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A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire. The word is derived from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian. The governor/ruler of a Subah was known as a subahdar (sometimes also referred to as a "Subeh"[1]), which later became subedar to refer to a ranking officer in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. The subahs were established by badshah (emperor) Akbar the Great during his administrative reforms of years 1572-1580; initially they numbered to 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. Subahs were divided into Sarkars, or districts. Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals. His successors, most notably Aurangzeb, expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests. As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became effectively independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British. In modern context subah (Urdu: صوبہ‎) is a word used for province in Urdu
Urdu
language.

Contents

1 History 2 Current usage 3 List of Subahs of the Mughal Empire

3.1 Akbar's original twelve subahs 3.2 Subahs added after 1595

4 Notes 5 References

History[edit] Initially, after the administrative reforms of Akbar
Akbar
the Great, the Mughal empire
Mughal empire
was divided into 12 subahs : Kabul, Lahore, Multan, Delhi, Agra, Avadh, Illahabad, Bihar, Bangalah, Malwa, Ajmer
Ajmer
and Gujarat. After the conquest of Deccan, he created three more subahs there : Berar, Khandesh
Khandesh
(initially renamed Dandesh in 1601) and Ahmadnagar (in 1636 renamed as Daulatabad and subsequently as Aurangabad). At the end of Akbar’s reign, the number of subahs was thus 15. It was increased to 17 during the reign of Jahangir. Orissa was created as a separate subah, carved out of Bangalah in 1607. The number of subahs increased to 22 under Shah Jahan.[2] In his 8th regnal year, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
separated the sarkar of Telangana from Berar and made it into a separate Subah. In 1657, it was merged with Zafarabad Bidar subah. Agra
Agra
was renamed Akbarabad 1629 and Delhi became Shahjahanbad in 1648.[3] Kashmir
Kashmir
was carved out of Kabul, Thatta
Thatta
(Sindh) out of Multan
Multan
and Bidar out of Ahmadnagar. For some time Qandahar
Qandahar
was a separate subah under the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
but it was lost to Persia in 1648. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
added Bijapur
Bijapur
(1686), Sira (1687)[4] and Golkonda (1687) as new subahs. There were 22 subahs during his reign.[2] These were Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Multan, Delhi, Agra, Avadh, Illahabad, Bihar, Bangalah, Orissa, Malwa, Ajmer, Gujarat, Berar, Khandesh, Aurangabad, Bidar, Thatta, Bijapur, Sira[4] and Haidarabad (Golkonda).[5] During the reign of Bahadur Shah, Arcot became a Mughal subah in 1710. Current usage[edit] In modern usage in Urdu
Urdu
language, the term is used as a word for province, while the word riyasat (Urdu: ریاست‎) ("princely state" in English) is used for (federated) state. The terminologies are based on administrative structure of British India
British India
which was partially derived from the Mughal administrative structure. In modern times, the term subah is mainly used in Pakistan, where its four provinces are called "Subah" in Urdu
Urdu
language. List of Subahs of the Mughal Empire[edit] Akbar's original twelve subahs[edit] The twelve subahs created as a result of the administrative reform by Akbar
Akbar
the Great :

# Subah Capital(s)

1 Kabul Subah
Kabul Subah
( Kashmir
Kashmir
added 1586) Kabul

2 Lahore
Lahore
Subah Lahore

3 Multan
Multan
Subah Multan

4 Ajmer
Ajmer
subah Ajmer

5 Gujarat Subah Ahmedabad

6 Delhi
Delhi
Subah (Old) Delhi

7 Agra
Agra
Subah Agra

8 Malwa Ujjain

9 Awadh Subah Faizabad, later Lucknow

10 Illahabad Subah Illahabad

11 Bihar Subah Patna

12 Bengal Subah Tanda (1574-95) Rajmahal
Rajmahal
(1595-1610, 1639-59) Dhaka
Dhaka
(1610-1639, 1660-1703) Murshidabad
Murshidabad
(1703-57)

Subahs added after 1595[edit] The subahs which added later were (with dates established):

# Subah Capital Year of establishment Emperor

13 Berar Subah Ellichpur 1596 Akbar

14 Khandesh
Khandesh
(Dandesh) Burhanpur 1601

15 Ahmadnagar Subah (Renamed Daulatabad in 1636) (Further renamed Aurangabad) Ahmadnagar (1601-1636) Daulatabad Aurangabad 1601 (conquest completed 1635)

16 Orissa Subah Cuttack

Shah Jahan

17 Kashmir
Kashmir
Subah Srinagar

18 Thatta subah
Thatta subah
(Sindh) Thatta

Qandahar
Qandahar
subah Qandahar 1638 (lost in 1648)

Telangana Subah Nanded 1636 (merged into Bidar in 1657)

Balkh Balkh 1646 (lost in 1647)

Badakhshan Subah ? Qunduz 1646 (lost in 1647)

19 Bidar Subah Bidar 1656

20 Bijapur
Bijapur
Subah Bijapur 1684 Aurangzeb

21 Golkonda Subah
Golkonda Subah
(later Haidarabad) Haidarabad 1687

22 Sira Subah Sira 1687

Notes[edit]

^ George Clifford Whitworth. Subah. An Anglo-Indian Dictionary: A Glossary of Indian Terms Used in English, and of Such English Or Other Non-Indian Terms as Have Obtained Special
Special
Meanings in India. London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 1885. p. 301. ^ a b Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.236n ^ Habib, I (2003). The Agrarian System of Mughal India 1556-1707, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-565595-8, pp.8n, 451 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India: Provincial Series 1908, pp. 175–176 ^ Habib, I (2003). The Agrarian System of Mughal India 1556-1707, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-565595-8, p.4

References[edit]

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ainakbarimap.jpg Keay, John (2000). India: a History. Grove Press, New York. Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Ant

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