Suina
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Suina (also known as Suiformes) is a
suborder In biological classification, the order ( la, wikt:ordo#Latin, ordo) is # a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The well-known ranks in descending order are: life, domain (biology), dom ...
of
omnivorous An omnivore () is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and animal matter, omnivores digest carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber, and metabolize the nutrien ...
, non-
ruminant Ruminants (suborder In biological classification, the order ( la, wikt:ordo#Latin, ordo) is # a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The well-known ranks in descending order are: life, ...
artiodactyl The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates (pronounced ) are members of a diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms tha ...
mammals that includes the
pig The pig (''Sus domesticus''), often called swine, hog, or domestic pig when distinguishing from other members of the genus '' Sus'', is an omnivorous An omnivore () is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and ani ...

pig
s and
peccaries A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized pig-like Ungulate, hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs). They are found throughout Central America, Central and South America, Trinidad in the Caribbean, and in the sout ...
. A member of this clade is known as a suine. Suina includes the family Suidae, termed suids, known in English as pigs or swine, as well as the family Tayassuidae, termed tayassuids or peccaries. Suines are largely native to Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, with the exception of the wild boar, which is additionally native to Europe and Asia and introduced to North America and Australasia, including widespread use in farming of the domestic pig subspecies. Suines range in size from the 55 cm (22 in) long pygmy hog to the 210 cm (83 in) long giant forest hog, and are primarily found in forest, shrubland, and grassland biomes, though some can be found in deserts, wetlands, or coastal regions. Most species do not have population estimates, though approximately two billion domestic pigs are used in farming, while several species are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 100. One species, Heude's pig, is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to have gone extinct in the 20th century.


Classification

Suina's placement within Artiodactyla can be represented in the following cladogram:(see e.g. Fig S10) The suborder Suina consists of 21 extant taxon, extant species in nine genera. These are split between the Suidae family, containing 18 species belonging to 6 genera, and the Tayassuidae family, containing 3 species in 3 genera. This does not include hybrid (biology), hybrid species such as boar–pig hybrids or extinct prehistoric species. Additionally, one species, Heude's pig, went extinct in the 20th century. * Family Suidae (Pigs) ** Genus ''Babyrousa'': four species ** Genus ''Hylochoerus'': one species ** Genus ''Phacochoerus'': two species ** Genus ''Porcula'': one species ** Genus ''Potamochoerus'': two species ** Genus ''Sus (genus), Sus'': nine species * Family Tayassuidae (Peccaries) ** Genus ''Catagonus'': one species ** Genus ''Pecari'': one species ** Genus ''Tayassu'': one species


Anatomy

Suina differ from other even-toed ungulates in that they have maxillary (upper) incisor teeth. In contrast, other even-toed ungulates, such as goats and deer, have incisors only on the lower jaw, with a horny dental pad where the upper incisors would be. Most even-toed ungulates have a four-chambered stomach. In contrast, the Suina have a simple stomach that allows an
omnivorous An omnivore () is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and animal matter, omnivores digest carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber, and metabolize the nutrien ...
diet. While most artiodactyls have long slender legs, the Suina generally have short, stubby legs.


References

{{Authority control Suina, Even-toed ungulates Taxa named by John Edward Gray