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8th 2nd (in Gujarat
Gujarat
state)

 • Density 14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)

 • Metro 5,935,000[4]

 • Metro rank 9th

 • Demonym Surti

Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Pincode(s) 394 XXX, 395 XXX

Area code(s) 91-261-XXX-XXXX

Vehicle registration GJ-05, GJ-19, GJ-28[6]

Sex ratio 1.27[7] ♂/♀

Coastline 35 kilometres (22 mi)

Literacy rate 86.65%[8]

Website www.suratmunicipal.gov.in

Surat
Surat
is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is now a center for diamond cutting and polishing. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat
Surat
district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai. The city centre is located on the Tapti River, close to Arabian Sea.[9] Surat
Surat
was the 4th-fastest growing city in 2016 as per a study conducted by international think tank City
City
Mayors Foundation.[10] The city registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008.[11] Surat
Surat
was awarded "best city" by the Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013.[12] Surat
Surat
is selected as the first smart IT city in India
India
which is being constituted by the Microsoft
Microsoft
CityNext Initiative tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
and Wipro.[13] The city has 2.97 million internet users which is about 65% of total population.[14] Surat
Surat
was selected in 2015 for an IBM
IBM
Smarter Cities Challenge grant.[15][16] Surat
Surat
has been selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[17] In 2010, Surat
Surat
was the 3rd "cleanest city of India" according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development,[18]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Economy

3.1 Diamond
Diamond
polishing 3.2 Textiles 3.3 Information technology 3.4 Diamond
Diamond
Research And Mercantile City
City
(DREAM) 3.5 Transport

4 Civic institutions

4.1 Science Center 4.2 Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium 4.3 Lalbhai Contractor Cricket Stadium 4.4 Public safety

5 Demographics 6 Education

6.1 Universities

7 Notable residents 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Surat
Surat
in 1877

Surat
Surat
is believed to have been founded by a Brahmin
Brahmin
named Gopi, who named the area Surajpur or Suryapur.[19] In the 12th and 15th centuries, Surat
Surat
was plundered by Muslims.[19] In 1512 and again in 1530, Surat
Surat
was ravaged by the Portuguese Empire. In 1514, the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa
described Surat
Surat
as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city had become Surat.[19] In 1573, Surat
Surat
was conquered by the Mughals.[19] It was the most prosperous port in the Mughal empire.[20] Despite being a rich city, Surat
Surat
looked like a typical "grubby" trader's town with mud-and-bamboo tenements and crooked streets, although along the riverfront there were a few mansions and warehouses belonging to local merchant princes and the establishments of Turkish, Armenian, English, French and Dutch traders. There were also hospitals for cows, horses, flies and insects run by religious Jains, which puzzled travelers.[20] Some streets were narrow while others were of sufficient width. In the evening, especially near the Bazaar (marketplace), the streets became crowded with people and merchants (including Banyan merchants) selling their goods. Surat
Surat
was a populous city during the Mughal era but also had a large transient population: during the monsoon season, when ships could come and go from the ports without danger, the city's population would swell.[20] In 1612, England
England
established its first Indian trading factory in Surat.[19] The city was sacked twice by the Maratha king Shivaji, with the first sacking occurring in 1664.[19][9] Shivaji's raids scared trade away and caused ruin to the city.[20] Later, Surat
Surat
became the emporium of India, exporting gold and cloth. Its major industries were shipbuilding and textile manufacture.[19] The coast of the Tapti River, from Athwalines to Dumas, was specially meant for shipbuilders, who were usually Rassis.[9] The city continued to be prosperous until the rise of Bombay (present-day Mumbai). Afterwards, Surat's shipbuilding industry declined and Surat
Surat
itself gradually declined throughout the 18th century.[19][9] Between 1790-1, an epidemic killed 100,000 Gujaratis
Gujaratis
in Surat.[21] The British and Dutch both claimed control of the city, but in 1800, the British took control of Surat.[19][9] By the middle of the 19th century, Surat
Surat
had become a stagnant city with about 80,000 inhabitants. When India's railways opened, the city started becoming prosperous again. Silks, cottons, brocades, and objects of gold and silver from Surat
Surat
became famous and the ancient art of manufacturing fine muslin was revived.[19] Geography[edit]

Tapi river

Surat
Surat
is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapi river. Damming of the Tapi caused the original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Magadalla
Magadalla
and Hazira
Hazira
area of Surat
Surat
Metropolitan Region. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E / 21.17; 72.83.[22] It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district
Surat district
is surrounded by the Bharuch, Narmada, Navsari, to the west is the Gulf of Cambay
Gulf of Cambay
and the surrounding districts. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes)[23] Climate[edit] Surat
Surat
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw), moderated strongly by the Sea to the Gulf of Cambay. The summer begins in early March and lasts till June. April and May are the hottest months, the average maximum temperature being 37 °C (99 °F). Monsoon
Monsoon
begins in late June and the city receives about 1,200 millimetres (47 in) of rain by the end of September, with the average maximum being 32 °C (90 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures till late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average mean temperatures of around 23 °C (73 °F), and negligible rain. Since 20th century, Surat
Surat
has experienced some 20 floods.[24] In 1968, most parts of the city were flooded and in 1994 flood cause the country wide plague outbreak, Surat
Surat
being the epicenter. In 1998, 30 per cent of Surat
Surat
had gone under water due to flooding in Tapti river following release of water from Ukai dam located 90 km from Surat
Surat
and in Aug, 2006 more than 95 per cent of the city was under Tapti river waters, killing more than 120 people, stranding tens of thousands in their homes without food or electricity and closing businesses and schools for weeks.[25][26][27]

Climate data for Surat, Gujarat

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 38.3 (100.9) 41.7 (107.1) 44.0 (111.2) 45.6 (114.1) 45.6 (114.1) 45.6 (114.1) 38.9 (102) 37.2 (99) 41.1 (106) 41.4 (106.5) 39.4 (102.9) 38.9 (102) 45.6 (114.1)

Average high °C (°F) 30.8 (87.4) 32.3 (90.1) 35.4 (95.7) 36.7 (98.1) 35.8 (96.4) 34.0 (93.2) 31.2 (88.2) 30.8 (87.4) 32.3 (90.1) 35.1 (95.2) 34.1 (93.4) 31.9 (89.4) 33.4 (92.1)

Average low °C (°F) 15.2 (59.4) 16.7 (62.1) 20.7 (69.3) 24.0 (75.2) 26.8 (80.2) 27.0 (80.6) 25.9 (78.6) 25.5 (77.9) 25.4 (77.7) 23.3 (73.9) 19.6 (67.3) 16.5 (61.7) 22.2 (72)

Record low °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 5.6 (42.1) 8.9 (48) 15.0 (59) 19.4 (66.9) 20.2 (68.4) 19.9 (67.8) 21.0 (69.8) 20.6 (69.1) 14.4 (57.9) 10.6 (51.1) 6.7 (44.1) 4.4 (39.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.5 (0.059) 0.3 (0.012) 0.4 (0.016) 0.2 (0.008) 3.9 (0.154) 245.2 (9.654) 466.3 (18.358) 283.8 (11.173) 151.8 (5.976) 41.8 (1.646) 7.1 (0.28) 0.6 (0.024) 1,202.9 (47.358)

Average rainy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 8.0 14.3 12.1 7.1 1.6 0.6 0.1 44.2

Average relative humidity (%) 57.5 56.0 55.1 62.9 71.8 79.0 86.2 86.4 82.3 70.2 62.0 61.3 69.2

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[28][29]

Source #2: Climatebase.ru (humidity)[30]

Economy[edit]

Surat
Surat
growth map

Metropolitan Surat
Surat
economic centers and industries map.

Surat
Surat
ranked 10th in India
India
with a GDP of 2.60 lakh crore in fiscal year 2016($14 billion in 2010). Surat
Surat
GDP in 2020 will be around $57 billion estimated by The City
City
Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs [3][31] Diamond
Diamond
polishing[edit]

Diamond
Diamond
polisher

Surat
Surat
is a major hub of diamond cutting and polishing.[32] Gujarati diamond cutters, emigrating from East Africa, established the industry in 1901 and, by the 1970s, Surat-based diamond cutters began exporting stones to the US for the first time. Textiles[edit]

Surat's Textile District Ring Road

Since it is known for producing textiles, including silk, Surat
Surat
is known as the textile hub of the nation or the Silk
Silk
City
City
of India. It is very famous for its cotton mills and Surat
Surat
Zari Craft. Surat
Surat
is the biggest centre of MMF (man-made fibre) in India. It has a total of 381 dyeing and printing mills and 41,100 powerloom units. There are over a hundred thousand units and mills in total. The overall annual turnover is around 5 billion rupees. There are over 800 cloth wholesalers in Surat.[33] It is the largest manufacturer of clothes in India, and Surti dress material can be found in any state of India. Surat produces 9 million metres of fabric annually, which accounts for 60% of the total polyester cloth production in India. Now the city is focusing on increasing the exports of its textile.[34] Information technology[edit] There are many SME Domestic IT Companies present in Surat. MNC IT companies like IBM,[35] HCL have satellite or virtual branches in Surat. On 14 February 2014 Govt of Gujarat
Gujarat
DST had handover STPI Surat[36][37] at Bhestan-Jiav Road, Bhestan Near Udhana-Sachin BRTS Route. Surat
Surat
city administration will demand for setting up of an Information Technology (IT) hub and an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) on the outskirts of the city.[38] Microsoft
Microsoft
CityNext initiative has tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro
Wipro
to leverage technology for sustainable growth of cities in India. The first smart IT city in India
India
is being constituted by the Microsoft
Microsoft
CityNext Initiative in Surat, Gujarat.[13] In 2011 Surat
Surat
hosted India's first Microsoft
Microsoft
DreamSpark Yatra (a tech event) with speakers from Microsoft
Microsoft
Headquarters at Redmond, Washington. The event was organised by Ex- Microsoft
Microsoft
Student Partner Samarth Zankharia.[39] In May, 2015 Tech giant IBM
IBM
has chosen Surat
Surat
among 16 global locations for its smart cities programme to help them address challenges like waste management, disaster management and citizen services. Under the programme, IBM
IBM
will send a team of experts to each of the chosen cities where they will spend three weeks working closely with city staff analysing data about critical issues faced by its local bodies;[40][16] the co-operation continued into 2016.[15] Diamond
Diamond
Research And Mercantile City
City
(DREAM)[edit] Main article: Diamond
Diamond
Research and Mercantile City The government of Gujarat
Gujarat
plans another project near Surat
Surat
similar to Gujarat
Gujarat
International Finance Tec- City
City
(GIFT). The Chief Minister has suggested that the government wishes to develop DREAM to have a five-seven star hotel, bank, IT, corporate trading house, entertainment zone and other facilities while the Surat
Surat
Diamond
Diamond
Bourse (SBD) will be based there. Allotment of Khajod land for the project is convenient for the state government because they have 2,000 acres (810 ha) of available land. The Trade Centre, located near Sarsana village, will have a 100,160-square-metre (1,078,100 sq ft) pillar-less air-conditioned hall with a 90-by-35-metre (295 by 115 ft) pillar-less dome.[41][42] Transport[edit] Built in 1860, Surat railway station
Surat railway station
falls under the administrative control of Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. In early 2016, the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation rated the facility the best large station in India
India
based on cleanliness. [43] The Sitilink or Surat BRTS is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Surat Municipal Corporation and as of August, 2017, has a network of 245 buses connecting major localities. [44] Surat Airport
Surat Airport
located in Magdalla, 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Surat. It is the 2nd busiest airport in Gujarat
Gujarat
with flights connecting to Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Goa, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Patna. Apart from main city, Surat Airport
Surat Airport
also caters to various localities of south Gujarat
Gujarat
including Navsari, Bardoli, Valsad, Ankleshwar. [45] Civic institutions[edit] The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. At present, BJP is the ruling party with a majority. Under the Provisions of Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949, Section – 4, the powers have been vested in three Distinct Statutory Authorities: the General Board, the Standing Committee, and the Municipal Commissioner.

SMC office at Surat

It ranked 7 out of 21 cities for best administrative practices in India
India
in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. It is the only city in India
India
to disclose municipal budgets on a weekly basis.[46] Science Center[edit] Science Centre, Surat is a multi-facility complex built by the Surat Municipal Corporation in 2009, the first of its type in western India. The complex houses a Science Centre, museum, an art gallery, an auditorium, an Amphitheatre
Amphitheatre
and a planetarium.[47] Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium[edit] With the sitting capacity of 6800, Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium is first of its kind in the Western Region of India. The Stadium frequently organizes assorts of National & International Indoor games viz. Volley Ball, Table Tennis, Gymnastics, Hand Ball, Boxing, Wrestling, Badminton, Basket Ball, Tennis etc. It possesses the central arena of size 63 m x 33 m, rooms for participants, team officials etc. and other essential facilities including snack bars. This is also a convenient venue for organizing cultural programs, music concerts, drama, fashion shows, seminars, conferences and many more. It can be hired for the same.[48] Lalbhai Contractor Cricket Stadium[edit] Lalbhai contractor cricket stadium has a capacity of more than 7000 and hosted several Ranji, Irani and Duleep Trophy matches. Stadium also serves as a primary destination for local budding cricketers and enthusiasts. [49] Public safety[edit] Surat
Surat
began the 'Safe City
City
Project' in 2011 aimed at keeping the city safe using surveillance cameras. The project was headed by Mr. Sanjay Srivastava (IPS) who was the Joint-Commissioner of Surat
Surat
Police at that time. The 280-square-foot video wall, claimed to be the largest surveillance screen in the country, is being installed at the control room of Police Commissioner Mr. Rakesh Asthana (IPS). This will help the police view the entire city live through 10,000 CCTV cameras across the city. Surat
Surat
police have decided to install 5,000 CCTV cameras at sensitive points across the city. While 1,000 cameras will be night vision cameras, 4,000 others will be simple CCTV cameras. This has been installed on PPP base with the help of city's businessmen, city's social persons, Surat Municipal Corporation & Surat
Surat
City
City
Police. [50] Demographics[edit]

Religions in surat

Hinduism

87%

Islam

7%

Jainism

4.7%

Christianity

0.4%

Others♦

0.9%

Distribution of religions ♦Includes Sikhs (0.2%).

Population Growth of Surat 

Census Pop.

1871 107,100

1881 109,800

2.5%

1891 109,200

-0.5%

1901 119,300

9.2%

1911 114,900

-3.7%

1921 117,400

2.2%

1931 98,900

-15.8%

1941 171,400

73.3%

1951 223,200

30.2%

1961 288,000

29.0%

1971 492,700

71.1%

1981 912,600

85.2%

1991 1,519,000

66.4%

2001 2,811,614

85.1%

2011 4,591,246

63.3%

source:[51]

According to the 2011 India
India
census, the population of Surat
Surat
is 4,462,002. Surat
Surat
has an average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 93%, and female literacy is 84%.[52] Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Gujarati, Sindhi, Hindi, Marwari, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Odia are the main languages spoken in Surat. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Education[edit] Universities[edit] Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
one of 30 National Institute of Technology
National Institute of Technology
in India
India
that are recognised as Institute of National Importance by Government of India, is situated on Athwa-Dumas road. Most of the regional colleges are affiliated to Veer Narmad
Veer Narmad
South Gujarat
Gujarat
University (VNSGU) (named after the Great Kavi Veer Narmad). Apart from that colleges are also affiliated to SNDT, GTU- Gujarat
Gujarat
Technological University and other universities. VNSGU- Veer Narmad
Veer Narmad
South Gujarat
Gujarat
University, Uka Tarsadia University are having Headquarter in Surat
Surat
Metropolitan Region. Auro University has also started to provide education in Surat.[53]

Swami Vivekanand Bhavan

Aerial view of Hospital section of SMIMER

Notable residents[edit]

Ismail Darbar, Bollywood
Bollywood
composer[54] Prachi Desai, actress[55]' Sanjeev Kumar, film actor[56] Henry Frederick Barnes-Lawrence (1815–1896) Anglican clergyman, and founder of the Association for the Protection of Sea-Birds[57] Narmad, a Gujarati poet, playwright, essayist, orator, lexicographer and reformer under the British Raj. [58] Farooq Sheikh, actor and television presenter[59] Virji Vora, Notable businessman known as "merchant prince" during Mughal era[60] Mareez, 20th century Gujarati poet, popular for his Ghazals[61] Bhagwatikumar Sharma, notable author and journalist[62] Gunvant Shah, industralist, Builder[63]

See also[edit]

Surat
Surat
– book List of tourist attractions in Surat Surat
Surat
Railway Station Surat
Surat
Airport Surat
Surat
BRTS Surat
Surat
Metro Surat
Surat
Metropolitan Region

References[edit]

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Surat
Gujarat
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India". Aurouniversity.edu.in. Retrieved 3 February 2013.  ^ Nayak, Elina Priyadarshini (2 July 2011). " Ismail Darbar
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surat.

Wikivoyage
Wikivoyage
has a travel guide for Surat.

Website of Surat
Surat
Municipal Corporation WorldStatesmen Indian princely States  "Surat". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Surat
Surat
topics

History

Portuguese Empire British East India
India
Company Baghdadi Jewish 1994 Plague epidemic in surat Bombay Presidency Battle of Swally Indian independence movement Mahatma Gandhi Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Dawoodi Bohra 2001 Gujarat
Gujarat
earthquake Battle of Surat Diamond
Diamond
Research and Mercantile City

Geography

River Tapti Gulf of Cambay

Civic

Surat
Surat
Municipal Corporation Surat
Surat
Urban Development Authority Surat
Surat
Metropolitan Region Surat
Surat
district Surat
Surat
(Lok Sabha constituency) Navsari
Navsari
(Lok Sabha constituency) Surat
Surat
City
City
Police

Economy

Diamond
Diamond
Polishing Textiles ONGC GAIL ABG Shipyard Narmada Cement Ambuja Cement Ultratech Cement NTPC-KGPP Power Plant ESSAR Group L&T Reliance PVC Reliance Petroleum Kribhco-Feartilizer Mammoth GSPC Gujarat
Gujarat
Gas Shell LNG Naiko Gas

Landmarks

Blues Adventures Chintamani Jain
Jain
Temple Dutch Garden Surat
Surat
Castle The Sardar Patel Museum Jawaharlal Nehru Garden The Dutch Cemetery Saraswati Mandir Science Centre Kavi Narmad Central Library Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukharjee Surat
Surat
Municipal Zoo Tapi Riverfront

Ports & Beaches

Port of Magdalla Hazira Dumas Beach Suvali Beach Ubhrat Beach

Transport

Surat
Surat
Airport Surat
Surat
railway station Udhna Junction Surat
Surat
Metro Golden Quadrilateral Udhana- Navsari
Navsari
Highway Gaurav Path National Highway 8 Ghod Dod Road Auto rickshaw National Highway 6 National Highway 228

Culture

Navratri Diwali Ganesh Chaturthi Uttarayan Makar Sankranti Chandi Padvo

Education

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Veer Narmad
Veer Narmad
South Gujarat
Gujarat
University Gujarat
Gujarat
Technological University Sir P.T. Sarvajanik College of Science Indian Diamond
Diamond
Institute

Hospital

Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital Surat
Surat
Municipal Institute of Medical Education and Research Wockhardt Hospitals Apple Hospital

Media

Gujarat
Gujarat
Mitra Gujarat
Gujarat
Samachar Sandesh Divya Bhaskar Rajsthan Patrika Radio Mirchi Radio City 94.3 FM Big FM Vividh Bharati

Sports

Gujarat
Gujarat
cricket team Lalbhai Contractor Stadium CB Patel International Cricket Stadium

Other topics

Category:Surat surat airport action committee Cities and towns in Gujarat

v t e

State of Gujarat

Capital: Gandhinagar

Topics

Cinema Cuisine Culture Economy Education Geography Government Highest point History Language Literature People Politics National parks and sanctuaries Tourism

Regions of Gujarat

Kutch Saurashtra North Gujarat Central Gujarat South Gujarat

Districts

Ahmedabad Amreli Anand Aravalli Banaskantha Bharuch Bhavnagar Botad Chhota Udaipur Dahod Dang Devbhoomi Dwarka Gandhinagar Gir Somnath Jamnagar Junagadh Kachchh Kheda Mahisagar Mehsana Morbi Narmada Navsari Panchmahal Patan Porbandar Rajkot Sabarkantha Surat Surendranagar Tapi Vadodara Valsad

Major cities

Ahmedabad Anand Ankleshwar Bharuch Bhavnagar Bhuj Gandhidham Gandhinagar Jamnagar Junagadh Kheda Mehsana Nadiad Navsari Modasa Patan Porbandar Rajkot Surat Surendranagar Udhana Vadodara Valsad Veraval Visnagar

Ecoregions

Indus River Delta- Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
mangroves Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests Northwestern thorn scrub forests Rann of Kutch

Economy

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Bus Rapid Transit System Gujarat
Gujarat
International Finance Tec-City Sabarmati Riverfront Sardar Sarovar Dam GSWAN Power stations and power organisations Gujarat
Gujarat
State Petroleum Corporation

Gujarat
Gujarat
Gas

Portal: Gujarat

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312977

.