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Surabaya
Surabaya
(Indonesian: suraˈbaja; Javanese: ꦯꦸꦫꦧꦪ, romanized: Suroboyo) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Java
East Java
and the second-largest city in the country, after Jakarta. The city has a population of over 3 million within its city limits and over 10 million in the Greater Surabaya
Surabaya
metropolitan area, known as Gerbangkertosusila, making it the second-largest metropolitan area in Indonesia.[2] Located on northeastern Java
Java
on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. According to the National Development Planning Agency, Surabaya
Surabaya
is one of the four main central cities of Indonesia, alongside Medan, Jakarta, and Makassar.[6][7] The city actually was settled in 10th century by Kingdom of Janggala, one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed in 1045 when Airlangga
Airlangga
abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons. In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java, probably under Majapahit
Majapahit
empire.[8] At that time, Surabaya
Surabaya
was already a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca
Malacca
and the Spice Islands via the Java
Java
Sea. During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya
Surabaya
resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530.[9][10] Surabaya
Surabaya
became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.[11][12] In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
was the largest city in the Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia (present day Jakarta) and the centre of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of Shanghai
Shanghai
and Hong Kong.[13] The city is known as Kota Pahlawan (city of heroes) due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya
Battle of Surabaya
in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Today the city remains one of the important entertainment, financial, industrial, transportational, and commercial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago,[14] arguably second only to Jakarta, and the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second-busiest seaport located on northern Surabaya. In 2016, Surabaya
Surabaya
received seven consecutive times Adipura Kencana Award from 2010 as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia.[15] Surabaya
Surabaya
awarded by a Singaporean Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize as city's special mention.[16]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Early history 1.3 Precolonial era 1.4 Colonial era 1.5 Independence era

2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Cityscapes 2.3 Climate 2.4 Urban forest and parks

3 Government 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Culture

5 Economy

5.1 Business 5.2 Business districts 5.3 Retail

6 Infrastructure

6.1 Architecture 6.2 Important landmarks 6.3 Military establishment 6.4 Transportation

6.4.1 Airport 6.4.2 Seaport 6.4.3 Train 6.4.4 Bus 6.4.5 Public transport

6.5 Suramadu Bridge

7 Sports 8 Education

8.1 Universities and post-secondary institutions 8.2 Primary and secondary schools

9 Cuisine 10 Notable people 11 International relations

11.1 Diplomatic Missions

11.1.1 General Consulates 11.1.2 Consulates 11.1.3 Other diplomatics

11.2 Twin towns (sister cities)

12 Gallery 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] Further information: Timeline of Surabaya Etymology[edit] Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya
Surabaya
since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology Surabaya
Surabaya
alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area,[17] which is sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit
Majapahit
on 31 May 1293,[18][19] which is now considered the date of the city's founding.[20] The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.[21] Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning "bravely facing danger";[19] or from the use of surya to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.[22]

Dutch residenthuis (resident house) along the water in Surabaya Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s Early history[edit] Map of Surabaya
Surabaya
from an 1897 English travel guide The Kingdom of Janggala
Janggala
was one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed in 1045 when Airlangga
Airlangga
abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons. The earliest historical record of Surabaya
Surabaya
was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi
Zhu fan zhi
written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu.[23] The name Janggala
Janggala
was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River
Brantas River
and today is the part of modern Surabaya
Surabaya
city and Sidoarjo
Sidoarjo
Regency.[24] The earliest historical record of Surabaya
Surabaya
was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi
Zhu fan zhi
written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu.[23] The name Janggala
Janggala
was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Mas River, one of tributaries of Brantas River
Brantas River
and today is the part of modern Surabaya
Surabaya
and Sidoarjo.[25] By the 14th to 15th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo). Ma Huan
Ma Huan
documented the early 15th-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than 20 li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".[26] Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya
Surabaya
in 1513, though likely still a vassal of the Majapahit. Ma Huan
Ma Huan
visited Java
Java
during Zheng He's fourth expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit
Majapahit
king Wikramawardhana. He describes his travel to Majapahit
Majapahit
capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan (Tuban) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong
Guangdong
and Chou Chang. Then, he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continuing to travel by land to the southwest, he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese king stayed.[27]

Precolonial era[edit] By late 15th century, Islam
Islam
began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque
Ampel Mosque
in today Ampel subdistrict, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.[28] In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya
Surabaya
in 1513, though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit.[9] At that time, Surabaya
Surabaya
was already a major trading port,[29] owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca
Malacca
and the Spice Islands
Spice Islands
via the Java
Java
Sea.[30] During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya
Surabaya
resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530.[9][10] Surabaya
Surabaya
became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.[11][12] The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram
in 1625 under Sultan Agung.[31]:31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten
Sultanate of Banten
and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.[31]:31

Colonial era[edit] The expanding Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya, and in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778), and the latter's son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.[32][33] In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya
Surabaya
was the largest city in Dutch East Indies. It became a major trading centre under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the centre of Java's plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbour.[34] In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.[35]

Independence era[edit] The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya
Surabaya
on 31 October 1945 Japan
Japan
occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II, Surabaya
Surabaya
was seized by Indonesian nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.[36] The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on 30 October 1945, near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on 10 November, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag
Dutch flag
at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo
Bung Tomo
is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.[37] The city is known as Kota Pahlawan (city of heroes) due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya
Battle of Surabaya
in galvanising Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence
Indonesian independence
during the Indonesian National Revolution.[38] In June 2011, Surabaya
Surabaya
received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya
Surabaya
was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green.[39]

Geography[edit] Topography[edit] Outskirt areas of Surabaya Surabaya
Surabaya
is located on the northern coast of East Java
East Java
province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas, one of two branches of the Brantas River. Surabaya
Surabaya
city borders Madura Strait
Madura Strait
in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency
Sidoarjo Regency
in the south, and Gresik
Gresik
Regency in the west. The regencies surrounding Surabaya
Surabaya
are:

Lamongan Regency
Lamongan Regency
to the northwest Gresik
Gresik
Regency to the west Bangkalan Regency
Bangkalan Regency
to the northeast (on Madura
Madura
island) Sidoarjo Regency
Sidoarjo Regency
to the south Mojokerto Regency to the southwest Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila.

vtePlaces adjacent to Surabaya Northwest Madura
Madura
Strait, Gresik
Gresik
Regency North Madura
Madura
Strait, Bangkalan Regency Northeast Madura
Madura
Strait, Bangkalan Regency

West Gresik
Gresik
Regency, Mojokerto
Mojokerto
Regency

Surabaya

East Madura
Madura
Strait

Mojokerto
Mojokerto
RegencySouthwest Sidoarjo
Sidoarjo
RegencySouth Madura
Madura
StraitSoutheast

Cityscapes[edit] Skyline of smoggy Surabaya
Surabaya
as seen far away from a Madura
Madura
Island. Panorama of Western Surabaya Tunjungan
Tunjungan
street and Siola building in Downtown
Downtown
Surabaya Climate[edit] Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system, Surabaya
Surabaya
features a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw), with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 °C and average low temperatures around 23 °C.

Climate data for Surabaya, elevation: 5 m or 16 ft, extremes 1963–1980

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

33.3(91.9)

34.4(93.9)

33.9(93.0)

33.3(91.9)

33.9(93.0)

33.9(93.0)

33.9(93.0)

34.4(93.9)

33.9(93.0)

35(95)

35.6(96.1)

35(95)

35.6(96.1)

Average high °C (°F)

31.8(89.2)

31.5(88.7)

31.6(88.9)

31.4(88.5)

31.6(88.9)

31.2(88.2)

31.3(88.3)

30.1(86.2)

32.7(90.9)

33.4(92.1)

33.1(91.6)

31.9(89.4)

31.8(89.2)

Daily mean °C (°F)

26.8(80.2)

26.8(80.2)

27(81)

27.3(81.1)

27.3(81.1)

26.7(80.1)

26.2(79.2)

26.5(79.7)

27.2(81.0)

28.2(82.8)

28.3(82.9)

27.3(81.1)

27.1(80.9)

Average low °C (°F)

24.1(75.4)

24.2(75.6)

24.0(75.2)

24.8(76.6)

24.1(75.4)

23.5(74.3)

23.0(73.4)

22.5(72.5)

22.9(73.2)

23.7(74.7)

24.1(75.4)

23.8(74.8)

23.7(74.7)

Record low °C (°F)

21.1(70.0)

21.1(70.0)

20.6(69.1)

18.3(64.9)

16.7(62.1)

15.6(60.1)

14.4(57.9)

16.1(61.0)

16.7(62.1)

17.8(64.0)

19.4(66.9)

20(68)

14.4(57.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches)

327(12.9)

275(10.8)

283(11.1)

181(7.1)

159(6.3)

101(4.0)

22(0.9)

15(0.6)

17(0.7)

47(1.9)

105(4.1)

219(8.6)

1,751(69)

Average rainy days

17

18

19

15

13

11

7

3

4

5

12

23

147

Average relative humidity (%)

66.61

69.1

66.3

67.23

64.87

60.27

60.84

57.87

54.53

56.06

56.13

63.03

61.90

Mean monthly sunshine hours

217

196

217

270

279

300

341

341

330

310

270

248

3,319

Mean daily sunshine hours

7.0

7.0

7.0

9.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

10.0

9.0

8.0

9.1

Percent possible sunshine

58

58

58

75

75

83

92

92

92

83

75

62

75

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization;[40] Climate-Data.org (daily mean);[41] and Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (record extreme temperature)[42][43]

Source #2: Weather Atlas (sunshine data)[44]

Wind Speed and Humidity data for Surabaya

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Maximum Wind Speed (km/h)

23

16

16

26

27

29

40

34

34

35

29

21

27.5

Average Wind Speed (km/h)

13.39

12.10

13.30

14.37

20.26

16.87

22.71

22.16

22.8

22.35

18.6

13.55

17.71

Minimum Wind Speed (km/h)

8

10

10

10

3

5

11

11

14

10

11

10

9.42

Maximum Humidity (%)

86

75

83

92

96

77

67

69

64

73

65

79

77.17

Average Humidity (%)

66.61

69.1

66.3

67.23

64.87

60.27

60.84

57.87

54.53

56.06

56.13

63.03

61.9

Minimum Humidity (%)

44

60

59

58

53

47

52

47

46

42

46

53

50.58

Source: Climatevo[45]

Climate data for Surabaya

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F)

29.0(84.0)

29.0(84.0)

29.0(84.0)

29.0(84.0)

29.0(84.0)

28.0(82.0)

27.0(81.0)

27.0(81.0)

27.0(81.0)

28.0(82.0)

29.0(84.0)

29.0(84.0)

28.3(82.9)

Mean daily daylight hours

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

13.0

12.1

Average Ultraviolet index

11+

11+

11+

11+

11

10

10

11+

11+

11+

11+

11+

10.8

Source: Weather Atlas [44]

Urban forest and parks[edit] Bungkul Park, one of most visited parks in Surabaya. Surabaya
Surabaya
is one of the cleanest and greenest cities in Indonesia.[46] This can be seen by the Urban parks in almost every neighbourhood area which is equipped with fountains.[47] Urban parks in Surabaya
Surabaya
include Bungkul Park, Harmoni Park, Pelangi Park, Surya Park, Mundu Park, Undaan Fruit Park, Jayengrono Park,[48] and others. One of the parks in Surabaya, Bungkul Park, in 2013 was awarded the Asian Townscape Award 2013 from the United Nations as the best park in Asia because of its very complete and integrated facilities, starting from the economic area (street food centers), green open area, parks , disability-friendly area, free internet (Wi-Fi), and routine garden maintenance management.[49] The city of Surabaya
Surabaya
is very outstanding in the field of environment.[50] The city has won many awards in the field of environment and city planning both on a national and international scale.[51] The awards that were successfully received by Surabaya
Surabaya
included adipura, adipura kencana, adiwiyata, wahyu tata nugraha, and other green awards. The Adipura Cup, which was once received by Surabaya, was in 1980s and 1990s for several times, the Adipura Kencana trophy, the cleanest metropolitan city category in the 1990s and in the period of 2010 to 2017, seven consecutive times, as well as the Adipura trophy. plenary in 2016.[52] The city also received several awards from the central government as one of the major cities with the best air quality in Indonesia.[53] Surabaya
Surabaya
in 2012 has won the award "City of the Best Participation in the Asia Pacific" by Citynet for the success of the city government and people's participation in managing the environment. Surabaya
Surabaya
has also been awarded the ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award or "the city with the best sustainable environmental management in ASEAN" in 2011 and 2014.[54] In 2018, Surabaya
Surabaya
won the Lee Kuan Yew City Prize along with Hamburg, Germany; Kazan, Russia; and Tokyo, Japan. This award was obtained because Surabaya
Surabaya
is considered to be one of the major cities in the world that is able to maintain and manage villages in the middle of the city with excellent government management and community participation amid the rapidly developing city.[55] Surabaya
Surabaya
became the first city in Indonesia
Indonesia
to receive this award.[55] This award was received directly by the Mayor Tri Rismaharini
Tri Rismaharini
in Singapore
Singapore
in July 2018.[55] However, despite all that, on the other hand there are not a few areas in Surabaya
Surabaya
that still look less organized, especially in the neighbourhoods of Southern Surabaya
Surabaya
and Northern Surabaya.[56][57] This is the concern of the city government to reorganize the environment of the region.[58]

Government[edit] Surabaya City Hall
Surabaya City Hall
at dusk. The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities, and public transportation. Current mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini, the first female mayor in Surabaya, and has led Surabaya
Surabaya
to achieve many regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya
Surabaya
Mayor in 2010. In 2012 Surabaya
Surabaya
was awarded the "ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award". Besides Mayor and Vice Mayor, there is Surabaya
Surabaya
Municipal People's Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.[59] The city administration maintains a central command center since 2016, integrating all civic services including Satpol PP, Bakesbangpol and Linmas, Hygiene and Parks Service, Transportation Agency, Public Works Agency of Highways and Extermination, ambulance and fire services.[60][61] All services can be accessed by dialing 112 number. The city is dubbed as the champion of smart city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and won Indonesia
Indonesia
Smart City Index (IKCI) in 2015 and 2018.[62] The City of Heroes also received an award at the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
International Award for Urban Innovation in the Online Popular City category and Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize
Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize
in 2018.[63] Surabaya
Surabaya
is divided into 31 kecamatan (districts),[64][65] and 161 kelurahan (subdistricts). The districts are grouped into five areas: Central, North, South, East, and West. The districts are:

Karang Pilang (72,469) Jambangan (46,430) Gayungan (42,717) Wonocolo (80,276) Tenggilis Mejoyo
Tenggilis Mejoyo
(72,467) Gunung Anyar (62,120) Rungkut
Rungkut
(121,084) Sukolilo (119,873) Mulyorejo (94,728) Gubeng
Gubeng
(128,127) Wonokromo
Wonokromo
(133,211)

Dukuh Pakis (64,249) Wiyung (67,987) Lakarsantri (51,195) Sambikerep (61,101) Tandes (103,084) Sukomanunggal (100,612) Sawahan (170,605) Tegalsari (85,606) Genteng (46,548) Tambaksari
Tambaksari
(204,805)

Kenjeran (163,438) Bulak, Surabaya
Surabaya
(37,214) Simokerto (79,319) Semampir (151,429) Pabean Cantian (69,423) Bubutan (84,465) Krembangan (106,664) Asemrowo (42,704) Benowo (54,133) Pakal (47,404)

Demographics[edit] The metropolitan area in 2014, seen from the International Space Station, the brightest section are Surabaya
Surabaya
and its metropolitan areasHistorical populationYearPop.±%1883122,000—    1897142,980+17.2%1900150,000+4.9%1930341,700+127.8%1940403,000+17.9%1945618,000+53.3%1949500,000−19.1%1950715,000+43.0%1955808,267+13.0%19611,008,000+24.7%19651,183,851+17.4%19711,556,255+31.5%19802,008,335+29.0%19902,467,089+22.8%20002,610,519+5.8%20102,768,225+6.0%20153,457,409+24.9%Source: Various sources 1883–1961 : Surabaya: City of Work[66] 1897 : New International Encyclopedia[67] 1930 : Workers, Unions and Politics: Indonesia
Indonesia
in the 1920s and 1930s[68] 1965 : World Population Review[69] 1971–2010 : Statistics Indonesia
Indonesia
(BPS)

2015 : citypopulation.de (estimated) Surabaya
Surabaya
is the second-most populous city in Indonesia, with 3,457,409 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in the 2015 census.[70] With the extended metropolitan development area called Gerbangkertosusila
Gerbangkertosusila
(derived from Gresik-Bangkalan-Mojokerto-Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Lamongan) adding more than 12 million inhabitants in several cities and around 50 districts spread over noncontiguous urban areas including Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto, and Pasuruan
Pasuruan
regencies. Though central government of Indonesia
Indonesia
recognizes only the metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidarjo) as Greater Surabaya
Surabaya
(Zona Surabaya
Surabaya
Raya) with a population of 8,319,229 (2015), making Surabaya
Surabaya
now the second-largest metropolitan area in Indonesia.[71] The city is highly urbanized, with industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main education centre, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia.[72] Surabaya
Surabaya
is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at roughly 2.2% per year. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya
Surabaya
from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java.[73]

Ethnicity[edit] Ethnic Javanese people
Javanese people
are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians, Indian Indonesians, and ethnic Madurese being significant minorities in the city.[74] Surabaya
Surabaya
also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese, Minang, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, and Bugis. Surabaya
Surabaya
is one of the major cities in Indonesia
Indonesia
that has a major population of Middle East people; there are Arabs, especially the Hadhrami people
Hadhrami people
that originate from the Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
region in Yemen, Armenian people, and Jews.[75]

Language[edit] Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called Suroboyoan, a subdialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech.[76] The use of register is less strict than the Central Java dialect.[77] The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese, etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers, and traditional dramas called Ludruk.[78]

Religion[edit]

Religions of Surabaya
Surabaya
– 2017 Census[79]

religion

percent

Islam   80.13%

Christianity
Christianity
(incl Orthodox)   9.12%

Catholicism   8.98%

Buddhism   1.49%

Hinduism
Hinduism
(incl Sikhism)   0.26%

Confucianism
Confucianism
(incl other folk religion)   0.01%

Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya, circa 1920s Although around 65% of citizens in Surabaya
Surabaya
adhere to Sunni Islam, other major religions include Christianity
Christianity
(Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman Catholics. The influence of Hinduism
Hinduism
is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian minority.[80] Also, a significant population of Chinese Indonesians
Chinese Indonesians
adhere to Buddhism
Buddhism
and Confucianism, and a small community of Dutch Jews
Jews
follow Judaism.[81] The city had an influential role as a major Islamic centre in Java during the Wali Sanga
Wali Sanga
era.[82] The prominent and honored Islamic figure in Surabaya
Surabaya
was Sunan Ampel
Sunan Ampel
(Raden Rahmat).[82] His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama, was established in Surabaya
Surabaya
on 26 January 1926.[83] Al-Akbar Mosque
Al-Akbar Mosque
is the largest mosque in Surabaya
Surabaya
and one of the largest mosque in the world.[84] Christianity
Christianity
as a whole in Surabaya
Surabaya
is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians, as well as native Javanese, Bataks, and Ambonese
Ambonese
who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church.[85][86] A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen,[87] a branch of native Christianity. Around 15 churches are in Surabaya; they vary in size. The Church of the Birth of Our Lady, also known as Gereja Kepanjen, was built in 1815 as the first church in Surabaya
Surabaya
and is one of the oldest churches in Indonesia.[88] The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also based in Surabaya. The Orthodox Christian Centre Surabaya
Surabaya
was opened on 15 October 2008.[89]

Once the major religion in Surabaya
Surabaya
and across the archipelago during the Janggala
Janggala
and Majapahit
Majapahit
era, Hinduism
Hinduism
played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture.[90] Small Hindu communities still exist, most commonly in the eastern sections of the city.[91] Surabaya
Surabaya
was the location of the only synagogue in Java,[92] but it rarely obtained a minyan (quorum). The synagogue was demolished in 2013 by unidentified persons while the city council was in the process of registering it as a heritage site.[93] In the years prior to its demolition, it had been the site of a number of anti-Israel protests.[93] A Jewish cemetery exists in the city.[94][95]

Al Akbar National Mosque, largest mosque in Surabaya

Church of the Birth of Our Lady, oldest church in Surabaya

Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
congregation in Surabaya

Tian Ti Pagoda, iconic Buddhist temple in Surabaya

Sanggar Agung, Chinese folk temple

Hinduism
Hinduism
Pura Jagatnatha Perak

Judaism
Judaism
Synagogue
Synagogue
in Surabaya

Culture[edit] Ludruk
Ludruk
is a native Surabaya-genre play (theatre). Javanese culture in Surabaya
Surabaya
has distinctive characteristics compared to other regions, the uniqueness of its characteristics which is more egalitarian and open. Surabaya
Surabaya
is known to have several distinctive arts, namely:

Ludruk, a cultural drama performance art that tells daily routine of working-class people.[96] Remo Dance, a traditional welcome dance that is generally dedicated to special guests.[97] Kidungan, a poetry musicalization and contains elements of humor.[98] In addition to the art above, the call culture of arek or rek (a distinctive call from Surabaya) is also a unique characteristic. In addition, in Surabaya
Surabaya
also known other distinctive calls, namely Cak for men and Ning for women. In an effort to preserve culture, once a year Cak & Ning Surabaya
Surabaya
is selected. Cak & Ning Surabaya
Surabaya
and selected finalists are tourism ambassadors and icons of the young generation of the city of Surabaya.[99] Cak Durasim Festival (FCD) is annually held, which is an art festival to preserve the culture of Surabaya
Surabaya
and East Java
East Java
in general. The Cak Durasim Festival is usually held at Cak Durasim Building, Surabaya.[100] In addition, there is also the Surabaya
Surabaya
Art Festival (FSS) which raises all kinds of art forms such as theater, dance, music, literary seminars, painting exhibitions. Event organizers usually aside from art groups in Surabaya
Surabaya
also come from outside Surabaya. Also enlivened is the screening of movie screens, T-shirt exhibitions and so on. The Surabaya
Surabaya
Art Festival is held once a year in June and is usually held at the Youth Hall. In addition to Javanese culture, as a city that has experienced rapid development, in Surabaya
Surabaya
there has also been a mixture of various cultures from Madura, Arabic, Indian, Malay, Chinese, European, etc. Surabaya
Surabaya
Cross Culture is an annually art and culture festival show various culture outside Indonesia.[101]

Economy[edit] Downtown
Downtown
Central Surabaya Central business district
Central business district
in Western Surabaya Since the early 1900s, Surabaya
Surabaya
has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia.[102] Principal exports from the port include sugar, tobacco, and coffee.[103] Its rich history as a trading port has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic institutions such as banks, insurance, and sound export-import companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge. The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard and numerous specialized naval schools.[104] Also Bank of Indonesia
Indonesia
makes plan for Surabaya as Islamic financial and business center in Indonesia.[105][106]

Business[edit] As the provincial capital, Surabaya
Surabaya
has a number of offices and business centres; as a metropolitan city, it became the centre of economic, financial, and business activities in East Java
East Java
and beyond. Also, Surabaya
Surabaya
is the second-largest port city in Indonesia
Indonesia
after Jakarta. As a trading centre, Surabaya
Surabaya
is not only a trade centre for East Java, but also facilitates areas in Central Java, Kalimantan, and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya's strategic location in almost in the centre of Indonesia
Indonesia
and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia.[107] It is currently in the process of building high-rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels to attract foreign capital. Surabaya
Surabaya
and the surrounding area are undergoing the most rapidly growing and the most advanced economic development in Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia's economy. Most of the population is engaged in services, industry, and trade. Surabaya
Surabaya
is a fast growing trading centre. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as Sampoerna, Maspion, Wings Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa Pos Group, and PAL Indonesia.[108][109]

Business districts[edit] The area between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Tunjungan,[110] Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business centre and has turned into one of the main business and trade activities areas in Surabaya. Some of the important buildings in this area include Wisma BRI Surabaya, Hotel Bumi Surabaya, Wisma Dharmala Surabaya, The Peak Residence, Sheraton Hotel, etc.[111][112] Another cluster around Jalan Mayjend Sungkono, Jalan Adityawarman, Jalan HR Muhammad, and Jalan Bukit Darmo has grown as a new business centre of the city. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centres in East Java, with high-rise buildings. Some of the tallest buildings in Surabaya
Surabaya
located in this area, such as Adhiwangsa Apartment, Waterplace Residence, Puri Matahari, Beverly Park Apartment, The Via & The Vue Apartment, Ciputra World Hotel, Puncak Permai Apartment, Rich Palace Hotel, and so forth.[113][114]

Retail[edit] Plaza Tunjungan Surabaya
Surabaya
has plenty of shopping centres like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of local and international brands have presence in modern shopping malls. There were about 100 hectares/one million square meters of retail space in Surabaya
Surabaya
by the end of 2016.[115] There are many dedicated markets for electronic goods, gadgets and computer hardware. Some important shopping malls of the city are:

BG Junction Ciputra World Surabaya City of Tomorrow East Coast Centre and Food Festival Galaxy Mall Grand City HI-Tech Mall ITC Surabaya Jembatan Merah Plaza Lenmarc Marvell City Pakuwon Trade Centre Pakuwon Mall Pasar Atom Mall Tunjungan
Tunjungan
Plaza Surabaya
Surabaya
Town Square World Trade Centre Surabaya

Infrastructure[edit] Architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Surabaya Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya Majapahit
Majapahit
Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya Architecture in Surabaya
Surabaya
is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit
Majapahit
and Surabaya
Surabaya
Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya
Surabaya
were built around the 17th century to early 20th century.[116] These buildings have influence of Dutch or European style in the Middle Ages.[117] Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two-storey.[118] These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.[119] After independence of Indonesia, the centre of Surabaya's architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya
Surabaya
until now. In the era of 2010s, Surabaya
Surabaya
has become a center of skyscrapers and highrises buildings in East Java
East Java
and central region of Indonesia, such as The Peak Residence – Tunjungan
Tunjungan
Plaza 6 (215 meters) and One Icon Residence – Tunjungan
Tunjungan
Plaza 5 (200 meters).[120]

Important landmarks[edit] Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, waterfront statue of Northern Surabaya Kebun Binatang Surabaya
Surabaya
( Surabaya
Surabaya
Zoo) opened in 1916. It was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity. Zheng He
Zheng He
(Cheng Ho) Mosque, a recently built mosque, one of the unique mosques with Chinese-style architecture in Indonesia. Dedicated to the Hui Chinese diplomat, Zheng He.[121] Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in Jawa Timur.[122] Church of the Birth of Our Lady, Surabaya, one of the first churches to be built in Indonesia, and the first one ever built in East Java.[123] Heroes Monument, a 41 metres (135 ft) high monument, is the main symbol of Surabaya
Surabaya
and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary struggle. There is a museum on location as well, exhibiting reminders of the struggle for independence.[124] Museum Nahdlatul Ulama, the resource centre of the culture and history of Nahdlatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious.[125] organisation. Museum Bank Indonesia, a bank museum occupying the former De Javasche Bank built in 1904.[126] House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette (kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial buildings dating to 1864.[127] Wisma Intiland, most famous brutalist building in Surabaya. Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy. Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam (Submarine Monument)[128] A Soviet-built Whiskey class submarine
Whiskey class submarine
(named KRI Pasopati (410)), first launched in 1952, served in the Indonesian Navy from 1962 until decommissioned in 1990.[129] After its decommissioning, Pasopati was dismantled and transferred to its present site in 1996. The submarine was reassembled on the current site and opened as a museum and tourist attraction in 1998. Kenjeran Beach, located in the eastern of Surabaya, which also housed Sanggar Agung, a Chinese temple build over the sea.[130] Market of the Chinese Tomb,[131] last resting place of Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen, magnate, mandarin and landlord in Surabaya
Surabaya
and East Java, and patriarch of the patrician Han family of Lasem[132] Han Ancestral Hall,[133] a historic house that serves as a memorial temple for the ancestors of the Han family of Lasem[134][135] Tomb of Sunan Ampel[136] Bungkul Park, one of most visited Urban park
Urban park
in Surabaya.[137] Wisma Intiland, a brutalist building in Downtown Surabaya.[138] Military establishment[edit] The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here. It is one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy. Its maritime heritage is also represented in a form of KRI Pasopati Submarine
Submarine
Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey class submarine.[139][140]

Transportation[edit] Transportation in Surabaya
Surabaya
is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport, at Sedati, Sidoarjo. Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya
Surabaya
is also a transit city between Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bali
Bali
for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta
Jakarta
and the neighboring island of Madura. In 2018, President Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo
inaugurated final segments of the Trans-Java Toll Road, fully connecting Jakarta
Jakarta
and Surabaya
Surabaya
with expressways.[141]

Airport[edit] Surabaya's Juanda International Airport
Juanda International Airport
is a passenger and cargo airport which also serves as Surabaya's Navy Airbase, operated by the TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served Surabaya
Surabaya
for many years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia's domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller than Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan
Medan
and Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Juanda International Airport is still regarded as Indonesia's second busiest airport right after Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta International Airport Ujung passenger Port Seaport[edit] See also: Port of Tanjung Perak Port of Tanjung Perak
Port of Tanjung Perak
is the trading port in East Java
East Java
and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is the second largest port of trade, container and passenger in Indonesia
Indonesia
after the Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
in Jakarta. There is also Teluk Lamong Port Terminal, which is the main buffer terminal of Tanjung Perak Port. The port terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in Indonesia
Indonesia
and is one of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire operating system is automated.

Train[edit] Further information: Commuter Rail in Surabaya The city has three major train stations, being Surabaya
Surabaya
Kota (also known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya's main train station is Pasar Turi Station. The Argo Bromo Anggrek
Argo Bromo Anggrek
operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia's main rail operator) connects Surabaya
Surabaya
from this station to Gambir Station
Gambir Station
(Jakarta). Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya.

Pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya Bus[edit] The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih, Waru, Sidoarjo), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak.[142]

Public transport[edit] There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi-cabs, Suroboyo Bus, shuttle bus service, city bus, Angguna, Pedicab
Pedicab
and Commuter rail. Transportation network companies
Transportation network companies
Go-Jek, and Grab are also available in Surabaya. Surabaya
Surabaya
has announced to build LRT and tram ( Light Rail Transit ) system.[143][144]

Suramadu Bridge[edit] The Suramadu Bridge
Suramadu Bridge
(derived from Surabaya-Madura) connects Surabaya and Madura
Madura
Island over the Madura
Madura
Strait. A 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) highway has been proposed to be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura
Madura
International Seaport-City in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan, Madura
Madura
at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion (US$7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.[145] Suramadu Bridge, The longest bridge in Indonesia Sports[edit] Ultras
Ultras
choreography of Persebaya. Surabaya
Surabaya
is a barometer and center football development in Indonesia. The city has many football clubs and founded in Surabaya. The first club was founded by the youth of Hoogere Burger School (HBS) John Edgar with the Victoria club in 1895.[146][147] Then developed again there were Scorens in Ons Doel (SIOD), Sparta, Rapiditas and Thot Heil Onzer Ribben (THOR). These are the pioneers of football in Surabaya. The clubs then took management under Oost Java Voetbalbond (OJVB) in 1907. Two years later the OJVB changed to Soerabajasche Voetbalbond (SVB). Starting in 1914, SVB was based on the Nederlandsch Indische Voetbalbond (NIVB), created by Dutch football federation (KNVB). The Surabaya
Surabaya
Chinese and native people also founded their football clubs by ethnic. Oei Kwie Liem founded Hoa Soerabaja in 1914, while the Bumiputera through R Pamoedji and Paidjo founded the Soerabajasche Indonesische Voetbalbond (SIVB) on June 18, 1927 (now Persebaya), which three years later is a club who co-founded PSSI.[148][147] In 1950, the working-class people and office men founded Soerabajasche Kantoor Voetbalbond (SKVB).[149][150] Football sector in Indonesia
Indonesia
and specifically Surabaya
Surabaya
more developed, the football association of Indonesia
Indonesia
founded a semiprofessional competition in 1979 which was named the Main Football League (Galatama). A new team emerged from Surabaya, NIAC Partners and the Salim Group Association. Besides Galatama, PSSI also formed a women's soccer competition called the Women's Football League (Galanita). Surabaya
Surabaya
also has a women's soccer team which was founded in 1977 and named Puteri Puspita. The clubs from Surabaya
Surabaya
are also of gain attention from the rest of the world. Persebaya have competed against European teams including Lokomotiv Moscow, Sturm Grasz, Grasshoppers, Salzburg, Stade de Reims, Ajax Amsterdam, PSV Eindhoven, AC Milan, and lastly are Queens Park Rangers (QPR). Aside from the European team, there are several national teams outside the country competing against Persebaya, there are Yugoslavia Olympics, Malaysia, Mozambique, Uruguay, Thailand, South Korea, and Japanese national team.[150]

CLS Knight Indonesia
Indonesia
during the match. NIAC Mitra also competed against Arsenal and won the Aga Khan Gold Cup competition in 1979 in Bangladesh. The achievements of NIAC Mitra in the Galatama competition were listed as champions three times in 1980–1982, 1982/1983, 1987/1988, and were runners-up in 1988/89. However, NIAC Partners officially dissolved and withdrew from the Galatama competition held by PSSI in 1990 because they considered the policies issued by PSSI irrelevant. After being disbanded, the demands of the Surabaya
Surabaya
community so that NIAC Partners still existed were channeled when the Jawa Pos party entered and then changed the name of the NIAC Partner to the Surabaya
Surabaya
Partner.[151] When the Union competition was merged with Galatama in 1994, the new Persebaya was able to win in 1997 and 2004. Persebaya was listed as the first team capable of winning twice the Indonesian League. Whereas Mitra Surabaya was only able to exist until the 1998/1999 season and Mitra Surabaya re-established again in other city, Tenggarong and not used the name of Surabaya
Surabaya
again.[152] Recently only Persebaya has stable fans and achievements. Persebaya has won the Indonesian Premier Division three times–twice when the division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as "equipped by bravery"). The city is the home of CLS Knights Indonesia, a basketball club which participated in IBL (Indonesia basketball league) & Asean Basketball League. Surabaya
Surabaya
has a multi-purpose stadium, Gelora Bung Tomo
Bung Tomo
Stadium. The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium.[153] It was the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against then–English Premier League
Premier League
club Queens Park Rangers, held on 23 July 2012. Another very popular sport in Surabaya
Surabaya
is Badminton. There are immense amounts of badminton schools and clubs in the city that train students of various ages to get to the next level of the Badminton League.[154] There are many children who started out their career from Surabaya
Surabaya
and have made it to the national level if not the international level.

Education[edit] Universities and post-secondary institutions[edit] Surabaya
Surabaya
has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties (sorted by mainly):

Airlangga
Airlangga
University (UNAIR), a major public research university in Indonesia
Indonesia
based in Surabaya
Surabaya
and Banyuwangi.[155] Airlangga
Airlangga
University (UNAIR) main entrance. Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology
(ITS), a major public technological institute teaches robotics and mechanics, and is the centre of Ship and Ocean Structure Design to support offshore exploration.[156] Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology
(ITS) main library. State University of Surabaya
State University of Surabaya
(UNESA), a major university educating teachers; also with programs in Economics, Technology, and Law.[157] Universitas Kristen Petra, a major and oldest Christian private university in Indonesia, with programs in Economics, Technology, Designs, Technical, Literature and Education. Established in 1961, was the oldest major christian university in Indonesia.[158] Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (PENS-PPNS), a major technical public institution located in Surabaya.[159] Hang Tuah University, a university managed by Yayasan Nala, founded by Indonesian Navy.[160] Universitas Bhayangkara, a university affiliated with Indonesian Police Department of East Java.[161] Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya, an Public institute specializing in Computer Programming.[162] Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jawa Timur, an Public institute in Surabaya.[163] Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya, an institute specializing in Technical Studies.[164] State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel
Sunan Ampel
(UINSA), a public university for Islamic studies.[165] University of Surabaya, a private university teaching Pharmacy and Psychology, established in 1968.[166] Wijaya Putra University a Public University established in 1984.[167] Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya, a university which is the oldest private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia. Established in 1981, The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1986.[168] Widya Mandala Catholic University, a Catholic private university in Surabaya
Surabaya
with facilities for Healthcare Studies at a newly opened third campus in the eastern part of the city.[169] Widya Kartika Catholic University, a Catholic private university in Surabaya.[170] Pelita Harapan University, a private university in Indonesia
Indonesia
founded in 1994.[171] Ciputra University, a private entrepreneurial-oriented university founded in 2006 by the Ciputra Group.[172] Narotama University (UNNAR), private university in Surabaya.[173] Primary and secondary schools[edit] Petra Christianity
Christianity
Senior High School International schools include:

Surabaya
Surabaya
Intercultural School[174] Surabaya
Surabaya
Japanese School (スラバヤ日本人学校)[175] Surabaya
Surabaya
Taipei International School; 印尼泗水臺灣學校)[176] Surabaya
Surabaya
European School[177] Private schools include:

Petra Christian School[178] St. Louis Catholic School[179] St. Agnes Catholic School[180] Angelus Custos Catholic School[181] GLORIA Christian School[182] IPH Christian School[183] JAC School Cuisine[edit] See also: Javanese cuisine Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya. As a metropolitan city, all types of Indonesian cuisine
Indonesian cuisine
and other international restaurants have a presence.[184] However, as the capital of East Java, cuisines from the rest of the province dominates the culinary culture of the city. East Javanese cuisines include a variety of processed fruits, crispy tempeh, Bakpao
Bakpao
telo, Bakso
Bakso
Malang, Rawon, tahu campur lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, getuk pisang, pecel madiun, wingko, tape, nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp crackers, shrimp paste or petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, Nasi lethok, sego tempong, salad soup, pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll, gaplek, lodho, goat satay, and pecel tulungagung.[185] Surabaya
Surabaya
is famous for Rawon, Rujak cingur, Semanggi, Lontong
Lontong
Balap, clams satay, mussels, and rice cake.[186]

Rujak cingur:[187] a marinated cow snout or lips and noses (cingur), served with boiled vegetables and shrimp crackers. It is then dressed in a sauce made of caramelized fermented shrimp paste (petis), peanuts, chili, and spices. It is usually served with lontong, a boiled rice cake. Rujak cingur is considered traditional food of Surabaya. Rawon: a dark beef soup, served with mung bean sprouts and the ubiquitous sambal. The dark (almost black) color comes from the kluwak (Pangium edule) nuts.[188] Lontong
Lontong
kupang: lontong with small cockles in petis sauce.[189] Semanggi: a salad made of boiled semanggi (M. crenata) leaves that grow in paddy fields. It is dressed in a spicy peanut sauce. It's usually eaten with rice crackers.[190] Notable people[edit] Main category: People from Surabaya International relations[edit] Diplomatic Missions[edit] General Consulates[edit] Australia[191] (Main article: Australian Consulate-General, Surabaya) China[192] (Main article: Chinese Consulate-General, Surabaya) Japan[193][194] (Main article: Consulate-General of Japan, Surabaya) United States[195] (Main article: Consulate General of the United States, Surabaya) Consulates[edit]

Austria[196] Belarus[197][198] Belgium[199] Canada[200] Czech Republic[201] Denmark[202] East Timor[203] France[204][205] Germany[206] Hungary[207] India[208] Mongolia[209]

Netherlands[210] New Zealand[211] Philippines[212] Poland[213][214] Russia[200] Slovakia[215] Switzerland[216] Sri Lanka[217] Sweden[218] Thailand[219] United Kingdom[220][221]

Other diplomatics[edit] Taiwan (Taipei Economic and Trade Office in Surabaya)[222] Twin towns (sister cities)[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia Surabaya
Surabaya
is twinned with:[223]

Japan
Japan
Kitakyushu, Japan
Japan
(since 1992) United States Seattle, United States (since 1992)[224] United States New Orleans, United States United States Portland, United States Malaysia
Malaysia
Johor Bahru, Malaysia Brunei Kuala Belait, Brunei Darussalam Netherlands
Netherlands
Den Haag, Netherlands Korea Busan, South Korea (since 1994) Turkey İzmir, Turkey (since 1996)[225] Bulgaria Varna, Bulgaria Egypt Iskandariyah, Egypt Taiwan Kaoshiung, Taiwan Iran Mashhad, Iran Japan
Japan
Kōchi, Japan
Japan
(since 1997)[226] Mexico Monterrey, Mexico (since 2001) China
China
Guangzhou, China
China
(since 2005)[227] China
China
Xiamen, China
China
(since 2008) China
China
Wuhan, China United Kingdom Liverpool, United Kingdom (since 2017)[228] Gallery[edit]

Mosque in Surabaya

Handelstraat (Red Bridge) 1930s

Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, the city's Chinatown

See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal Colonial architecture of Surabaya List of tallest buildings in Surabaya Notes[edit]

^ Including GDP rest of Gerbangkertosusila

References[edit] Citations

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Further reading[edit] Adi, Dhahana (2014). Surabaya
Surabaya
Punya Cerita: Vol. 1, Volume 1 (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Indie Book Corner. ISBN 9786023090242. Airlangga
Airlangga
University, Department of History (2013). Mengeja keseharian: Sejarah kehidupan masyarakat kota Surabaya
Surabaya
(in Indonesian). Surabaya: Departemen Ilmu Sejarah UNAIR. ISBN 9789791854115. Akhmad Saiful Ali (1994). Ekspansi Mataram terhadap Surabaya
Surabaya
Abad ke-17 (Thesis) (in Indonesian). Surabaya: Islamic Institute of Sunan Ampel. Basundoro, Purnawan (2013). Merebut Ruang Kota: Aksi Rakyat Miskin Kota Surabaya
Surabaya
1900-1960an (in Indonesian). South Tangerang: CV Marjin Kiri. ISBN 9789791260220. Dick, Howard W. (2002). Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 9780896802216. Ingleson, John (2014). Workers, Unions and Politics: Indonesia
Indonesia
in the 1920s and 1930s. Boston: Brill Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 9789004264762. ISSN 2213-0527. Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Continental Sales, Incorporated. p. 246. ISBN 978-98-141-5567-0. Nasution (2006). Ekonomi Surabaya
Surabaya
pada masa kolonial, 1830-1930 (in Indonesian). Pustaka Intelektual. ISBN 9789792506808. Padmodiwiryo, Suhario (2016). Revolution in the City of Heroes: A Memoir of the Battle That Sparked Indonesia's National Revolution. ReadHowYouWant.com. ISBN 9781525230288. Palmos, Frank (2016). Surabaya
Surabaya
1945: Sakral Tanahku. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. ISBN 9789794616383. Peters, Robbie (2013). Surabaya, 1945–2010: Neighbourhood, State and Economy in Indonesia's City of Struggle. Canberra: Asian Studies Association of Australia. ISBN 9780824838645. Pigeaud, Theodore Gauthier Thomas (1976). Islamic States in Java 1500–1700: Eight Dutch Books and Articles by Dr H. J. de Graaf. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-1876-4. Pigeaud, Theodore Gauthier Thomas (1962). Java
Java
in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History (3rd ed.). Leiden: Springer Science Business Media. p. 243. ISBN 978-94-0177095-8. Ricklefs, M.C. (2008-09-11). A History of Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
Since C.1200. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 46–48. ISBN 978-1-137-05201-8. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surabaya.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Surabaya.

"Official Site". surabaya.go.id (in Indonesian). " Surabaya
Surabaya
News". surabayanews.co.id (in Indonesian). 2015-12-09. Archived from the original on 2015-12-09.  "Surabaya" . Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.  " Surabaya
Surabaya
or Soerabaya. The largest city in Java" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

vteDistricts of Surabaya Genteng Bubutan Tegalsari Simokerto Tambaksari Gubeng Krembangan Semampir Pabean Cantikan Wonokromo Sawahan Tandes Karang Pilang Wonocolo Rungkut Sukolilo Kenjeran Benowo Lakarsantri Mulyorejo Tenggilis Mejoyo Gunung Anyar Jambangan Gayungan Wiyung Dukuh Pakis Asem Rowo Sukomanunggal Bulak Pakal Sambikerep

vteRegencies and cities of East JavaCapital: SurabayaRegencies Banyuwangi Bangkalan Blitar Bojonegoro Bondowoso Gresik Jember Jombang Kediri Lamongan Lumajang Madiun Magetan Malang Mojokerto Nganjuk Ngawi Pacitan Pamekasan Pasuruan Ponorogo Probolinggo Sampang Sidoarjo Situbondo Sumenep Trenggalek Tuban Tulungagung Cities Batu Blitar Kediri Madiun Malang Mojokerto Probolinggo Pasuruan Surabaya See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Articles related to Surabaya vte Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population2,000,000 and more Jakarta Surabaya Bekasi Bandung Medan Depok Tangerang 1,000,000–1,999,999 Semarang Palembang South Tangerang Makassar Batam Bogor Pekanbaru 500,000–999,999 Bandar Lampung Padang Denpasar Malang Samarinda Banjarmasin Tasikmalaya Serang Balikpapan Pontianak Cimahi Jambi 200,000–499,999 Surakarta Manado Mataram Yogyakarta Cilegon Palu Kupang Ambon Bengkulu Sukabumi Cirebon Kendari Pekalongan Kediri Jayapura Dumai Binjai Tegal Pematang Siantar Banda Aceh Palangka Raya Probolinggo Lubuklinggau Singkawang

 vte Largest cities in Southeast AsiaPSA Census August 2015

Rank

Name

Country

Pop.

Rank

Name

Country

Pop.

JakartaBangkok

1 Jakarta Indonesia 10,135,030 11 Medan Indonesia 2,185,789

Ho Chi Minh CityHanoi

2 Bangkok Thailand 8,305,218 12 Tangerang Indonesia 2,001,925

3 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 7,981,411 13 Hai Phong Vietnam 1,946,000

4 Hanoi Vietnam 7,067,000 14 Depok Indonesia 1,869,681

5 Singapore Singapore 5,399,000 15 Manila Philippines 1,780,148

6 Yangon Myanmar 5,451,439 16 Davao City Philippines 1,632,991

7 Surabaya Indonesia 3,457,409 17 Caloocan Philippines 1,583,978

8 Quezon City Philippines 2,936,116 18 Semarang Indonesia 1,575,058

9 Bandung Indonesia 2,575,478 19 Palembang Indonesia 1,561,959

10 Bekasi Indonesia 2,510,951 20 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 1,475,337

 vte Largest cities in Indonesia2015 inter-census survey

Rank

Name

Province

Pop.

Rank

Name

Province

Pop.

JakartaSurabaya

1 Jakarta Jakarta 10,154,134 11 Makassar South Sulawesi 1,447,677

BekasiBandung

2 Surabaya East Java 2,847,480 12 Batam Riau
Riau
Islands 1,184,978

3 Bekasi West Java 2,708,721 13 Bogor West Java 1,046,579

4 Bandung West Java 2,480,615 14 Pekanbaru Riau 1,035,834

5 Medan North Sumatra 2,209,139 15 Bandar Lampung Lampung 977,686

6 Depok West Java 2,099,989 16 Padang West Sumatra 901,305

7 Tangerang Banten 2,043,213 17 Denpasar Bali 879,098

8 Semarang Central Java 1,698,777 18 Malang East Java 850,904

9 Palembang South Sumatra 1,578,582 19 Samarinda East Kalimantan 811,314

10 South Tangerang Banten 1,538,970 20 Banjarmasin South Kalimantan 674,739

Authority control BNF: cb123137313 (data) GND: 4106427-6 LCCN: n81043553 MusicBrainz: e1e73e34-e6b3-4fce-aac0-9a3d1d1d8e69 NARA: 10044821 NDL: 00654502 VIAF: 140726845 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

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