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STUTTHOF TRIALS were a series of war crime tribunals held in postwar Poland for the prosecution of Stutthof concentration camp staff and officials, responsible for the murder of up to 85,000 prisoners during the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II. None of the Stutthof commandants were ever tried in Poland. SS-Sturmbannführer Max Pauly was sentenced to death in Germany but not for the crimes committed at Stutthof; only as the commandant of the Neuengamme concentration camp in Hamburg.

The first Polish war crimes tribunal was convened at Gdańsk , Poland, from April 25, 1946 to May 31, 1946. The next three trials took place at the same court in 8–31 October 1947, 5–10 November, and in 19–29 November of that year. The fifth trial was held before the court in Toruń in 1949. The sixth and the last Stutthof trial in Poland took place in 1953 also in Gdańsk. In total, of the approximately 2,000 SS men and women who ran the entire camp complex, 72 SS officers and 6 female overseers were brought to justice.

CONTENTS

* 1 First Stutthof trial

* 1.1 Verdicts in the first Stutthof trial

* 2 Second Stutthof trial

* 2.1 Verdicts in the second trial

* 3 Third Stutthof trial

* 3.1 Verdicts in the third trial

* 4 Fourth Stutthof trial

* 4.1 Verdicts in the fourth trial

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

FIRST STUTTHOF TRIAL

During the first war crimes tribunal held at Gdańsk from April 25, 1946, to May 31, 1946, the joint Soviet/Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court tried and convicted of crimes against humanity a group of thirteen ex-officials and overseers of the Stutthof concentration camp in Sztutowo and its Bromberg-Ost subcamp for women located in the city of Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
. The accused were arraigned before the court and all found guilty. Eleven were sentenced to death, including the commander of the guards Johann Pauls , while the remainder were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. The death sentences were carried out on July 4, 1946 at the Biskupia Górka in Gdańsk, by short-drop hanging .

The commandant of the Stutthof and Neuengamme concentration camps SS- Sturmbannführer Max Pauly was sentenced to death in Germany at about the same time. Pauly was tried by the British for war crimes with thirteen others in the Curio Haus in Hamburg
Hamburg
which was located in the British occupied sector of Germany. The trial lasted from March 18, 1946 to May 13, 1946. He was found guilty and sentenced to death with 11 other defendants. He was executed by long-drop hanging by Albert Pierrepoint in Hamelin
Hamelin
prison on October 8, 1946. The second commandant SS- Sturmbannführer Paul-Werner Hoppe (August '42 - January '45) was apprehended in 1953 in West Germany and later sentenced to 9 years' imprisonment. The execution of guards of the Stutthof concentration camp on July 4th 1946. In the foreground were the female guards sentenced to hang: Barkmann, Paradies, Becker, Klaff, Steinhoff (left to right) The execution of Steinhoff; Pauls; 3 Kapos {Left to right} July 4, 1946

VERDICTS IN THE FIRST STUTTHOF TRIAL

* Johann Pauls , SS - Oberscharführer : sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Jenny-Wanda Barkmann , SS Aufseherin : sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Elisabeth Becker , SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Jan Breit, SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Wanda Klaff , SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Ewa Paradies : sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Gerda Steinhoff
Gerda Steinhoff
, SS Blockleiterin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Erna Beilhardt , SS-Aufseherin: sentenced to 5 years imprisonment * Tadeusz Kopczynski, (Kapo) : sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Waclaw Kozlowski, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Josef Reiter, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Fanciszek Szopinski, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 * Kazimierz Kowalski, Kapo: sentenced to 3 years imprisonment * Jan Brajt, Kapo: death by hanging * Aleksy Duzdal, Kapo: not guilty * Jan Preiss, Kapo: not guilty * Marian Zielkowski, Kapo: died of a heart attack 25th August 1945 in prison

SECOND STUTTHOF TRIAL

The second trial was held from October 8, 1947, to October 31, 1947, before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court. Arraigned 24 ex-officials and guards of the Stutthof concentration camp were judged and found guilty. Ten were sentenced to death.

VERDICTS IN THE SECOND TRIAL

At trial, 1947, Gdańsk . Left to right: Hans Rach, Fritz Peters, Albert Paulitz, Ewald Foth, and Theodor Meyer

Nine SS men and the Kapo Nikolaysen had been executed on October 28, 1948:

* Kurt Dietrich, SS Unterscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Karl Eggert, SS Rottenführer : sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Theodor Meyer, SS Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Ewald Foth, SS Oberscharführer : sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Albert Paulitz, SS Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Fritz Peters, SS Unterscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Hans Rach, SS Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Paul Wellnitz, SS Rottenführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Karl Zurell, SS Rottenführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 * Erich Thun, SS Unterscharführer: life imprisonment * Wilhelm Vogler, SS Hauptsturmführer: 15 years imprisonment * Eduard Zerlin, SS Unterscharführer : 12 years imprisonment * Oskar Gottchau, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Adolf Grams, SS Rottenführer: 10 years imprisonment * Emil Wenzel, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Werner Wöllnitz, SS Rottenführer: 10 years imprisonment * Johannes Görtz, SS Unterscharführer: 8 years imprisonment * Karl Reger, SS Scharführer
Scharführer
: 8 years imprisonment * Martin Stage, SS Scharführer: 8 years imprisonment * Adalbert Wolter, SS Unterscharführer: 8 years imprisonment * Josef Wennhardt, SS Scharführer: 8 years imprisonment * Hugo Ziehm, SS Scharführer: 3 years imprisonment * Walter Englert, SS Scharführer: 3 years imprisonment * Alfred Nikolaysen, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948

THIRD STUTTHOF TRIAL

The third trial was held from November 5, 1947, to November 10, 1947, before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court. Arraigned 20 ex-officials and guards were judged; 19 were found guilty, and one was acquitted.

VERDICTS IN THE THIRD TRIAL

* Karl Meinck, SS Obersturmführer: 12 years imprisonment * Gustav Eberle, SS Hauptscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Erich Jassen, SS Hauptscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Adolf Klaffke, SS Oberscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Otto Schneider, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Otto Welke, SS Sturmscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Willy Witt, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Alfred Tissler, SS Rottenführer: 5 years imprisonment * Johann Lichtner, SS Hauptscharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Ernst Thulke, SS Rottenführer: 5 years imprisonment * Heinz Löwen, SS Scharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Erich Stampniok, SS Unterscharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Hans Möhrke, SS Sturmscharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Harry Müller, SS Unterscharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Richard Timm, SS Hauptscharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Nikolaus Dirnberger, SS Scharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Friedrich Tessmer, SS Scharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Johann Sporer, SS Unterscharführer: 4 years imprisonment * Nikolai Klawan, SS Scharführer: 3 years imprisonment * Hans Tolksdorf, SS Oberscharführer: acquitted and released

FOURTH STUTTHOF TRIAL

The fourth trial was also held before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court, from November 19, 1947, to November 29, 1947. Arraigned 27 ex-officials and guards were judged; 26 were found guilty, and one was acquitted.

VERDICTS IN THE FOURTH TRIAL

* Willi Buth, SS Hauptscharführer: life imprisonment * Albert Weckmüller, SS Hauptsturmführer: 15 years imprisonment * Rudolf Berg, SS Scharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Fritz Glawe, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Horst Köpke, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Emil Lascheit, SS Sturmscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Kurt Reduhn, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Josef Stahl, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years imprisonment * Waldemar Henke, SS Obersturmführer: 5 years imprisonment * Gustav Kautz, SS Unterscharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Hermann Link, SS Scharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Erich Mertens, SS Oberscharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Martin Pentz, SS Scharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Johann Pfister, SS Rottenführer: 5 years imprisonment * Johannes Wall, SS Sturmscharführer: 5 years imprisonment * Richard Akolt, SS Rottenführer: 3 years imprisonment * Anton Kniffke, SS Scharführer: 3 years imprisonment * Christof Schwarz, SS Hauptsturmführer: 3 years imprisonment * Gustav Brodowski, SS Rottenführer: 7 months imprisonment * Walter Ringewald, SS Oberscharfuhrer: 7 months imprisonment * Richard Wohlfeil, SS Hauptscharführer: 7 months imprisonment * Johann Wrobel, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months imprisonment * Ernst Knappert, SS Rottenführer: 7 months imprisonment * Bernard Eckermann, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months imprisonment * Leopold Baumgartner, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months imprisonment * Emil Paul, SS Unterscharführer: 7 months imprisonment * Franz Spillmann, Kapo: acquitted and released

The last two trials in Poland concerning two Stutthof concentration camp officials took place four years apart. In 1949 SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Hans Jacobi, the commandant of Stutthof subcamps forming Baukommando Weichsel or OT Thorn ( Organisation Todt
Organisation Todt
Thorn) for women digging anti-tank ditches, was tried before the criminal court in Toruń and sentenced to three years in prison. In 1953 the court in Gdańsk tried SS-man Bielawa (SS Rottenführer Paul Bielawa, a prisoner guard from the 3rd company in Stutthof between 1941–45) and sentenced him to twelve years. SS- Rottenführer Emil Strehlau (12.03.1904 in Jankowo - 08.11.1948 in Wloclawek) was sentenced by the court in Torun (Wloclawek) 23.04.1948 to death for war crimes. He was executed 08.11.1948 in Wloclawek ,

SEE ALSO

* Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
of the 23 most important leaders of the Third Reich , 1945–1946 * Dachau Trials held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp , 1945–1948 * Sobibor Trial held in Hagen
Hagen
, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibor extermination camp * Belzec Trial before the 1st Munich
Munich
District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Belzec extermination camp * Majdanek Trials , the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years * Chełmno Trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Bogdan Chrzanowski,