relative particle wo replaces the
Standard German relative
pronouns in the Nom. (subject) and Acc. (direct object) without
further complications, in phrases where wo plays the role of an
indirect object, a prepositional object, a possessor or an adverbial
adjunct it has to be taken up later in the relative clause by
reference of (prp. +) the personal pronoun (if wo refers to a person)
or the pronominal adverb (if wo refers to a thing). E.g. de Profässer
won i der s Buech von em zeiget ha ("the professor whose book I showed
you"), de Bärg wo mer druf obe gsii sind ("the mountain that we were
In combinations with other verbs, the verbs gah or goh "go", cho
"come", la or lo "let" and aafa or aafo "begin" reduplicate, prefixed
to the main verb.
She comes to decorate our Christmas tree.
Sie kommt unseren Christbaum schmücken.
She doesn't let him sleep.
Sie lässt ihn nicht schlafen.
This is probably a generalization of a close association of these
verbs with the following verb in perfect or modal verb constructions:
She hasn't/didn't let him sleep.
Sie hat ihn nicht schlafen lassen. or Sie ließ ihn nicht schlafen.
She doesn't want to let him sleep.
Sie will ihn nicht schlafen lassen.
The vocabulary is varied, especially in rural areas: many specialised
terms have been retained, e.g., regarding cattle or weather. In the
cities, much of the rural vocabulary has been lost. A Swiss German
greeting is Grüezi, from Gott grüez-i (
Standard German Gott grüsse
Euch) or "God bless you".
Most word adoptions come from Standard German. Many of these are now
so common that they have totally replaced the original Swiss German
words, e.g. the words Hügel 'hill' (instead of Egg, Bühl), Lippe
'lip' (instead of Lefzge). Others have replaced the original words
only in parts of Switzerland, e.g., Butter 'butter' (originally called
Anken in most of Switzerland). Virtually any Swiss Standard German
word can be borrowed into Swiss German, always adapted to Swiss German
phonology. However, certain
Standard German words are never used in
Swiss German, for instance Frühstück 'breakfast', niedlich 'cute' or
zu hause 'at home'; instead, the native words Zmorge, härzig and
dehei are used.
Swiss dialects have quite a few words from French and Italian, which
are perfectly assimilated. Glace (ice cream) for example is pronounced
/ɡlas/ in French but [ˈɡ̊lasːeː] or [ˈɡ̊lasːə] in many
Swiss German dialects. The French word for 'thank you', merci, is also
used as in merci vilmal, literally "thanks many times". Possibly,
these words are not direct adoptions from French but survivors of the
once more numerous French loanwords in Standard German, many of which
have fallen out of use in Germany.
In recent years, Swiss dialects have also taken some English words
which already sound very Swiss, e.g., [ˈfuːd̥ə] ('to eat', from
"food"), [ɡ̊ei̯mə] ('to play computer games', from "game") or
[ˈz̥nœːb̥ə] or [ˈb̥oːrd̥ə] – ('to snowboard', from
"snowboard"). These words are probably not direct loanwords from
English, but have been adopted through standard German intermediation.
While most of those loanwords are of recent origin, some have been in
use for decades, e.g. [ˈ(t)ʃutːə] (to play football, from
There are also a few English words which are modern adoptions from
Swiss German. The dishes müesli, and rösti have become English
words, as did loess (fine grain), flysch (sandstone formation), kepi,
landamman, kilch, schiffli, and putsch in a political sense. The term
bivouac is sometimes explained as originating from Swiss German,
while printed etymological dictionaries (e.g. the German Kluge or
Knaurs Etymological Dictionary) derive it from
Low German instead.
Written forms that were mostly based on the local Alemannic varieties,
thus similar to Middle High German, were only gradually replaced by
the forms of New High German. This replacement took from the 15th to
18th centuries to complete. In the 16th century, the Alemannic forms
of writing were considered the original, truly Swiss forms, whereas
New High German forms were perceived as foreign innovations. The
innovations were brought about by the printing press and were also
associated with Lutheranism. An example of the language shift is the
Froschauer Bible: Its first impressions after 1524 were largely
written in an Alemannic language, but since 1527, the New High German
forms were gradually adopted. The Alemannic forms were longest
preserved in the chancelleries, with the chancellery of
Bern being the
last to adopt
New High German in the second half of the 18th
Today all formal writing, newspapers, books and much informal writing
is done in Swiss Standard German, which is usually called
Schriftdeutsch (written German). Certain dialectal words are accepted
Swiss Standard German and are also sanctioned by the
Duden, e.g., Zvieri (afternoon snack).
Swiss Standard German is
virtually identical to
Standard German as used in Germany, with most
differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and orthography. For example,
Swiss Standard German always uses a double s (ss) instead of the
There are no official rules of
Swiss German orthography. The
orthographies used in the
Swiss German literature can be roughly
divided into two systems: Those that try to stay as close to standard
German spelling as possible and those that try to represent the sounds
as well as possible. The so-called Schwyzertütschi Dialäktschrift
was developed by Eugen Dieth, but knowledge of these guidelines is
limited mostly to language experts. Furthermore, the spellings
originally proposed by Dieth included some special signs not found on
a normal keyboard, such as ⟨ʃ⟩ instead of ⟨sch⟩ for [ʃ] or
⟨ǜ⟩ instead of ⟨ü⟩ for [ʏ]. In 1986, a revised version of
the Dieth-Schreibung was published, designed to be written "on a
A few letters are used differently from the
Standard German rules:
⟨k⟩ (and ⟨ck⟩) are used for the affricate /kx/.
⟨gg⟩ is used for the unaspirated fortis /k/.
⟨y⟩ (and sometimes ⟨yy⟩) traditionally stands for the /iː/
(in many dialects shortened to /i/, but still with closed quality)
that corresponds to
Standard German /aɪ̯/, e.g. in Rys ‘rice’
(standard German Reis /raɪ̯s/) vs. Ris ‘giant’ (standard German
/riːzə/). This usage goes back to an old ij-ligature. Many writers,
however, don't use ⟨y⟩, but ⟨i⟩/⟨ii⟩, especially in the
dialects that have lost distinction between these sounds, compare
Zürich German Riis /riːz̥/ ‘rice’ or 'giant' to Bernese German
Rys /riːz̥/ 'rice' vs. Ris /rɪːz̥/ (‘giant’). Some use even
⟨ie⟩, influenced by
Standard German spelling, which leads to
confusion with ⟨ie⟩ for /iə̯/.
⟨w⟩ represents [ʋ], slightly different from
Standard German as
⟨ä⟩ usually represents [æ], and can also represent [ə] or [ɛ].
⟨ph⟩ represents [pʰ], ⟨th⟩ represents [tʰ], and ⟨gh⟩
Since [ei] is written as ⟨ei⟩, [ai] is written as ⟨äi⟩,
though in eastern
Switzerland ⟨ei⟩ is often used for both of these
Since the 19th century, a considerable body of
Swiss German literature
has accumulated. The earliest works were in
Zurich German (Johann
Martin Usteri, Jakob Stutz); the works of
Jeremias Gotthelf which were
published at the same time are in Swiss Standard German, but use many
expressions of Bernese German. Some of the more important dialect
writing authors and their works are:
Anna Maria Bacher (born 1947), Z Kschpel fam Tzit; Litteri un
Schattä; Z Tzit fam Schnee (South
Walser German of Formazza/Pomatt)
Albert Bächtold (1891–1981), De goldig Schmid; Wält uhni Liecht;
De Studänt Räbme; Pjotr Ivanowitsch (Schaffhausen dialect of
Ernst Burren (born 1944), Dr Schtammgascht; Näschtwermi (Solothurn
August Corrodi (1826–1885), De Herr Professer; De Herr Vikari; De
Herr Dokter, translation of Plautus's Mostellaria (Zurich dialect)
Barbara Egli (1918–2005), Wildi Chriesi (Zurich Oberland dialect)
Fritz Enderlin (1883–1971), De Sonderbunds-Chrieg, translated from
C. F. Ramuz's French poem La Grande Guerre du Sondrebond (Upper
Martin Frank (born 1950), Ter Fögi ische Souhung; La Mort de
Chevrolet (Bernese dialect with Zurich interferences)
Simon Gfeller (1868–1943), Ämmegrund; Drätti, Müetti u der Chlyn;
Seminarzyt (Bernese dialect of Emmental)
Jeremias Gotthelf (1797–1854), only parts of his works are written
in dialect (Bernese dialect)
Paul Haller (1882–1920), Maria und Robert (Western
Frida Hilty-Gröbli (1893–1957), Am aalte Maartplatz z Sant Galle;
De hölzig Matroos (St Gall dialect)
Josef Hug (1903–1985), S Gmaiguet; Dunggli Wolgga ob Salaz
Graubünden Rhine Valley dialect)
Thomas Hürlimann (born 1950), Dr Franzos im Ybrig, loosely based on
Guy Krneta (born 1964), Furnier (collection of short stories), Zmittst
im Gjätt uss (prose), Ursle (Bernese dialect)
Michael Kuoni (1838–1891), Bilder aus dem Volksleben des
Walser dialect of Prättigau)
Maria Lauber (1891–1973), Chüngold; Bletter im Luft; Der jung
Bernese Oberland dialect)
Pedro Lenz (born 1965), Plötzlech hets di am Füdle (Bernese Dialect)
Meinrad Lienert (1865–1933), Flüeblüemli; 's Mireli; Der Waldvogel
(Schwyz dialect of Einsiedeln)
Carl Albert Loosli (1877–1959), Mys Dörfli; Mys Ämmitaw; Wi's
öppe geit! (Bernese dialect of Emmental)
Kurt Marti (born 1921), Vierzg Gedicht ir Bärner Umgangssprache; Rosa
Loui (Bernese dialect)
Mani Matter (1936–1972), songwriter (Bernese dialect)
Traugott Meyer (1895–1959), 's Tunnälldorf; Der Gänneral Sutter
Gall Morel (1803–1872), Dr Franzos im Ybrig (Schwyz German of Iberg)
Viktor Schobinger (born 1934), Der Ääschme trifft simpatisch lüüt
and a lot of other Züri Krimi (Zurich dialect)
Caspar Streiff (1853–1917), Der Heiri Jenni im Sunnebärg (Glarus
Jakob Stutz (1801–1877), Gemälde aus dem Volksleben; Ernste und
heitere Bilder aus dem Leben unseres Volkes (Zurich Oberland dialect)
Rudolf von Tavel
Rudolf von Tavel (1866–1934), Ring i der Chetti; Gueti Gschpane;
Meischter und Ritter; Der Stärn vo Buebebärg; D’Frou Kätheli und
ihri Buebe; Der Frondeur; Ds velorene Lied; D’Haselmuus; Unspunne;
Jä gäl, so geit’s!; Der Houpme Lombach; Götti und Gotteli; Der
Donnergueg; Veteranezyt; Heinz Tillman; Die heilige Flamme; Am
Kaminfüür; Bernbiet; Schweizer daheim und draußen; Simeon und Eisi;
Geschichten aus dem Bernerland (Bernese dialect)
Alfred Tobler (1845–1923), Näbes oß mine Buebejohre (Appenzell
Johann Martin Usteri (1763–1827), Dichtungen in Versen und Prosa
Hans Valär (1871–1947), Dr Türligiiger (
Bernhard Wyss (1833–1889), Schwizerdütsch. Bilder aus dem Stilleben
unseres Volkes (Solothurn dialect)
Parts of the Bible were translated in different
Swiss German dialects,
Ds Nöie Teschtamänt bärndütsch (Bernese New Testament, translated
by Hans and Ruth Bietenhard, 1989)
Ds Alte Teschtamänt bärndütsch (parts of the Old Testament in
Bernese dialect, translated by Hans and Ruth Bietenhard, 1990)
D Psalme bärndütsch (Psalms in Bernese dialect, translated by Hans,
Ruth and Benedikt Bietenhard, 1994)
S Nöi Teschtamänt Züritüütsch (
Zurich German New Testament,
translated by Emil Weber, 1997)
D Psalme Züritüütsch (Psalms in Zurich German, translated by Josua
Der guet Bricht us der Bible uf Baselbieterdütsch (parts of the Old
and the New Testament in
Basel dialect, 1981)
S Markus Evangelium Luzärntüütsch (Gospel of Mark in Lucerne
dialect, translated by Walter Haas, 1988)
Markusevangeeli Obwaldnerdytsch (Gospel of Mark in the dialect of the
Obwalden County, translated by Karl Imfeld, 1979)
Swiss Standard German
Linguistic geography of Switzerland
^ Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no
defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be
^ "Sprachen, Religionen – Daten, Indikatoren: Sprachen –
Üblicherweise zu Hause gesprochene Sprachen" (official site) (in
German, French, and Italian). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal
Statistical Office. 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-13. Zu Hause oder mit den
Angehörigen sprechen 60,1% der betrachteten Bevölkerung
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Swiss German".
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ "10vor10 – Nachrichtenmagazin von Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen"
(in German). 3sat – ZDF ORF SRG ARD, the television channel
collectively produced by four channels from three countries. Retrieved
Swiss German talks and interviews on the daily night news
show 10vor10 by the major German Swiss channel SRF1 is consistently
subtitled in German on 3sat
^ See, for instance, an Examination of
Swiss German in and around
Zürich, a paper that presents the differences between Swiss German
and High German.
^ Translations of Hochdeutsche Lautverschiebung
^ Tranlslations of High German consonant shift
^ Astrid Krähenmann: Quantity and prosodic asymmetries in Alemannic.
Synchronic and diachronic perspectives. de Gruyter, Berlin 2003.
^ Werner König: dtv-Atlas zur deutschen Sprache. München: Deutscher
Taschenbuch Verlag, 1989. ISBN 3-423-03025-9. S. 149.
^ a b Andreas Lötscher: Schweizerdeutsch – Geschichte, Dialekte,
Gebrauch. Huber, Frauenfeld/Stuttgart 1983 ISBN 3-7193-0861-8
^ See Rudolf Hotzenköcherle, Rudolf Trüb (eds.) (1975): Sprachatlas
der deutschen Schweiz II 261s.
^ Schweizerisches Idiotikon, Volume II, pages 511-512
^ Cf. the entry bivouac of the Online Etymology Dictionary
^ Entry Deutsch ('German') in the Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
^ Dieth, Eugen: Schwyzertütschi Dialäktschrift. Dieth-Schreibung.
2nd ed. revised and edited by Christian Schmid-Cadalbert, Aarau:
Sauerländer, 1986. ISBN 3-7941-2832-X (in German)
^  Archived 8 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ See a compilation on
Albert Bachmann (ed.), Beiträge zur schweizerdeutschen Grammatik
(BSG), 20 vols., Frauenfeld: Huber, 1919–1941.
Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF),
Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2),
Rudolf Hotzenköcherle (ed.), Beiträge zur schweizerdeutschen
Mundartforschung (BSM), 24 vols., Frauenfeld: Huber, 1949–1982.
Peter von Matt, Deutsch in der Deutschen Schweiz. In: Peter von Matt:
Das Kalb vor der Gotthardpost. Zur Literatur und Politik in der
Schweiz. München: Carl Hanser, 2012, ISBN 978-3-446-23880-0, S.
Verein für das Schweizerdeutsche Wörterbuch (ed.), Schweizerisches
Idiotikon: Wörterbuch der schweizerdeutschen Sprache. Frauenfeld:
Huber, 17 vols. (16 complete), 1881–, ISBN 978-3-7193-0413-3.
A Select Bibliography of English Texts on
Swiss German offers the
homepage of Schweizerisches Idiotikon.
Alemannic edition of, the free encyclopedia
Chochichästli-Orakel – choose the
Swiss German words you would
normally use and see how well this matches the dialect of your area.
Dialekt.ch a site with sound samples from different dialects. (German
Schweizerisches Idiotikon The homepage of the Swiss national
One Poem in 29 Swiss dialects (and English)
Swiss German Morphology and Lexicon
swiss-linguistics.com Information portal on current linguistic
research in Switzerland
Languages of Switzerland
Major dialect groups
Germanic languages and dialects
East Pomeranian-West Prussian
Western East Pomeranian
Eastern East Pomeranian
West Central Pomeranian
Mennonite Low German
Dutch Low Saxon
Northern Low Saxon
East Frisian Low Saxon
Namibian Black German
Parana Volga German
German Standard German
Austrian Standard German
Swiss Standard German
Italics indicate extinct languages
Bold indicates languages with more than 3 million speakers
Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their