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The Suebi
Suebi
(or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of tribes who lived in Germania
Germania
in the time of the Roman Empire. They were first mentioned by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in connection with his battles against Ariovistus in Gaul, around 58 BC.[1] While Caesar treated them as one Germanic tribe within an alliance, but the largest and most warlike one, later authors, such as Tacitus, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
and Strabo, specified that the Suevi "do not, like the Chatti
Chatti
or Tencteri, constitute a single nation. They actually occupy more than half of Germania, and are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all generally are called Suebi".[2] At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, that native name would replace the foreign name "Germans".[3] Classical authors noted that the Suevic tribes, compared to other Germanic tribes, were very mobile and not reliant on agriculture.[4] Various Suevic groups moved from the direction of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and the Elbe, becoming a periodic threat to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
on their Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
frontiers. Towards the end of the empire, the Alemanni, also referred to as Suebi, first settled in the Agri Decumates and then crossed the Rhine
Rhine
and occupied Alsace. An area in southwest Germany is still called Swabia, which name derives from the Suebi. (In a broader sense, their eastern neighbours, the Bavarians and Thuringii, can be said to have Suebic ancestry.) Other Suebi entered Gaul
Gaul
and some moved as far as Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(modern Galicia, in Spain, and Northern Portugal), where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi, which lasted for 170 years until its integration into the Visigothic Kingdom. More generally, the Suebian language and culture is associated with the Irminones
Irminones
and thought to encompass the "High German" cultures and dialects of the Thuringii, Bavarians
Bavarians
and Lombards, among others.

Some of the tribes in Germania
Germania
during the Roman Empire. Suebi
Suebi
and Irminones
Irminones
are in magenta.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Classification

2.1 More than one tribe 2.2 Tribes names in classical sources

2.2.1 Northern bank of the Danube 2.2.2 Approaching the Rhine 2.2.3 The Elbe 2.2.4 East of the Elbe 2.2.5 Baltic Sea

3 Cultural characteristics 4 Language 5 Historical events

5.1 Ariovistus and the Suebi
Suebi
in 58 BC 5.2 Caesar and the Suebi
Suebi
in 55 BC 5.3 Rhine
Rhine
crossing of 29 BC 5.4 The victory of Drusus in 9 BC 5.5 Roman defeat in 9 AD 5.6 Aftermath of 9 AD 5.7 Marcomannic wars

6 Migration period 7 Suevian Kingdom of Gallaecia

7.1 Migration 7.2 Settlement 7.3 Establishment 7.4 Last years of the kingdom 7.5 Defeat by the Visigoths 7.6 Religion

7.6.1 Conversion to Arianism 7.6.2 Conversion to Chalcedonianism

8 Norse mythology 9 See also

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

Etymology[edit] Etymologists trace the name from Proto-Germanic *swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning "one's own" people or on the third-person reflexive pronoun;[5] or from an earlier Proto-Slavic or Indo-European root *swe- (Polish swe, swój, swoi, Latin sui, Sanskrit swa, each meaning "one's own").[6] German linguist Jacob Grimm believed that the name Suebi
Suebi
was of Slavic origin.[7] The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as being from the same root: Suiones, Samnites, Sabellians, and Sabines, indicating the possibility of a prior more extended and common Indo-European ethnic name, "our own people". Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups, also seem to have a name with this same meaning, but recorded with a different pronunciation by the Romans. Alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for "vagabond".[8] Classification[edit] More than one tribe[edit] Caesar placed the Suebi
Suebi
east of the Ubii
Ubii
apparently near modern Hesse, in the position where later writers mention the Chatti, and he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni. Some commentators believe that Caesar's Suebi
Suebi
were the later Chatti
Chatti
or possibly the Hermunduri, or Semnones.[9] Later authors use the term Suebi
Suebi
more broadly, "to cover a large number of tribes in central Germany".[10] Although no classical authors explicitly call the Chatti
Chatti
Suevic, Pliny the Elder (23 AD – 79 AD), reported in his Natural History that the Irminones
Irminones
were a large grouping of related Germanic gentes or "tribes" including not only the Suebi, but also the Hermunduri, Chatti
Chatti
and Cherusci.[11] Whether or not the Chatti
Chatti
were ever considered Suevi, both Tacitus
Tacitus
and Strabo
Strabo
distinguish the two partly because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled.[12]

Roman bronze statuette representing a Germanic man kneeling, his arms outstretched and his hair in a "Suebian knot" (50–150 AD)

The definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania
Germania
were apparently not always consistent and clear, especially in the case of mobile groups such as the Suevi. Whereas Tacitus
Tacitus
reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones, Istvaeones, and Ingaevones, Pliny specifically adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae
Bastarnae
and the Vandili (Vandals). The Vandals
Vandals
were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi, Goths, and Burgundians, an area that Tacitus treated as Suebic. That the Vandals
Vandals
might be a separate type of Germanic people, corresponding to the modern concept of East Germanic, is a possibility that Tacitus
Tacitus
also noted, but for example the Varini are named as Vandilic by Pliny, and specifically Suebic by Tacitus. The modern term " Elbe
Elbe
Germanic" similarly covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
that at least overlaps with the classical terms "Suevi" and "Irminones". However, this term was developed mainly as an attempt to define the ancient peoples who must have spoken the Germanic dialects that led to modern Upper German
Upper German
dialects spoken in Austria, Bavaria, Thuringia, Alsace, Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
and German speaking Switzerland. This was proposed by Friedrich Maurer as one of five major Kulturkreise or "culture-groups" whose dialects developed in the southern German area from the first century BC through to the fourth century AD.[13] Apart from his own linguistic work with modern dialects, he also referred to the archaeological and literary analysis of Germanic tribes done earlier by Gustaf Kossinna[14] In terms of these proposed ancient dialects, the Vandals, Goths
Goths
and Burgundians are generally referred to as members of the Eastern Germanic
Eastern Germanic
group, distinct from the Elbe
Elbe
Germanic. Tribes names in classical sources[edit] Northern bank of the Danube[edit] In the time of Caesar, southern Germany was Celtic, but coming under pressure from Germanic groups led by the Suebi. As described later by Tacitus, what is today southern Germany between the Danube, the Main river, and the Rhine
Rhine
had been deserted by the departure of two large Celtic nations, the Helvetii
Helvetii
in modern Schwaben
Schwaben
and the Boii
Boii
further east near the Hercynian forest.[15] In addition, also near the Hercynian forest
Hercynian forest
Caesar believed that the Celtic Tectosages
Tectosages
had once lived. All of these peoples had for the most part moved by the time of Tacitus. Nevertheless, Cassius Dio wrote that the Suebi, who dwelt across the Rhine, were called Celts, which could mean that some Celtic groups were absorbed by larger Germanic tribal confederations.[16] Strabo
Strabo
(64/63 BC – c. 24 AD), in Book IV (6.9) of his Geography also associates the Suebi
Suebi
with the Hercynian Forest
Hercynian Forest
and the south of Germania
Germania
north of the Danube. He describes a chain of mountains north of the Danube
Danube
that is like a lower extension of the Alps, possibly the Swabian Alps, and further east the Gabreta forest, possibly the modern Bohemian forest. In Book VII (1.3) Strabo
Strabo
specifically mentions as Suevic peoples the Marcomanni, who under King Marobodus had moved into the same Hercynian forest
Hercynian forest
as the Coldui
Coldui
(possibly the Quadi), taking over an area called "Boihaemum". This king "took the rulership and acquired, in addition to the peoples aforementioned, the Lugii
Lugii
(a large tribe), the Zumi, the Butones, the Mugilones, the Sibini, and also the Semnones, a large tribe of the Suevi themselves". Some of these tribes were "inside the forest" and some "outside of it".[17] Tacitus
Tacitus
confirms the name "Boiemum", saying it was a survival marking the old traditional population of the place, the Celtic Boii, though the population had changed.[15] Tacitus
Tacitus
describes a series of very powerful Suebian states in his own time, running along the north of the Danube
Danube
which was the frontier with Rome, and stretching into the lands where the Elbe
Elbe
originates in the modern day Czech Republic. Going from west to east the first were the Hermunduri, living near the sources of the Elbe
Elbe
and stretching across the Danube
Danube
into Roman Rhaetia.[18] Next came the Naristi, the Marcomanni, and then the Quadi. The Quadi
Quadi
are on the edge of greater Suebia, having the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
to the southeast.[19] Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
the geographer did not always state which tribes were Suebi, but along the northern bank of the Danube, from west to east and starting at the "desert" formerly occupied by the Helvetii, he names the Parmaecampi, then the Adrabaecampi, and then a "large people" known as the Baemoi (whose name appears to recall the Boii again), and then the Racatriae. North of the Baemoi, is the Luna forest which has iron mines, and which is south of the Quadi. North of the Adrabaecampi, are the Sudini and then the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
living in the Gambreta forest. North of them, but south of the Sudetes
Sudetes
mountains (which are not likely to be the same as the modern ones of that name) are the Varisti, who are probably the same as Tacitus' "Naristi" mentioned above. Jordanes
Jordanes
writes that in the early 4th century the Vandals
Vandals
had moved to the north of the Danube, but with the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
still to their west, and the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
still to their north. A possible sign of confusion in this comment is that he equates the area in question to later Gepidia, which was further south, in Pannonia, modern Hungary, and east of the Danube.[20] In general, as discussed below, the Danubian Suebi, along with the neighbours such as the Vandals, apparently moved southwards into Roman territories, both south and east of the Danube, during this period. Approaching the Rhine[edit] Caesar describes the Suebi
Suebi
as pressing the German tribes of the Rhine, such as the Tencteri, Usipetes
Usipetes
and Ubii, from the east, forcing them from their homes. While emphasizing their warlike nature he writes as if they had a settled homeland somewhere between the Cherusci
Cherusci
and the Ubii, and separated from the Cherusci
Cherusci
by a deep forest called the Silva Bacenis. He also describes the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
as a tribe distinct from the Suebi, and also active within the same alliance. But he does not describe where they were living. Strabo
Strabo
wrote that the Suebi
Suebi
"excel all the others in power and numbers."[21] He describes Suebic peoples (Greek ethnē) as having come to dominate Germany between the Rhine
Rhine
and Elbe, with the exception of the Rhine
Rhine
valley, on the frontier with the Roman empire, and the "coastal" regions north of the Rhine. The geographer, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(c. AD 90 – c. AD 168), in a fairly extensive account of Greater Germany,[22] makes several unusual mentions of Suebi
Suebi
between the Rhine
Rhine
and the Elbe. He describes their position as stretching out in a band from the Elbe, all the way to the northern Rhine, near the Sugambri. The "Suevi Langobardi" are the Suevi located closest to the Rhine, far to the east of where most sources report them. To the east of the Langobardi, are the "Suevi Angili", extending as far north as the middle Elbe, also to the east of the position reported in other sources. It has been speculated that Ptolemy
Ptolemy
may have been confused by his sources, or else that this position of the Langobardi
Langobardi
represented a particular moment in history.[23] As discussed below, in the third century a large group of Suebi, also referred to as the Allemanni
Allemanni
moved up to the Rhine
Rhine
bank in modern Schwaben, which had previously been controlled by the Romans. (They competed in this region with Burgundians
Burgundians
who had arrived from further east.) The Elbe[edit] Strabo
Strabo
does not say much about the Suebi
Suebi
east of the Elbe, saying that this region was still unknown to Romans,[24] but mentions that a part of the Suebi
Suebi
live there, naming only specifically the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
and the Langobardi. But he mentions these are there because of recent defeats at Roman hands which had forced them over the river. (Tacitus, mentions that the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
were later welcomed on to the Roman border at the Danube.) In any case he says that the area near the Elbe itself is held by the Suebi.[25] From Tacitus
Tacitus
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
we can derive more details:

The Semnones, are described by Tacitus
Tacitus
as "the oldest and noblest of the Suebi", and like the Suebi
Suebi
described by Caesar they have 100 cantons. Tacitus
Tacitus
says that "the vastness of their community makes them regard themselves as the head of the Suevic race".[26] According to Ptolemy
Ptolemy
the "Suevi Semnones" live upon the Elbe
Elbe
and stretch as far east as a river apparently named after them, the Suevus, probably the Oder. South of them he places the Silingi, and then, again upon the Elbe, the Calucones. To the southeast further up the upper Elbe
Elbe
he places not the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
mentioned by other authors (who had possibly moved westwards and become Ptolemy's "Teuriochaemai", and the later Thuringii), but the Baenochaemae (whose name appears to be somehow related to the modern name Bohemia, and somehow derived from the older placename mentioned by Strabo
Strabo
and Tacitus
Tacitus
as the capital of King Marobodus after he settled his Marcomanni
Marcomanni
in the Hercynian forest). A monument confirms that the Juthungi, who fought the Romans in the 3rd century, and were associated with the Alamanni, were Semnones. The Langobardi
Langobardi
live a bit further from Rome's borders, in "scanty numbers" but "surrounded by a host of most powerful tribes" and kept safe "by daring the perils of war" according to Tacitus.[27] Tacitus
Tacitus
names seven tribes who live "next" after the Langobardi, "fenced in by rivers or forests" stretching "into the remoter regions of Germany". These all worshiped Nertha, or Mother Earth, whose sacred grove was on an island in the Ocean (presumably the Baltic Sea): Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarini and Nuitones.[27] At the mouth of the Elbe
Elbe
(and in the Danish peninsula), the classical authors do not place any Suevi, but rather the Chauci
Chauci
to the west of the Elbe, and the Saxons
Saxons
to the east, and in the "neck" of peninsula.

Note that while various errors and confusions are possible, Ptolemy places the Angles
Angles
and Langobardi
Langobardi
west of the Elbe, where they may indeed have been present at some points in time, given that the Suebi were often mobile. East of the Elbe[edit] It is already mentioned above that stretching between the Elbe
Elbe
and the Oder, the classical authors place the Suebic Semnones. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
places the Silingi
Silingi
to their south in the stretch between these rivers. These Silingi
Silingi
appear in later history as a branch of the Vandals, and were therefore likely to be speakers of East Germanic
East Germanic
dialects. Their name is associated with medieval Silesia. Further south on the Elbe
Elbe
are the Baenochaemae and between them and the Askibourgian mountains Ptolemy names a tribe called the Batini (Βατεινοὶ), apparently north and/or east of the Elbe. According to Tacitus, around the north of the Danubian Marcomanni
Marcomanni
and Quadi, "dwelling in forests and on mountain-tops", live the Marsigni, and Buri, who "in their language and manner of life, resemble the Suevi".[28] (Living partly subject to the Quadi
Quadi
are the Gotini
Gotini
and Osi, who Tacitus
Tacitus
says speak respectively Gaulish
Gaulish
and Pannonian, and are therefore not Germans.) Ptolemy
Ptolemy
also places the "Lugi Buri" in mountains, along with a tribe called the Corconti. These mountains, stretching from near the upper Elbe
Elbe
to the headwaters of the Vistula, he calls the Askibourgian mountains. Between these mountains and the Quadi
Quadi
he adds several tribes, from north to south these are the Sidones, Cotini
Cotini
(possibly Tacitus' Gotini) and the Visburgi. There is then the Orcynian (Hercyian) forest, which Ptolemy
Ptolemy
defines with relatively restricted boundaries, and then the Quadi. Beyond this mountain range (probably the modern Sudetes) where the Marsigni
Marsigni
and Buri lived, in the area of modern southwest Poland, Tacitus
Tacitus
reported a multitude of tribes, the most widespread name of which was the Lugii. These included the Harii, Helveconae, Manimi, Helisii and Naharvali.[28] ( Tacitus
Tacitus
does not mention the language of the Lugii.) As mentioned above, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
categorizes the Buri amongst the Lugii, and concerning the Lugii
Lugii
north of the mountains, he named two large groups, the Lougoi Omanoi and the Lougoi Didounoi, who live between the "Suevus" river (probably the Saale
Saale
(Sorb Soława) or Oder river) and the Vistula, south of the Burgundi. These Burgundians
Burgundians
who according to Ptolemy
Ptolemy
lived between the Baltic sea Germans and the Lugii, stretching between the Suevus and Vistula rivers, were described by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(as opposed to Tacitus) as being not Suevic but Vandili, amongst whom he also included the Goths, and the Varini, both being people living north of them near the Baltic coast. Pliny's "Vandili" are generally thought to be speakers of what modern linguists refer to as Eastern Germanic. Between the coastal Saxons
Saxons
and inland Suebi, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
names the Teutonari and the "Viruni" (presumably the Varini
Varini
of Tacitus), and further east, between the coastal Farodini and the Suebi
Suebi
are the Teutones
Teutones
and then the Avarni. Further east again, between the Burgundians
Burgundians
and the coastal Rugiclei were the "Aelvaeones" (presumably the Helveconae of Tacitus). Baltic Sea[edit] Tacitus
Tacitus
called the Baltic sea the Suebian sea. ( Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
wrote in his Description of the World (III.3.31) beyond the Danish isles are "the farthest people of Germania, the Hermiones".) North of the Lugii, near the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
Tacitus
Tacitus
places the Gothones (Goths), Rugii, and Lemovii. These three Germanic tribes share a tradition of having kings, and also similar arms - round shields and short swords.[28] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
says that east of the Saxons, from the "Chalusus" river to the "Suevian" river are the Farodini, then the Sidini up to the "Viadua" river, and after these the "Rugiclei" up to the Vistula
Vistula
river (probably the "Rugii" of Tacitus). He does not specify if these are Suevi. In the sea, the states of the Suiones, "powerful in ships" are according to Tacitus
Tacitus
Germans with the Suevic (Baltic) sea on one side and an "almost motionless" sea on the other more remote side. Modern commentators believe this refers to Scandinavia.[29] Closely bordering on the Suiones
Suiones
and closely resembling them, are the tribes of the Sitones.[30] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
describes Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as being inhabited by Chaedini in the west, Favonae and Firaesi in the east, Finni in the north, Gautae and Dauciones in the south, and Levoni in the middle. He does not describe them as Suebi. Tacitus
Tacitus
describes the non-Germanic Aestii
Aestii
on the eastern shore of the "Suevic Sea" (Baltic), "whose rites and fashions and style of dress are those of the Suevi, while their language is more like the British"[30] After giving this account, Tacitus
Tacitus
says: "Here Suebia ends."[31] Therefore, for Tacitus
Tacitus
geographic "Suebia" comprises the entire periphery of the Baltic Sea, including within it tribes not identified as Suebi
Suebi
or even Germanic. On the other hand, Tacitus
Tacitus
does clearly consider there to be not only a Suebian region, but also Suebian languages, and Suebian customs, which all contribute to making a specific tribe more or less "Suebian".[32] Cultural characteristics[edit] Caesar noted that rather than grain crops, they spent time on husbandry and hunting. They wore animal skins, bathed in rivers, consumed milk and meat products, and prohibited wine, allowing trade only to dispose of their booty and otherwise they had no goods to export. They had no private ownership of land and were not permitted to stay resident in one place for more than one year. They were divided into 100 cantons, each of which had to provide and support 1000 armed men for the constant pursuit of war. Strabo
Strabo
describes the Suebi
Suebi
and people from their part of the world as highly mobile and nomadic, unlike more settled and agricultural tribes such as the Chatti
Chatti
and Cherusci:

...they do not till the soil or even store up food, but live in small huts that are merely temporary structures; and they live for the most part off their flocks, as the Nomads do, so that, in imitation of the Nomads, they load their household belongings on their wagons and with their beasts turn whithersoever they think best.

Notable in classical sources, the Suebi
Suebi
can be identified by their hair style called the "Suebian knot", which "distinguishes the freeman from the slave";[33] or in other words served as a badge of social rank. The same passage points out that chiefs "use an even more elaborate style". Tacitus
Tacitus
mentions the sacrifice of humans practiced by the Semnones
Semnones
in a sacred grove[26] and the murder of slaves used in the rites of Nerthus
Nerthus
practiced by the tribes of Schleswig-Holstein.[27] The chief priest of the Naharvali dresses as a woman and that tribe also worships in groves. The Harii fight at night dyed black. The Suiones own fleets of rowing vessels with prows at both ends. Language[edit]

Proposed theory on the distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1:   North Germanic   North Sea Germanic, or Ingvaeonic   Weser- Rhine
Rhine
Germanic, or Istvaeonic    Elbe
Elbe
Germanic, or Irminonic   East Germanic

While there is debate possible about whether all tribes identified by Romans as Germanic spoke a Germanic language, the Suebi
Suebi
are generally agreed to have spoken one, and classical sources refer to a Suebian language. In particular, the Suebi
Suebi
are associated with the concept of an " Elbe
Elbe
Germanic" group of early dialects spoken by the Irminones, entering Germany from the east, and originating on the Baltic. In late classical times, these dialects, by now situated to the south of the Elbe, and stretching across the Danube
Danube
into the Roman empire, experienced the High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift
that defines modern High German languages, and in its most extreme form, Upper German.[34] Modern Swabian German, and Alemannic German
Alemannic German
more broadly, are therefore "assumed to have evolved at least in part" from Suebian.[35] However, Bavarian, the Thuringian dialect, the Lombardic language spoken by the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy, and standard "High German" itself, are also at least partly derived from the dialects spoken by the Suebi. (The only non-Suebian name among the major groups of Upper Germanic dialects is High Franconian German, but this is on the transitional frontier with Central German, as is neighboring Thuringian.)[34] Historical events[edit] Ariovistus and the Suebi
Suebi
in 58 BC[edit]

Marble bust of Julius Caesar, first century C.E.; recent discovery on the Island of Pantelleri.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Commentaries on the Gallic War/Book 4

Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
lived 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC. The Suebi
Suebi
he describes in his firsthand account, De Bello Gallico[36] were the "largest and the most warlike nation of all the Germans". Caesar confronted a large army led by a Suevic King named Ariovistus in 58 BC who had been settled for some time in Gaul
Gaul
already, at the invitation of the Gaulish
Gaulish
Arverni
Arverni
and Sequani
Sequani
as part of their war against the Aedui. He had already been recognized as a king by the Roman senate. Ariovistus forbade the Romans from entering into Gaul. Caesar on the other hand saw himself and Rome as an ally and defender of the Aedui. The forces Caesar faced in battle were composed of "Harudes, Marcomanni, Tribocci, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii, and Suevi". While Caesar was preparing for conflict, a new force of Suebi
Suebi
was led to the Rhine
Rhine
by two brothers, Nasuas and Cimberius, forcing Caesar to rush in order to try to avoid the joining of forces. Caesar defeated Ariovistus in battle, forcing him to escape across the Rhine. When news of this spread, the fresh Suebian forces turned back in some panic, which led to local tribes living near the Rhine
Rhine
to take advantage of the situation, attacking them. Caesar and the Suebi
Suebi
in 55 BC[edit] Also reported within Caesar's accounts of the Gallic wars, the Suebi posed another threat in 55 BC.[37] The Germanic Ubii, who had worked out an alliance with Caesar, were complaining of being harassed by the Suebi, and the Tencteri
Tencteri
and Usipetes, already forced from their homes, tried to cross the Rhine
Rhine
and enter Gaul
Gaul
by force. Caesar bridged the Rhine, the first known to do so, with a pile bridge, which though considered a marvel, was dismantled after only eighteen days. The Suebi
Suebi
abandoned their towns closest to the Romans, retreated to the forest and assembled an army. Caesar moved back across the bridge and broke it down, stating that he had achieved his objective of warning the Suebi. They in turn supposedly stopped harassing the Ubii. (The Ubii
Ubii
were later resettled on the west bank of the Rhine, in Roman territory.) Rhine
Rhine
crossing of 29 BC[edit] Cassius Dio, wrote the history of Rome for a Greek audience, and lived approximately AD 150 – 235. He reported that shortly before 29 BC the Suebi
Suebi
crossed the Rhine, only to be defeated by Gaius Carrinas who along with the young Octavian Caesar
Octavian Caesar
celebrated a triumph in 29 BC.[38] Shortly after they turn up fighting a group of Dacians in a gladiatorial display at Rome celebrating the consecration of the Julian hero-shrine. The victory of Drusus in 9 BC[edit] Suetonius
Suetonius
(c. 69 AD – after 122 AD), gives the Suebi
Suebi
brief mention in connection with their defeat against Nero Claudius Drusus
Nero Claudius Drusus
in 9 BC. He says that the Suebi
Suebi
and Sugambri
Sugambri
"submitted to him and were taken into Gaul
Gaul
and settled in lands near the Rhine" while the other Germani were pushed "to the farther side of the river Albis" (Elbe).[39] He must have meant the temporary military success of Drusus, as it is unlikely the Rhine
Rhine
was cleared of Germans. Elsewhere he identifies the settlers as 40,000 prisoners of war, only a fraction of the yearly draft of militia.[40] Florus
Florus
(c. 74 AD – c. 130 AD), gives a more detailed view of the operations of 9 BC. He reports that the Cherusci, Suebi
Suebi
and Sicambri formed an alliance by crucifying twenty Roman centurions, but that Drusus defeated them, confiscated their plunder and sold them into slavery.[41] Presumably only the war party was sold, as the Suebi continue to appear in the ancient sources. Florus's report of the peace brought to Germany by Drusus is glowing but premature. He built "more than five hundred forts" and two bridges guarded by fleets. "He opened a way through the Hercynian Forest", which implies but still does not overtly state that he had subdued the Suebi. "In a word, there was such peace in Germany that the inhabitants seemed changed ... and the very climate milder and softer than it used to be." In the Annales of Tacitus, it is mentioned that after the defeat of 9 BC Augustus
Augustus
divided the Germans by making a separate peace with the Sugambri
Sugambri
and Suebi
Suebi
under their king Maroboduus. This is the first mention of any permanent king of the Suebi.[42] However, Maroboduus' people was in most sources referred to as the king of the Marcomanni, a tribal name that had already been distinct from the Suebi
Suebi
in Caesar's time. (As discussed above, it is not sure which Suebi
Suebi
were the Suebi
Suebi
of Caesar, but at least they were distinguished from the Marcomanni.) However, Maroboduus was also described as Suebian, and his association with the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
more specifically comes after the Langobards and Semnones
Semnones
were specifically said to have left his kingdom, having previously been under his rule. At some point in this period the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
had come to be settled in the forested regions once inhabited by the Boii, in and around Bohemia, under his rule. Augustus
Augustus
planned in 6 AD to destroy the kingdom of Maroboduus, which he considered to be too dangerous for the Romans. The later Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
commanded twelve legions to attack the Marcomanni. But the outbreak of a revolt in Illyria, and the need for troops there, forced Tiberius
Tiberius
to conclude a treaty with Maroboduus and to recognize him as king.[43] Roman defeat in 9 AD[edit] Main article: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest After the death of Drusus, the Cherusci
Cherusci
annihilated three legions at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Battle of Teutoburg Forest
and thereafter "... the empire ... was checked on the banks of the Rhine." While elements of the Suevi may have been involved, this was an alliance mainly made up of non-Suebic tribes from northwestern Germany, the Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri, Chauci, and Sicambri. The kingdom of the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
and their allies stayed out of the conflict and when Maroboduus was sent the head of the defeated Roman leader Varus, he sent it on to Rome for burial. Within his own alliance were various Suebic peoples, Hermunduri, Quadi, Semnones, Lugii, Zumi, Butones, Mugilones, Sibini and Langobards. Aftermath of 9 AD[edit]

Roman limes and modern boundaries.

Subsequently, Augustus
Augustus
placed Germanicus, the son of Drusus, in charge of the forces of the Rhine
Rhine
and he after dealing with a mutiny of the troops proceeded against the Cherusci
Cherusci
and their allies, breaking their power finally at the battle of Idistavisus, a plain on the Weser. All eight legions and supporting units of Gauls were required to do that.[44] Germanicus' zeal led finally to his being replaced (17 AD) by his cousin Drusus, Tiberius' son, as Tiberius
Tiberius
thought it best to follow his predecessor's policy of limiting the empire. Germanicus certainly would have involved the Suebi, with unpredictable results.[42] Arminius, leader of the Cherusci
Cherusci
and allies, now had a free hand. He accused Maroboduus of hiding in the Hercynian Forest
Hercynian Forest
while the other Germans fought for freedom, and accused Maroboduus of being the only king among the Germans. The two groups "turned their arms against each other." The Suebic Semnones
Semnones
and Langobardi
Langobardi
rebelled against their king and went over to the Cherusci. Left with only the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
and Herminius' uncle, who had defected, Maroboduus appealed to Drusus, now governor of Illyricum, and was given only a pretext of aid.[45] The resulting battle was indecisive but Maroboduus withdrew to Bohemia and sent for assistance to Tiberius. He was refused on the grounds that he had not moved to help Varus. Drusus encouraged the Germans to finish him off. A force of Goths
Goths
under Catualda, a Marcomannian exile, bought off the nobles and seized the palace. Maroboduus escaped to Noricum
Noricum
and the Romans offered him refuge in Ravenna
Ravenna
where he remained the rest of his life.[46] He died in 37 AD. After his expulsion the leadership of the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
was contested by their Suebic neighbours and allies, the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
and Quadi. Marcomannic wars[edit] Main article: Marcomannic Wars In the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
entered into a confederation with other peoples including the Quadi, Vandals, and Sarmatians, against the Roman Empire. The war began in 166, when the Marcomanni overwhelmed the defences between Vindobona
Vindobona
and Carnuntum, penetrated along the border between the provinces of Pannonia
Pannonia
and Noricum, laid waste to Flavia Solva, and could be stopped only shortly before reaching Aquileia
Aquileia
on the Adriatic
Adriatic
sea. The war lasted until Marcus Aurelius' death in 180. In the third century Jordanes
Jordanes
claims that the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
paid tribute to the Goths, and that the princes of the Quadi
Quadi
were enslaved. The Vandals, who had moved south towards Pannonia, were apparently still sometimes able to defend themselves.[47] Migration period[edit]

Alemanni
Alemanni
expansion and Roman-Alemannic battle sites, 3rd to 5th century

In 259/60, one or more groups of Suebi
Suebi
appear to have been the main element in the formation of a new tribal alliance known as the Alemanni
Alemanni
who came to occupy the Roman frontier region known as the Agri Decumates, east of the Rhine
Rhine
and south of the Main. The Alamanni were sometimes simply referred to as Suebi
Suebi
by contemporaries, and the region came to be known as Swabia
Swabia
- a name which survives to this day. People in this region of Germany are still called Schwaben, a name derived from the Suebi. One specific group in the region in the 3rd century, sometimes distinguished from the Alamanni, were the Juthungi, which a monument found in Augsburg refers to as Semnones. These Suebi
Suebi
for the most part stayed on the right bank of the Rhine until 31 December 406, when much of the tribe joined the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
in breaching the Roman frontier by crossing the Rhine, perhaps at Mainz, thus launching an invasion of northern Gaul. It is thought that this group probably contained a significant amount of Quadi, moving out of their homeland under pressure from Radagaisus. Other Suebi
Suebi
apparently remained in or near to the original homeland areas near the Elbe
Elbe
and the modern Czech Republic, occasionally still being referred to by this term. They expanded eventually into Roman areas such as Switzerland, Austria, and Bavaria, possibly pushed by groups arriving from the east. Further south, a group of Suebi
Suebi
settled in parts of Pannonia, after the Huns
Huns
were defeated in 454 in the Battle of Nedao. Later, the Suebian king Hunimund fought against the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in the battle of Bolia in 469. The Suebian coalition lost the battle, and parts of the Suebi
Suebi
therefore migrated to southern Germany.[48] Probably the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
made up one significant part of these Suebi, who probably lived in at least two distinct areas.[49] Later, the Lombards, a Suebic group long known on the Elbe, came to dominate the Pannonian region and before successfully invading Italy. Another group of Suebi, the so-called "northern Suebi" were mentioned in 569 under Frankish king Sigebert I
Sigebert I
in areas of today's Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
which were known as Schwabengau
Schwabengau
or Svebengau at least until the 12th century. In connection to the Svebi, Saxons
Saxons
and Lombards, returning from the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
in 573, are also mentioned. Suevian Kingdom of Gallaecia[edit] Main article: Kingdom of the Suebi

Suebic migrations across Europe.

Migration[edit] Suebi
Suebi
under their king Hermeric, probably coming from the Alemanni, or maybe from the Quadi
Quadi
(or both), worked their way into the south of France, eventually crossing the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and entering the Iberian Peninsula which was out of Imperial rule since the rebellion of Gerontius and Maximus in 409. Passing through the Basque country, they settled in the Roman province of Gallaecia, in north-western Hispania
Hispania
(modern Galicia, Asturias, and northern Portugal), swore fealty to the Emperor Honorius and were accepted as foederati and permitted to settle, under their own autonomous governance. Contemporaneously with the self-governing province of Britannia, the kingdom of the Suebi
Suebi
in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
became the first of the sub-Roman kingdoms to be formed in the disintegrating territory of the Western Roman Empire. Suebic Gallaecia
Gallaecia
was the first kingdom separated from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to mint coins. The Suebic kingdom in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and northern Lusitania
Lusitania
was established at 410 and lasted until 584. Smaller than the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy or the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania, it reached a relative stability and prosperity—and even expanded military southwards—despite the occasional quarrels with the neighbouring Visigothic kingdom. Settlement[edit]

Road sign at the village of Suevos, Ames (Galicia).

The Germanic invaders and immigrants settled mainly in rural areas, as Idacius clearly stated: "The Hispanic, spred over cities and oppida..." and the "Barbarians, govern over the provinces". According to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese way of living in Northern regions is mostly inherited from the Suebi, in which small farms prevail, distinct from the large properties of Southern Portugal. Bracara Augusta, the modern city of Braga
Braga
and former capital of Roman Gallaecia, became the capital of the Suebi. Orosius, at that time resident in Hispania, shows a rather pacific initial settlement, the newcomers working their lands[50] or serving as bodyguards of the locals.[51] Another Germanic group that accompanied the Suebi
Suebi
and settled in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
were the Buri. They settled in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as Terras de Bouro (Lands of the Buri).[52] As the Suebi
Suebi
quickly adopted the local language, few traces were left of their Germanic tongue, but for some words and for their personal and land names, adopted by most of the Galicians.[53] In Galicia four parishes and six villages are named Suevos or Suegos, i.e. Sueves, after old Suebic settlements. Establishment[edit] The Visigoths
Visigoths
were sent in 416 by the Emperor to fight the Germanic invaders in Hispania, but they soon re-established themselves as foederati in Aquitania after completely defeating the Alans
Alans
and the Silingi
Silingi
Vandals. The absence of competition permitted, first the Asdingi Vandals
Vandals
and later the Suebi, to expand South and East. At its heyday Suebic Gallaecia
Gallaecia
extended as far south as Mérida and Seville, capitals of the Roman provinces of Lusitania
Lusitania
and Betica, while their expeditions reached Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Lleida. In 438 Hermeric
Hermeric
ratified the peace with the Gallaeci, the local and just partially romanized rural population, and sick and weary of fighting abdicated in favour of his son Rechila, who proved to be a notable general, defeating first Andevotus, Romanae militiae dux,[54] and later Vitus magister utriusque militiae. In 448, Rechila
Rechila
died, leaving the crown to his son Rechiar
Rechiar
who had converted to Roman Catholicism circa 447. Soon, he married a daughter of the Gothic king Theodoric I, and began a wave of attacks on the Tarraconense, still a Roman province. By 456 the campaigns of Rechiar
Rechiar
clashed with the interests of the Visigoths, and a large army of Roman federates ( Visigoths
Visigoths
under the command of Theodoric II, Burgundians
Burgundians
directed by kings Gundioc and Chilperic) crossed the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
into Hispania, and defeated the Suebi
Suebi
near modern-day Astorga. Rechiar
Rechiar
was executed after being captured by his brother-in-law, the Visigothic king Theodoric II. In 459, Roman Emperor Majorian
Majorian
defeated the Suebi, briefly restoring Roman rule in northern Hispania. Nevertheless, the Suebi became free of Roman control forever after Majorian
Majorian
was assassinated two years later. The Suebic kingdom then became cornered in the northwest, in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and northern Lusitania, where political division and civil war arose among several pretenders to the royal throne. After years of turmoil, Remismund was recognized as the sole king of the Suebi, bringing forth a politic of friendship with the Visigoths, and favoring the conversion of his people to Arianism. Last years of the kingdom[edit]

The Suebic kingdom of Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(green), c. 550, (with borders of the former Roman provinces of Hispania)

In 561 king Ariamir
Ariamir
called the catholic First Council of Braga, which dealt with the old problem of the Priscillianism
Priscillianism
heresy. Eight years after, in 569, king Theodemir called the First Council of Lugo,[55] in order to increase the number of dioceses within his kingdom. Its acts have been preserved through a medieval resume known as Parrochiale Suevorum or Divisio Theodemiri. Defeat by the Visigoths[edit] In 570 the Arian king of the Visigoths, Leovigild, made his first attack on the Suebi. Between 572 and 574, Leovigild
Leovigild
invaded the valley of the Douro, pushing the Suebi
Suebi
west and northwards. In 575 the Suebic king, Miro, made a peace treaty with Leovigild
Leovigild
in what seemed to be the beginning of a new period of stability. Yet, in 583 Miro supported the rebellion of the Catholic Gothic prince Hermenegild, engaging in military action against king Leovigild, although Miro was defeated in Seville
Seville
when trying to break on through the blockade on the Catholic prince. As a result, he was forced to recognize Leovigild
Leovigild
as friend and protector, for him and for his successors, dying back home just some months later. His son, king Eboric, confirmed the friendship with Leovigild, but he was deposed just a year later by his brother-in-law Audeca, giving Leovigild
Leovigild
an excuse to attack the kingdom. In 585 AD, first Audeca and later Malaric, were defeated and the Suebic kingdom was incorporated into the Visigothic one as its sixth province. The Suebi
Suebi
were respected in their properties and freedom, and continued to dwell in Gallaecia, finally merging with the rest of the local population during the early Middle Ages. Religion[edit] Conversion to Arianism[edit] The Suebi
Suebi
remained mostly pagan, and their subjects Priscillianist until an Arian missionary named Ajax, sent by the Visigothic king Theodoric II
Theodoric II
at the request of the Suebic unifier Remismund, in 466 converted them and established a lasting Arian church which dominated the people until the conversion to Chalcedonianism in the 560s. Conversion to Chalcedonianism[edit]

Christian Chi-Rho on a 5th-century marble table, Quiroga, Galicia.

Mutually incompatible accounts of the conversion of the Suebi
Suebi
to Chalcedonian Christianity are presented in the primary records:

The minutes of the First Council of Braga
Braga
— which met on 1 May 561 — state explicitly that the synod was held at the orders of a king named Ariamir. Of the eight assistant bishops, just one bears a Suebic name: Hildemir. While the Catholicism of Ariamir
Ariamir
is not in doubt, that he was the first Chalcedonian monarch of the Suebi
Suebi
since Rechiar
Rechiar
has been contested on the grounds that his Catholicism is not explicitly stated.[clarification needed][56] He was, however, the first Suebic monarch to hold a Catholic synod, and when the Second Council of Braga was held at the request of king Miro, a Catholic himself,[57] in 572, of the twelve assistant bishops five bears Suebic names: Remisol of Viseu, Adoric of Idanha, Wittimer of Ourense, Nitigis of Lugo
Lugo
and Anila of Tui. The Historia Suevorum of Isidore of Seville
Seville
states that a king named Theodemar
Theodemar
brought about the conversion of his people from Arianism with the help of the missionary Martin of Dumio.[58] According to the Frankish historian Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
on the other hand, an otherwise unknown sovereign named Chararic, having heard of Martin of Tours, promised to accept the beliefs of the saint if only his son would be cured of leprosy. Through the relics and intercession of Saint Martin the son was healed; Chararic and the entire royal household converted to the Nicene faith.[59] By 589, when the Third Council of Toledo was held, and the Visigoth Kingdom of Toledo converses officially from Arianism
Arianism
to Catholicism, king Reccared I
Reccared I
stated in its minutes that also "an infinite number of Suebi
Suebi
have converted", together with the Goths, which implies that the earlier conversion were either superficial or partial. In the same council 4 bishops from Gallaecia
Gallaecia
abjured of their Arianism. And so, the Suebic conversion is ascribed, not to a Suebe, but to a Visigoth by John of Biclarum, who puts their conversion alongside that of the Goths, occurring under Reccared I
Reccared I
in 587–589.

Most scholars have attempted to meld these stories. It has been alleged that Chararic and Theodemir must have been successors of Ariamir, since Ariamir
Ariamir
was the first Suebic monarch to lift the ban on Catholic synods; Isidore therefore gets the chronology wrong.[60][61] Reinhart suggested that Chararic was converted first through the relics of Saint Martin and that Theodemir was converted later through the preaching of Martin of Dumio.[56] Dahn equated Chararic with Theodemir, even saying that the latter was the name he took upon baptism.[56] It has also been suggested that Theodemir and Ariamir were the same person and the son of Chararic.[56] In the opinion of some historians, Chararic is nothing more than an error on the part of Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
and never existed.[62] If, as Gregory relates, Martin of Dumio died about the year 580 and had been bishop for about thirty years, then the conversion of Chararic must have occurred around 550 at the latest.[59] Finally, Ferreiro believes the conversion of the Suebi
Suebi
was progressive and stepwise and that Chararic's public conversion was only followed by the lifting of a ban on Catholic synods in the reign of his successor, which would have been Ariamir; Thoedemir was responsible for beginning a persecution of the Arians in his kingdom to root out their heresy.[63] Norse mythology[edit] The name of the Suebi
Suebi
also appears in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
and in early Scandinavian sources. The earliest attestation is the Proto-Norse
Proto-Norse
name Swabaharjaz ("Suebian warrior") on the Rö runestone
Rö runestone
and in the place name Svogerslev.[5] Sváfa, whose name means "Suebian",[64] was a Valkyrie
Valkyrie
who appears in the eddic poem Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar. The kingdom Sváfaland also appears in this poem and in the Þiðrekssaga.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Suebi.

Ancient Germanic culture portal

Swabia Dukes of Swabia
Swabia
family tree Germanic personal names in Galicia Laeti

Notes[edit]

^ Menzel, Wolfgang (MDCCCXCIX). Germany from the Earliest Period: Volume I. New York: Peter Fenelon Collier. p. 89.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
Germania
Germania
Section 8, translation by H. Mattingly. ^ "Germanic Tribes". Late Antiquity. Harvard University Press. 1999. p. 467. ISBN 9780674511736.  ^ "Caes. Gal. 4.1". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 1 May 2014.  ^ a b Peterson, Lena. "Swābaharjaz" (PDF). Lexikon över urnordiska personnamn. Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Sweden. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-18. Retrieved 2007-10-11.  (Text in Swedish); for an alternative meaning, as "free, independent" see Room, Adrian (2006). "Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites: Second Edition". Jefferson, North Carolina, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers: 363, 364. ISBN 0786422483.  contribution= ignored (help); compare Suiones ^ Pokorny, Julius. "Root/Lemma se-". Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IEED), Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics, Leiden University. pp. 882–884. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09.  ( German language
German language
text); locate by searching the page number.Köbler, Gerhard (2000). "*se-" (PDF). Indogermanisches Wörterbuch: 3. Auflage. p. 188. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25.  ( German language
German language
text); the etymology in English is in Watkins, Calvert (2000). "s(w)e-". Appendix I: Indo-European Roots. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  Some related English words are sibling, sister, swain, self. ^ Jaccob Grim (1853) Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, Volume 1 p. 226 [1] ^ Schrijver, Peter (2003). "The etymology of Welsh chwith and the semantics and morphology of PIE *k(w)sweibh-". In Russell, Paul. Yr Hen Iaith: Studies in Early Welsh. Aberystwyth: Celtic Studies Publications. ISBN 978-1-891271-10-6.  ^ Peck (1898). "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities"  ^ Chambers, R. W. (1912). Widseth: a Study in Old English Heroic Legend. Cambridge: University Press. pp. 194, note on line 22 of Widsith.  Republished in 2006 by Kissinger Publishing as ISBN 1-4254-9551-6. ^ "Book IV section XIV". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ "Strab. 7.1". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Maurer, Friedrich (1952) [1942]. Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprachgeschichte, Stammes - und Volkskunde. Bern, München: A. Franke Verlag, Leo Lehnen Verlag.  ^ Kossinna, Gustaf (1911). Die Herkunft der Germanen. Leipzig: Kabitsch.  ^ a b "Tac. Ger. 28". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Dio, Cassius (19 September 2014). Delphi Complete Works of Cassius Dio (Illustrated). Delphi Classics.  ^ "Strab. 7.1". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ "Section 41". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ "Section 42". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ "Chapt 22". Romansonline.com. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Strabo
Strabo
(approximately 20 AD). Geographica. Book IV Chapter 3 Section 4.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "''Geography'', Book II, chapter X". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Schütte, Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe ^ "''Geography'' 7.2". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ "''Geography'' 7.3". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ a b Germania
Germania
Section 39. ^ a b c Germania
Germania
Section 40. ^ a b c "Section 43". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Section 44. ^ a b Germania
Germania
Section 45 ^ Section 46. ^ Tacitus' modern editor Arthur J. Pomeroy concludes "it is clear that there is no monolithic 'Suebic' group, but a series of tribes who may share some customs (for instance, warrior burials) but also vary considerably." Pomeroy, Arthur J. (1994). "Tacitus' Germania". The Classical Review: New Series. 44 (1): 58–59. doi:10.1017/S0009840X00290446.  A review in English of Neumann, Gunter; Henning Seemann. Beitrage zum Verstandnis der Germania
Germania
des Tacitus, Teil II: Bericht uber die Kolloquien der Kommission fur die Altertumskunde Nord- und Mitteleuropas im Jahre 1986 und 1987.  A German-language text. ^ Section 38. ^ a b Robinson, Orrin (1992), Old English and its Closest Relatives  pages 194-5. ^ Waldman & Mason, 2006, Encyclopedia of European Peoples, p. 784. ^ Book IV, sections 1-3, and 19; Book VI, section 10. ^ Book IV sections 4-19. ^ Dio, Lucius Claudius Cassius. "Dio's Rome". Project Gutenberg. Translated by Herbert Baldwin Foster. pp. Book 51 sections 21, 22.  ^ Tranquillus, Gaius Suetonius. "The Life of Augustus". The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Bill Thayer in LacusCurtius. pp. section 21.  ^ Tranquillus, Gaius Suetonius. "The Life of Tiberius". The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Bill Thayer in LacusCurtius. pp. section 9.  ^ Florus, Lucius Annaeus. Epitome of Roman History. Book II section 30.  ^ a b Book II section 26. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History 2, 109, 5; Cassius Dio, Roman History 55, 28, 6-7 ^ Book II section 16. ^ Book II sections 44-46. ^ Book II sections 62-63. ^ "chapt 16". Romansonline.com. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Geschichte der Goten. Entwurf einer historischen Ethnographie, C.H. Beck, 1. Aufl. (München 1979), 2. Aufl. (1980), unter dem Titel: Die Goten. Von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des sechsten Jahrhunderts. 4. Aufl. (2001) ^ See Friedrich Lotter on the "Donausueben". ^ "the barbarians, detesting their swords, turn them into ploughs", Historiarum Adversum Paganos, VII, 41, 6. ^ "anyone wanting to leave or to depart, uses these barbarians as mercenaries, servers or defenders", Historiarum Adversum Paganos, VII, 41, 4. ^ Domingos Maria da Silva, Os Búrios, Terras de Bouro, Câmara Municipal de Terras de Bouro, 2006. (in Portuguese) ^ Medieval Galician records show more than 1500 different Germanic names in use for over 70% of the local population. Also, in Galicia and northern Portugal, there are more than 5.000 toponyms (villages and towns) based on personal Germanic names ( Mondariz
Mondariz
< *villa *Mundarici; Baltar < *villa *Baldarii; Gomesende
Gomesende
< *villa *Gumesenþi; Gondomar < *villa *Gunþumari...); and several toponyms not based on personal names, mainly in Galicia (Malburgo, Samos < Samanos "Congregated", near a hundred Saa/Sá < *Sala "house, palace"...); and some lexical influence on the Galician language and Portuguese language, such as: laverca "lark" < protogermanic *laiwarikō "lark" brasa "torch; ember" < protogermanic *blasōn "torch" britar "to break" < protogermanic *breutan "to break" lobio "vine gallery" < protogermanic *laubjōn "leaves" ouva "elf" < protogermanic *albaz "elf" trigar "to urge" < protogermanic *þreunhan "to urge" maga "guts (of fish)" < protogermanic *magōn "stomach" ^ Isidorus Hispalensis, Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum, 85 ^ Ferreiro, 199 n11. ^ a b c d Thompson, 86. ^ St. Martin on Braga
Braga
wrote in his Formula Vitae Honestae Gloriosissimo ac tranquillissimo et insigni catholicae fidei praedito pietate Mironi regi ^ Ferreiro, 198 n8. ^ a b Thompson, 83. ^ Thompson, 87. ^ Ferreiro, 199. ^ Thompson, 88. ^ Ferreiro, 207. ^ Peterson, Lena. (2002). Nordiskt runnamnslexikon, at Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Sweden. Archived October 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.

Bibliography[edit]

Ferreiro, Alberto. " Braga
Braga
and Tours: Some Observations on Gregory's De virtutibus sancti Martini." Journal of Early Christian Studies. 3 (1995), p. 195–210. Thompson, E. A.. "The Conversion of the Spanish Suevi to Catholicism." Visigothic Spain: New Approaches. ed. Edward James. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-19-822543-1. Reynolds, Robert L., 'Reconsideration of the history of the Suevi', Revue belge de pholologie et d'histoire, 35 (1957), p. 19–45.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Suebi.

The Chronicle of Hydatius is the main source for the history of the Suebi
Suebi
in Galicia and Portugal
Portugal
up to 468. Identity and Interaction: the Suevi and the Hispano-Romans, University of Virginia, 2007 Medieval Galician anthroponomy Minutes of the Councils of Braga
Braga
and Toledo, in the Collectio Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis Orosius' Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII

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Germanic tribes

Alemanni Ambrones Ampsivarii Angles Angrivarii Bastarnae Batavi Bavarii Bructeri Burgundians Cananefates Chamavi Chasuarii Chatti Chattuarii Chauci Cherusci Cimbri Cugerni Dulgubnii Fosi Franks Frisii Gepids Goths Harii Hasdingi Helisii Hermunduri Herules Jutes Lacringi Lemovii Lombards Lugii Manimi Marcomanni Marobudui Marsi Mattiaci Naharvali Nemetes Nervii Ostrogoths Quadi Rugii Saxons Scirii Semnones Silingi Sitones Sicambri Suebi Swedes Tencteri Teutons Toxandri Treveri Triboci Tubantes Tudri Tungri Ubii Usipetes Vandals Vangiones Visigoths Warini

Germani cisrhenani Caeroesi Condrusi Eburones Paemani Segni

Tribal unions Ingaevones Irminones Istvaeones

See also List of ancient Germanic peoples Category:Ancient Germanic peoples

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Germanic peoples

Languages

Germanic parent language Proto-Germanic language North Germanic languages

Old Norse

West Germanic languages

Ingvaeonic languages South Germanic

Northwest Germanic East Germanic
East Germanic
languages Germanic philology

Prehistory

Nordic Bronze Age Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe Jastorf culture Nordwestblock Przeworsk culture Wielbark culture Oksywie culture Chernyakhov culture

Roman Iron Age in northern Europe

Magna Germania Germanic Wars Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Germania Irminones Ingaevones Istvaeones Chatti Marcomanni Suebi

Migration Period

Germanic Iron Age Alemanni Anglo-Saxons

Angles Jutes Saxons

Burgundians Danes Franks Frisii Geats Gepids Goths

Visigoths Ostrogoths Vagoth Gothic War (376–382)

Gotlander Heruli Lombards Rugii Scirii Suebi Swedes Vandals Varangians Vikings Christianization Romanization

Society and culture

Mead hall Alliterative verse Migration Period
Migration Period
art Runes

Runic calendar

Sippe Ancient Germanic law

Lawspeaker Thing

Germanic calendar Germanic kingship Germanic name Numbers in Norse mythology Romano-Germanic culture

Religion

Odin Thor Nerthus Veleda Tuisto Mannus Sacred trees and groves Paganism

Anglo-Saxon Continental Germanic Frankish Gothic Norse

Christianity

Anglo-Saxon Gothic

Dress

Bracteates Fibula Suebian knot

Warfare

Gothic and Vandal warfare Anglo-Saxon warfare Viking Age arms and armour Migration Period
Migration Period
spear Migration Period
Migration Period
sword

Burial practices

Tumulus Ship burial Norse funeral Alemannic grave fields Sutton Hoo Spong Hill

List of ancient Germanic peoples Portal:Ancient Germ

.