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The Sumerian King List
Sumerian King List
is an ancient stone tablet originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer
Sumer
(ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of the kingship. Kingship
Kingship
was seen as handed down by the gods and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region.[1] Throughout its Bronze Age
Bronze Age
existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin's claims to hegemony when Isin
Isin
was vying for dominance with Larsa
Larsa
and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia.[1][2]

Contents

1 Composition

1.1 Sources

2 List

2.1 Antediluvian rulers 2.2 First dynasty of Kish 2.3 First rulers of Uruk 2.4 First dynasty of Ur 2.5 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Awan 2.6 Second dynasty of Kish 2.7 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Hamazi 2.8 Second dynasty of Uruk 2.9 Second dynasty of Ur 2.10 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Adab 2.11 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Mari 2.12 Third dynasty of Kish 2.13 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Akshak 2.14 Fourth dynasty of Kish 2.15 Third dynasty of Uruk 2.16 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Akkad 2.17 Fourth dynasty of Uruk 2.18 Gutian rule 2.19 Fifth dynasty of Uruk 2.20 Third dynasty of Ur 2.21 Dynasty
Dynasty
of Isin

3 See also 4 References 5 Literature

Composition[edit] The list blends prehistorical, presumably mythical predynastic rulers enjoying implausibly lengthy reigns with later, more plausibly historical dynasties. Although the primal kings are historically unattested, that does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicized. Some Assyriologists view the predynastic kings as a later fictional addition.[1][3] Only one ruler listed is known to be female: Kug-Bau
Kug-Bau
"the (female) tavern-keeper", who alone accounts for the Third Dynasty
Dynasty
of Kish. The earliest listed ruler whose historicity has been archaeologically verified is Enmebaragesi of Kish, c. 2600 BC. Reference to him and his successor, Aga of Kish, in the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
has led to speculation that Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
himself may have been a historical king of Uruk. Three dynasties are absent from the list: the Larsa
Larsa
dynasty, which vied for power with the (included) Isin
Isin
dynasty during the Isin- Larsa
Larsa
period; and the two dynasties of Lagash, which respectively preceded and ensued the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire, when Lagash
Lagash
exercised considerable influence in the region. Lagash, in particular, is known directly from archaeological artifacts dating from c. 2500 BC. The list is important to the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, the fact that many of the dynasties listed reigned simultaneously from varying localities makes it difficult to reproduce a strict linear chronology.[1] Sources[edit] The following extant ancient sources contain the Sumerian King List
Sumerian King List
or fragments:

Apkullu-list (W.20030,7) Babyloniaca (Berossus) Dynastic Chronicle
Dynastic Chronicle
(ABC 18)[4] including copies, K 11261+ and K 12054 Kish Tablet (Scheil dynastic tablet) UCBC 9-1819 ("California Tablet") WB 62 WB 444 (Weld-Blundell Prism) [5]

The last two sources (WB) are a part of the "Weld-Blundell collection", donated by Herbert Weld Blundell to the Ashmolean Museum. WB 62 is a small clay tablet, inscribed only on one side, unearthed from Larsa. It is the oldest dated source, at c. 2000 BC, that contains the list.[6] WB 444, in contrast, is a unique inscribed vertical prism,[1][7][8][9] dated c. 1817 BC, although some scholars prefer c. 1827 BC.[10] The Kish Tablet or Scheil dynastic tablet is an early 2nd millennium BC tablet which came into possession of Jean-Vincent Scheil, but only contains list entries for four Sumerian cities.[11] UCBC 9-1819 is a clay tablet housed in the collection of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California.[12] The tablet was inscribed during the reign of the Babylonian King Samsu-iluna, or slightly earlier, with the earliest date of 1712 BC.[13] The Dynastic Chronicle
Dynastic Chronicle
(ABC 18) is a Babylonian king list written on six columns, beginning with entries for the antediluvian (prior to the flood) Sumerian rulers. K 11261+[14] is one of the copies of this chronicle, consisting of three joined Neo-Assyrian fragments discovered at the Library of Ashurbanipal.[15] K 12054 is another of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
fragments from Uruk
Uruk
(c. 640 BC) but contains a variant form of the antediluvians on the list. The later Babylonian king lists and Assyrian king lists repeated the earliest portions of the list, thus preserving them well into the 3rd century BC. At this time, Berossus wrote Babyloniaca, which popularized fragments of the list in the Hellenic world. In 1960, the Apkullu-list (Tablet No. W.20030, 7) or “ Uruk
Uruk
List of Kings and Sages” (ULKS) was discovered by German archaeologists at an ancient temple at Uruk. The list, dating to c. 165 BC, contains a series of kings, equivalent to the Sumerian antediluvians, called "Apkullu".[16] List[edit] Early dates are approximate, and are based on available archaeological data. For most of the pre- Akkadian
Akkadian
rulers listed, the king list is itself the lone source of information. Beginning with Lugal-zage-si and the Third Dynasty
Dynasty
of Uruk
Uruk
(which was defeated by Sargon of Akkad), a better understanding of how subsequent rulers fit into the chronology of the ancient Near East can be deduced. The short chronology is used here. Antediluvian rulers[edit] None of the following predynastic antediluvian rulers have been verified as historical by archaeological excavations, epigraphical inscriptions or otherwise. While there is no evidence they ever reigned as such, the Sumerians purported them to have lived in the mythical era before the great deluge. Some modern scholars believe the Sumerian deluge story corresponds to localized river flooding at Shuruppak
Shuruppak
(modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other cities as far north as Kish, as revealed by layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to c. 2900 BC, which interrupt the continuity of settlement. Polychrome
Polychrome
pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period
Jemdet Nasr period
(c. 3000–2900 BC) was discovered immediately below this Shuruppak
Shuruppak
flood stratum.[17] The antediluvian reigns were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3,600), ners (units of 600), and sosses (units of 60).[18]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years."

Alulim

8 sars (28,800 years) mythological

Alalngar

10 sars (36,000 years)

"Then Eridug
Eridug
fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira."

En-men-lu-ana

12 sars (43,200 years)

En-men-gal-ana

8 sars (28,800 years)

Dumuzid, the Shepherd  "the shepherd" 10 sars (36,000 years)

"Then Bad-tibira
Bad-tibira
fell and the kingship was taken to Larag."

En-sipad-zid-ana

8 sars (28,800 years)

"Then Larag
Larag
fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir."

En-men-dur-ana

5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years)

"Then Zimbir
Zimbir
fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag."

Ubara-Tutu

5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years)

"Then the flood swept over."[19]

First dynasty of Kish[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."

Jushur

1,200 years historicity uncertain names before Etana
Etana
do not appear in any other known source, and their existence is archaeologically unverified

Kullassina-bel

960 years

Nangishlishma

670 years

En-tarah-ana

420 years

Babum

300 years

Puannum

840 years

Kalibum

960 years

Kalumum

840 years

Zuqaqip

900 years

Atab (or A-ba)

600 years

Mashda "the son of Atab" 840 years

Arwium "the son of Mashda" 720 years

Etana "the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries" 1,500 years

Balih "the son of Etana" 400 years

En-me-nuna

660 years

Melem-Kish "the son of En-me-nuna" 900 years

Barsal-nuna ("the son of En-me-nuna")* 1,200 years

Zamug "the son of Barsal-nuna" 140 years

Tizqar "the son of Zamug" 305 years

Ilku

900 years

Iltasadum

1,200 years

En-me-barage-si "who made the land of Elam
Elam
submit" 900 years c. 2600 BC the earliest ruler on the List confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence

Aga of Kish "the son of En-me-barage-si" 625 years c. 2600 BC contemporary with Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
of Uruk, according to the Sumerian tale of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
and Aga [20]

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana."

First rulers of Uruk[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Mesh-ki-ang-gasher of E-ana "the son of Utu" 324 years c. 27th

" Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entered the sea and disappeared."

Enmerkar "the son of Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, the king of Unug, who built Unug (Uruk)" 420 years

Lugalbanda "the shepherd" 1,200 years

Dumuzid (Dumuzi) "the fisherman whose city was Kuara." ("He captured En-me-barage-si single-handedly.")* 100 years c. 2600 BC

Gilgamesh "whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba" 126 years c. 2600 BC contemporary with Aga of Kish, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh[20]

Ur-Nungal "the son of Gilgamesh" 30 years

Udul-kalama "the son of Ur-Nungal" 15 years

La-ba'shum

9 years

En-nun-tarah-ana

8 years

Mesh-he "the smith" 36 years

Melem-ana

6 years

Lugal-kitun

36 years

"Then Unug
Unug
was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."

First dynasty of Ur[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Mesh-Ane-pada

80 years c. 26th century BC

Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna "the son of Mesh-Ane-pada" 36 years

Elulu

25 years

Balulu

36 years

"Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan."

Dynasty
Dynasty
of Awan[edit] This was a dynasty from Elam.

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Three kings of Awan

356 years c. 26th century BC

"Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."

Second dynasty of Kish[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Susuda "the fuller" 201 years c. 26th century BC

Dadasig

81 years

Mamagal "the boatman" 360 years

Kalbum "the son of Mamagal" 195 years

Tuge

360 years

Men-nuna "the son of Tuge" 180 years

(Enbi-Ishtar)

290 years

Lugalngu

360 years

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi."

The First dynasty of Lagash
Lagash
(c. 2500 – c. 2271 BC) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions Dynasty
Dynasty
of Hamazi[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Hadanish

360 years c. 2500 BC

"Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug
Unug
(Uruk)."

Second dynasty of Uruk[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

En-shag-kush-ana

60 years c. 25th century BC said to have conquered parts of Sumer; then Eannatum
Eannatum
of Lagash
Lagash
claims to have taken over Sumer, Kish, and all Mesopotamia.

Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure

120 years

contemporary with Entemena
Entemena
of Lagash

Argandea

7 years

"Then Unug
Unug
was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."

Second dynasty of Ur[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Nanni

120 years c. 25th century BC

Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II "the son of Nanni" 48 years

(?)

2 years

"Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab."

Dynasty
Dynasty
of Adab[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Lugal-Ane-mundu

90 years c. 25th century BC said to have conquered all Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
to the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
and Elam

"Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari."

Dynasty
Dynasty
of Mari[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Anbu

30 years c. 25th century BC

Anba "the son of Anbu" 17 years

Bazi "the leatherworker" 30 years

Zizi of Mari "the fuller" 20 years

Limer "the 'gudug' priest" 30 years

Sharrum-iter

9 years

"Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."

Third dynasty of Kish[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Kug-Bau
Kug-Bau
(Kubaba) "the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish" 100 years c. 25th century BC the only known woman in the King List; said to have gained independence from En-anna-tum I
En-anna-tum I
of Lagash
Lagash
and En-shag-kush-ana of Uruk; contemporary with Puzur-Nirah of Akshak, according to the later Chronicle of the É-sagila

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak."

Dynasty
Dynasty
of Akshak[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Unzi

30 years c. 25th – 24th century BC

Undalulu

6 years

Urur

6 years

Puzur-Nirah

20 years

contemporary with Kug-Bau
Kug-Bau
of Kish, according to the later Chronicle of É-sagila

Ishu-Il

24 years

Shu-Suen
Shu-Suen
of Akshak "the son of Ishu-Il" 7 years

"Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish."

Fourth dynasty of Kish[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Puzur-Suen "the son of Kug-Bau" 25 years c. 24th – 23rd century BC

Ur-Zababa "the son of Puzur-Suen" 400 (6?) years c. 2300 BC according to the king list, Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
was his cup-bearer

Zimudar

30 years

Usi-watar "the son of Zimudar" 7 years

Eshtar-muti

11 years

Ishme-Shamash

11 years

(Shu-ilishu)*

(15 years)*

Nanniya "the jeweller" 7 years c. 2303–2296 BC (short)

"Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug
Unug
(Uruk)."

Third dynasty of Uruk[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Lugal-zage-si

25 years c. 2296–2271 BC (short) said to have defeated Urukagina
Urukagina
of Lagash, as well as Kish and other Sumerian cities, creating a unified kingdom; he in turn was overthrown by Sargon of Akkad

"Then Unug
Unug
was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade
Agade
(Akkad)"

Dynasty
Dynasty
of Akkad[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Sargon of Akkad "whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade" 40 years c. 2270–2215 BC (short) defeated Lugal-zage-si
Lugal-zage-si
of Uruk, took over Sumer, and began the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire

Rimush of Akkad "the son of Sargon" 9 years c. 2214–2206 BC (short)

Manishtushu (Manishtusu)

"the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon" 15 years c. 2205–2191 BC (short)

Naram-Sin of Akkad "the son of Man-ishtishu" 56 years c. 2190–2154 BC (short)

Shar-kali-sharri "the son of Naram-Sin" 25 years c. 2153–2129 BC (short)

"Then who was king? Who was not the king?"

Irgigi Imi Nanum Ilulu

"and the 4 of them ruled for only 3 years"

c. 2128–2125 BC (short)

Dudu of Akkad

21 years c. 2125–2104 BC (short)

Shu-Durul "the son of Dudu" 15 years c. 2104–2083 BC (short) Akkad falls to the Gutians

"Then Agade
Agade
was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug
Unug
(Uruk)."

Fourth dynasty of Uruk[edit]

(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
contemporary with the Dynasty
Dynasty
of Akkad)

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ur-ningin

7 years c. 2091? – 2061? BC (short)

Ur-gigir "the son of Ur-ningin" 6 years

Kuda

6 years

Puzur-ili

5 years

Ur-Utu (or Lugal-melem) ("the son of Ur-gigir")* 25 years

" Unug
Unug
was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium."

The Second dynasty of Lagash
Lagash
(before c. 2093–2046 BC (short)) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions. Gutian rule[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

"In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years."

Inkishush (or Inkicuc)

6 years c. 2147–2050 BC (short)

Sarlagab (or Zarlagab)

6 years

Shulme (or Yarlagash)

6 years

Elulmesh (or Silulumesh
Silulumesh
or Silulu)

6 years

Inimabakesh (or Duga)

5 years

Igeshaush (or Ilu-An)

6 years

Yarlagab

3 years

Ibate of Gutium

3 years

Yarla (or Yarlangab)

3 years

Kurum

1 year

Apilkin

3 years

La-erabum

2 years

mace head inscription

Irarum

2 years

Ibranum

1 year

Hablum

2 years

Puzur-Suen "the son of Hablum" 7 years

Yarlaganda

7 years

foundation inscription at Umma

(?)

7 years

Si'um or Si-u? — foundation inscription at Umma

Tirigan

40 days

defeated by Utu-hengal
Utu-hengal
of Uruk

"Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship taken to Unug (Uruk)."

Fifth dynasty of Uruk[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Utu-hengal

conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years) c. 2055–2048 BC (short) defeats Tirigan and the Gutians, appoints Ur-Namma
Ur-Namma
governor of Ur

"Then Unug
Unug
was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)."

Third dynasty of Ur[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ur-Namma
Ur-Namma
(Ur-Nammu)

18 years c. 2047–2030 BC (short) defeats Nammahani of Lagash; contemporary of Utu-hengal
Utu-hengal
of Uruk

Shulgi "the son of Ur-Namma" 46 years c. 2029–1982 BC (short) possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC

Amar-Suena "the son of Shulgi" 9 years c. 1981–1973 BC (short)

Shu-Suen "the son of Amar-Suena" 9 years c. 1972–1964 BC (short)

Ibbi-Suen "the son of Shu-Suen" 24 years c. 1963–1940 BC (short)

"Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer
Sumer
was torn out. The kingship was taken to Isin."

Independent Amorite
Amorite
states in lower Mesopotamia. The Dynasty
Dynasty
of Larsa (c. 1961–1674 BC (short)) from this period is not mentioned in the King List. Dynasty
Dynasty
of Isin[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments

Ishbi-Erra

33 years c. 1953–1730 BC (short) contemporary of Ibbi-Suen
Ibbi-Suen
of Ur

Shu-Ilishu "the son of Ishbi-Erra" 20 years

Iddin-Dagan "the son of Shu-ilishu" 20 years

Ishme-Dagan "the son of Iddin-Dagan" 20 years

Lipit-Eshtar "the son of Ishme-Dagan
Ishme-Dagan
(or Iddin-Dagan)" 11 years

contemporary of Gungunum
Gungunum
of Larsa

Ur-Ninurta ("the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life")* 28 years

Contemporary of Abisare of Larsa

Bur-Suen "the son of Ur-Ninurta" 21 years

Lipit-Enlil "the son of Bur-Suen" 5 years

Erra-imitti

8 years

He appointed his gardener, Enlil-Bani, substitute king and then suddenly died.

Enlil-bani

24 years

contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon. He was Erra-imitti's gardener and was appointed substitute king, to serve as a scapegoat and then sacrificed, but remained on the throne when Erra-imitti suddenly died.

Zambiya

3 years

contemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa

Iter-pisha

4 years

Ur-du-kuga

4 years

Suen-magir

11 years

(Damiq-ilishu)* ("the son of Suen-magir")* (23 years)*

* These epithets or names are not included in all versions of the king list. See also[edit]

Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
portal

Chronology of the Ancient Near East Cities of the ancient Near East History of Sumer Kings of Assyria List of kings of Iraq List of lists of ancient kings List of Mesopotamian dynasties Short chronology timeline

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East. Blackwell. p. 41. ISBN 0-631-22552-8.  ^ The spelling of royal names follows the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature ^ von Soden, Wolfram (1994). The Ancient Orient. Donald G. Schley (trans.). Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 47. ISBN 0-8028-0142-0.  ^ translation ^ translation ^ Langdon, OECT2 (1923), pl. 6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-07. Retrieved 2011-02-23.  Stephen Langdon, Historical inscriptions, containing principally the chronological prism, W-B 444, Oxford University Press, 1923 ^ "WB-444 High Resolution Image from CDLI".  ^ "WB-444 Line Art from CDLI".  ^ Ancient Iraq: ( Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia), Peter Roger Stuart Moorey, Ashmolean Museum, 1976; The Sumerian King List, T. Jacobsen, University of Chicago Press, 1939, p. 77. ^ "The Early Chronology of Sumer
Sumer
and Egypt and the Similarities in Their Culture", S. Langdon, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, Oct., 1921, p. 133. [1] ^ "The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California
University of California
Tablet", J. J. Finkelstein, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1963, p. 39. ^ Finkelstein, 1963, pp.39-40. ^ Lambert and Millard, Cuneiform Texts 46 Nr. 5 ^ Bilingual Chronicle Fragments, Irving L. Finkel, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, Apr., 1980, pp. 65-80. ^ A copy of the tablet appears in Jan van Dijk and Werner R. Mayer, Texte aus dem Rès-Heiligtum in Uruk-Warka, Bagdader Mitteilungen Beiheft 2 (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1980), text no. 89 (= BaMB 2 89). For an edition of the text, see J. van Dijk, Die Inschriftenfunde, Vorläufiger Bericht über die... Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka 18 (1962), 44-52 and plate 27. [2] ^ Harriet Crawford (2004), Sumer
Sumer
and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-53338-6  ^ [3] Christine Proust, "Numerical and Metrological Graphemes: From Cuneiform to Transliteration," Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, 2009, ISSN 1540-8779 ^ http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm ^ a b [4] Gilgameš and Aga Translation at ETCSL

Literature[edit]

Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Sumerian King List. Oriental Institute, Assyriological Studies 11, University of Chicago Press, 1939 Rowton, M. B. The Date of the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 1960 P. Steinkeller, An Ur III Manuscript of the Sumerian King List. In Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien: Festschrift fur Claus Wilcke, ed. W. Sallaberger et al., Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 267–92, 2003 Young, Dwight W. The Incredible Regnal Spans of Kish I in the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 1991 Hallo, William W. Beginning and End of the Sumerian King List
Sumerian King List
in the Nippur Recension, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 52–57, 1963 Vincente, Claudine-Adrienne, "The Tall Leilan Recension of the Sumerian King List", Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 50 (1995), 234–270 Friberg, Jöran. "The Beginning and the End of the Sumerian King List", in A remarkable collection of Babylonian mathematical texts: Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection Cuneiform Texts I, Springer, 2007, ISBN 0-387-34543-4 Michalowski, Piotr. History as Charter Some Observations on the Sumerian King List, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 237–248, 1983 Jean-Jacques Glassner, Mesopotamian Chronicles, Brill, 2005, ISBN 90-04-13084-5 J. J. Finkelstein, The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 39–51, 1963 Albrecht Goetze, Early Kings of Kish, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 105–111, 1961 Thomas Jacobs, The Sumerian King List, UGent paper, GONO department

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Pre- / Protohistory

Acheulean Mousterian Trialetian Zarzian Natufian Nemrikian Khiamian Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA) Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) Hassuna/Samarra Halaf Ubaid Uruk Jemdet Nasr Kish civilization

History

Early Dynastic Akkadian Ur III Old Babylonian Kassite Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenid Seleucid Parthian Roman Sasanian Muslim conquest Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Languages

Akkadian Amorite Aramaic Eblaite Elamite Gutian Hittite Hurrian Luwian Middle Persian Old Persian Parthian Proto-Armenian Sumerian Urartian

Culture / Society

Architecture Art Cuneiform script Akkadian
Akkadian
literature Sumerian literature Music Religion

Archaeology

Looting Destruction by ISIL Tell

Portal

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Timeline of the

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