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The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) ( so, Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, ar, المجلس الثوري الأعلى, it, Consiglio Rivoluzionario Supremo) was the governmental body that ruled
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Oce ...
from 1969 to 1976.


History



Assassination of President and Coup D'Etat

On October 15, 1969, while paying a visit to the northern town of
Las Anod Las Anod ( so, Laascaanood; ar, لاس عانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland. History During the pre-independence period, Las Anod served as an early center for Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Dervish movement (So ...
, Somalia's then President
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke ( so, Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, ar, عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي) (June 8, 1919 – October 15, 1969), also known as Abdirashid Shermarke, was Prime Minister of Somali Republic from July 12, 1960, to ...
was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards. Moshe Y. Sachs, ''Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations'', Volume 2, (Worldmark Press: 1988), p.290.His assassination was quickly followed by a military coup d'état on the afternoon of October 21, 1969 (the day after his funeral), in which the Somali Army seized power without encountering armed opposition. The putsch was spearheaded by Major General
Mohamed Siad Barre
Mohamed Siad Barre
, who at the time commanded the army. Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel
Salaad Gabeyre Kediye Salaad Gabeyre Kediye ( so, Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, 1933 – 3 July 1972), also known as Salah Gaveire Kedie, was a Somali senior military official and a revolutionary. Biography Kediye was born in Harardhere, Somalia. A career army man, he receiv ...
, General
Mohamed Ainanshe Guleid Muhammad was an Islamic prophet and a religious and political leader who preached and established Islam. Muhammad and variations may also refer to: *Muhammad (name), a given name and surname, and list of people with the name and its variations ...
and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Shortly afterwards Barre became the head of the SRC. The SRC renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic,''The Encyclopedia Americana: complete in thirty volumes. Skin to Sumac'', Volume 25, (Grolier: 1995), p.214. arrested members of the former civilian government, banned political parties,. dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution.Peter John de la Fosse Wiles, ''The New Communist Third World: an essay in political economy'', (Taylor & Francis: 1982), p.279. Essentially a military junta, the SRC became the de facto executive government and consisted of 25 almost exclusively Officer (armed forces), military officials. The SRC took over all the duties of President of Somalia, the President, the National Assembly and the Council of Ministers through the proclamation of the Law Number 1. The old constitution nominally remained under perpetual suspension until the SRC later repealed it in 1970.Supreme Revolutionary Council
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Functions and political programme

The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs, including construction of the Mogadishu Stadium. It also sought to improve the social position of women, using Islamic precepts as a reference point. In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world, eventually joining the Arab League (AL) in 1974.Benjamin Frankel, ''The Cold War, 1945-1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World'', (Gale Research: 1992), p.306. The Supreme Revolutionary Council also attempted to resolve the outstanding issue of which of the various writing systems then in use in Somalia should be officialized as the main national orthography. In October 1972, the government unilaterally elected to use the modified Somali alphabet, Latin script of the linguist Musa Haji Ismail Galal for writing Somali language, Somali instead of the Wadaad's writing, Arabic or Osmanya alphabet, Osmanya scripts.Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, ''Culture and Customs of Somalia'', (Greenwood Press: 2001), p.73 It subsequently launched a large urban and rural literacy campaign designed to ensure the orthography's adoption, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. The SRC further enacted a number of reforms designed to weaken the influence of traditional lineage structures and processes, which Barre regarded as a potential threat to his rule. Offences deemed clan-related were punished with fines and prison sentences, and traditional headmen employed by the previous civilian administration were substituted with hand-picked government peacekeepers (''nabod doon''). Orientation centers were likewise established, which took over hosting duties for marriage services. Over 140,000 nomadic pastoralists were also resettled in littoral towns and agricultural areas with the additional aim of increasing productivity.


Dissolution and reinstatement

In July 1976, Barre's SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), a one-party government based on scientific socialism and Islamic tenets. The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by Revisionism (Marxism), adapting Marxism, Marxist precepts to local circumstances. Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially Socialism (Marxism), socialist. After the unsuccessful Ogaden War, Ogaden campaign of the late 1970s, a new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which 1979 Somali parliamentary election, elections for a People's Assembly were held. However, the Politburo of Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party continued to rule. On 23 October 1980 Barre reinstated the Supreme Revolutionary Council via Presidential Decree No. 3, and five subcommittees were established, including Defence & Security and Political.


Members

The following is a list of members of the Supreme Revolutionary Council in February 1970:


See also

*History of Somalia The following is a list of members of the Supreme Revolutionary Council in October 1969: 1. Maj.-Gen. Muhammad Siad Barre 2. Maj.-Gen. Jama Ali Korshel 3. Maj.-Gen. Muhammad Ainanshe 4. Brig.-Gen. Hussein Kulmiye Afrah 5. Colonel Ahmed Mohamoud Ade 6. Lt.-Col. Salaad Gabeyre Kediye 7. Lt.-Col. Muhammad Ali Samatar 8. Lt.-Col. Abdullah Mohamed Fadil 9. Lt.-Col. Ali Matan Hashi 10. Lt. Colonel Mohamoud Mirre 11. Maj. Muhammad Sh. Osman 12. Maj. Ismail Ali Abukar 13. Maj. Muhammad Ali Shirreh 14. Maj. Ahmed Suleiman Abdulle 15. Maj. Mohamud Gelle Yusuf 16. Maj. Farah Wais Dulleh 17. Capt. Ahmed Hassan Musa 18. Capt. Musa Rabile Good 19. Capt. Ahmed Muhammad Farah 20. Capt. Muhammad Omer Ges 21. Capt. Osman Mohamed Jelle 22. Capt. Abdi Warsama Isaak 23. Capt. Abdirazak Mahamud Abubakar 24. Capt. Abdulkadir Haji Muhamad 25. Lt. Bashir Yussuf


Notes

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References

*''The Europa World Year Book 1970'' Political history of Somalia 1970s in Somalia 1969 establishments in Somalia 1976 disestablishments in Somalia Military dictatorships