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Stutthof trials
Stutthof trials
were a series of war crime tribunals held in postwar Poland for the prosecution of Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof concentration camp
staff and officials, responsible for the murder of up to 85,000 prisoners during the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II.[1] None of the Stutthof commandants were ever tried in Poland. SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Max Pauly
Max Pauly
was sentenced to death in Germany but not for the crimes committed at Stutthof; only as the commandant of the Neuengamme concentration camp
Neuengamme concentration camp
in Hamburg.[2] The first Polish war crimes tribunal was convened at Gdańsk, Poland, from April 25, 1946 to May 31, 1946. The next three trials took place at the same court in 8–31 October 1947, 5–10 November, and in 19–29 November of that year. The fifth trial was held before the court in Toruń
Toruń
in 1949. The sixth and the last Stutthof trial in Poland took place in 1953 also in Gdańsk. In total, of the approximately 2,000 SS men and women who ran the entire camp complex, 72 SS officers and 6 female overseers were brought to justice.[2]

Contents

1 First Stutthof trial

1.1 Verdicts in the first Stutthof trial

2 Second Stutthof trial

2.1 Verdicts in the second trial

3 Third Stutthof trial

3.1 Verdicts in the third trial

4 Fourth Stutthof trial

4.1 Verdicts in the fourth trial

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

First Stutthof trial[edit] During the first war crimes tribunal held at Gdańsk
Gdańsk
from April 25, 1946, to May 31, 1946, the joint Soviet/Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court tried and convicted of crimes against humanity a group of thirteen ex-officials and overseers of the Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof concentration camp
in Sztutowo
Sztutowo
and its Bromberg-Ost
Bromberg-Ost
subcamp for women located in the city of Bydgoszcz.[2] The accused were arraigned before the court and all found guilty. Eleven were sentenced to death, including the commander of the guards Johann Pauls, while the remainder were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. The death sentences were carried out on July 4, 1946 at the Biskupia Górka
Biskupia Górka
in Gdańsk, by short-drop hanging.[3] The commandant of the Stutthof and Neuengamme concentration camps SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Max Pauly
Max Pauly
was sentenced to death in Germany at about the same time.[2] Pauly was tried by the British for war crimes with thirteen others in the Curio Haus in Hamburg
Hamburg
which was located in the British occupied sector of Germany. The trial lasted from March 18, 1946 to May 13, 1946. He was found guilty and sentenced to death with 11 other defendants. He was executed by long-drop hanging by Albert Pierrepoint
Albert Pierrepoint
in Hamelin
Hamelin
prison on October 8, 1946. The second commandant SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Paul-Werner Hoppe
Paul-Werner Hoppe
(August '42 - January '45) was apprehended in 1953 in West Germany and later sentenced to 9 years' imprisonment.

The execution of guards and Polish Kapos of the Stutthof concentration camp on July 4, 1946. In the foreground were the female guards sentenced to hang: Barkmann, Paradies, Becker, Klaff, Steinhoff (left to right)

The execution of Steinhoff, Pauls, 3 kapos July 4, 1946

Verdicts in the first Stutthof trial[edit]

Johann Pauls, SS-Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Jenny-Wanda Barkmann, SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Elisabeth Becker, SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Jan Breit, SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Wanda Klaff, SS Aufseherin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Ewa Paradies: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Gerda Steinhoff, SS Blockleiterin: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Erna Beilhardt, SS-Aufseherin: sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment Tadeusz Kopczynski, (Kapo): sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Waclaw Kozlowski, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Jozef Reiter, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Fanciszek Szopinski, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: July 4, 1946 Kazimierz Kowalski, Kapo: sentenced to 3 years' imprisonment Jan Brajt, Kapo: death by hanging Aleksy Duzdal, Kapo: not guilty Jan Preiss, Kapo: not guilty Marian Zielkowski, Kapo: died of a heart attack in prison, August 25, 1945

Second Stutthof trial[edit] The second trial was held from October 8, 1947, to October 31, 1947, before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court. Arraigned 24 ex-officials and guards of the Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof concentration camp
were judged and found guilty. Ten were sentenced to death.[2] Verdicts in the second trial[edit]

At trial, 1947, Gdańsk. Left to right: Hans Rach, Fritz Peters, Albert Paulitz, Ewald Foth, and Theodor Meyer

Nine SS men and the Kapo Nikolaysen had been executed on October 28, 1948:[4]

Kurt Dietrich, SS Unterscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Karl Eggert, SS Rottenführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Theodor Meyer, SS Hauptsturmführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Ewald Foth, SS Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Albert Paulitz, SS Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Fritz Peters, SS Unterscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Hans Rach, SS Oberscharführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Paul Wellnitz, SS Rottenführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Karl Zurell, SS Rottenführer: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948 Erich Thun, SS Unterscharführer: life imprisonment Wilhelm Vogler, SS Hauptsturmführer: 15 years' imprisonment Eduard Zerlin, SS Unterscharführer: 12 years' imprisonment Oskar Gottchau, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Adolf Grams, SS Rottenführer: 10 years' imprisonment Emil Wenzel, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Werner Wöllnitz, SS Rottenführer: 10 years' imprisonment Johannes Görtz, SS Unterscharführer: 8 years' imprisonment Karl Reger, SS Scharführer: 8 years' imprisonment Martin Stage, SS Scharführer: 8 years' imprisonment Adalbert Wolter, SS Unterscharführer: 8 years' imprisonment Josef Wennhardt, SS Scharführer: 8 years' imprisonment Hugo Ziehm, SS Scharführer: 3 years' imprisonment Walter Englert, SS Scharführer: 3 years' imprisonment Alfred Nikolaysen, Kapo: sentenced to death, executed: October 28, 1948

Third Stutthof trial[edit] The third trial was held from November 5, 1947, to November 10, 1947, before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court. Arraigned 20 ex-officials and guards were judged; nineteen were found guilty, and one was acquitted.[2][5] Verdicts in the third trial[edit]

Karl Meinck, SS Obersturmführer: 12 years' imprisonment Gustav Eberle, SS Hauptscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Erich Jassen, SS Hauptscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Adolf Klaffke, SS Oberscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Otto Schneider, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Otto Welke, SS Sturmscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Willy Witt, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Alfred Tissler, SS Rottenführer: 5 years' imprisonment Johann Lichtner, SS Hauptscharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Ernst Thulke, SS Rottenführer: 5 years' imprisonment Heinz Löwen, SS Scharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Erich Stampniok, SS Unterscharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Hans Möhrke, SS Sturmscharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Harry Müller, SS Unterscharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Richard Timm, SS Hauptscharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Nikolaus Dirnberger, SS Scharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Friedrich Tessmer, SS Scharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Johann Sporer, SS Unterscharführer: 4 years' imprisonment Nikolai Klawan, SS Scharführer: 3 years' imprisonment Hans Tolksdorf, SS Oberscharführer: acquitted and released

Fourth Stutthof trial[edit] The fourth trial was also held before a Polish Special
Special
Criminal Court, from November 19, 1947, to November 29, 1947. Arraigned 27 ex-officials and guards were judged; 26 were found guilty, and one was acquitted.[2][5] Verdicts in the fourth trial[edit]

Willi Buth, SS Hauptscharführer: life imprisonment Albert Weckmüller, SS Hauptsturmführer: 15 years' imprisonment Rudolf Berg, SS Scharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Fritz Glawe, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Horst Köpke, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Emil Lascheit, SS Sturmscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Kurt Reduhn, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Josef Stahl, SS Unterscharführer: 10 years' imprisonment Waldemar Henke, SS Obersturmführer: 5 years' imprisonment Gustav Kautz, SS Unterscharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Hermann Link, SS Scharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Erich Mertens, SS Oberscharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Martin Pentz, SS Scharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Johann Pfister, SS Rottenführer: 5 years' imprisonment Johannes Wall, SS Sturmscharführer: 5 years' imprisonment Richard Akolt, SS Rottenführer: 3 years' imprisonment Anton Kniffke, SS Scharführer: 3 years' imprisonment Christof Schwarz, SS Hauptsturmführer: 3 years' imprisonment Gustav Brodowski, SS Rottenführer: 7 months' imprisonment Walter Ringewald, SS Oberscharfuhrer: 7 months' imprisonment Richard Wohlfeil, SS Hauptscharführer: 7 months' imprisonment Johann Wrobel, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months' imprisonment Ernst Knappert, SS Rottenführer: 7 months' imprisonment Bernard Eckermann, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months' imprisonment Leopold Baumgartner, SS Oberscharführer: 7 months' imprisonment Emil Paul, SS Unterscharführer: 7 months' imprisonment Franz Spillmann, Kapo: acquitted and released

The last two trials in Poland concerning two Stutthof concentration camp officials took place four years apart. In 1949 SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Hans Jacobi, the commandant of Stutthof subcamps forming Baukommando Weichsel or OT Thorn ( Organisation Todt
Organisation Todt
Thorn) for women digging anti-tank ditches,[6] was tried before the criminal court in Toruń
Toruń
and sentenced to three years in prison.[2] In 1953 the court in Gdańsk
Gdańsk
tried SS-man Bielawa (SS Rottenführer
Rottenführer
Paul Bielawa, a prisoner guard from the 3rd company in Stutthof between 1941–45)[1] and sentenced him to twelve years.[2] SS-Rottenführer Emil Strehlau (12.03.1904 in Jankowo - 08.11.1948 in Wloclawek) was sentenced by the court in Torun (Wloclawek) 23.04.1948 to death for war crimes. He was executed 08.11.1948 in Wloclawek[7][8][9] See also[edit]

Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
of the 23 most important leaders of the Third Reich, 1945–1946 Dachau trials
Dachau trials
held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp, 1945–1948 Sobibór trial
Sobibór trial
held in Hagen, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibór extermination camp Belzec trial
Belzec trial
before the 1st Munich
Munich
District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Bełżec extermination camp Majdanek trials, the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years Chełmno trials
Chełmno trials
of the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
personnel, held in Poland and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart

References[edit]

^ a b Bogdan Chrzanowski, Andrzej Gąsiorowski (Zeszyty Muzeum, 5), Załoga obozu Stutthof (Staff of Stutthof concentration camp) (PDF file, direct download 9.14 MB) p. 189 (13/40 in PDF). Muzeum Stutthof w Sztutowie. Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich, Wrocław, Warszawa, Krakow 1984. PL ISSN 0137-5377. ^ a b c d e f g h i Janina Grabowska (22 January 2009). "Odpowiedzialność za zbrodnie popełnione w Stutthofie. Procesy" [Responsibility for the Atrocities Committed at Stutthof. The trials.]. KL Stutthof, Monografia. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2014. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Skalman.nu Forum, Stutthof Trial, April 25-May 31, 1946 at JewishVirtualLibrary.org ^ Waldemar Kowalski: KARA ŚMIERCI W GDAŃSKU 1945–1987. In: gedanopedia.pl (polish) ^ a b Nunca Mas (2007), Campo de Concentracion Stutthof, Polonia (Concentration Camp Stutthof, Poland). History of the Camp. Subcamps. Trials. Women of the SS. Additional documents. (in Spanish) ^ Marian Rochniński, Jan Ruciński, Tragiczny los żydowskich więźniarek z Baukomando Weichsel (The Tragic Fate of Women Prisoners of Baukomando Weichsel) Tygodnik Katolicki "Niedziela" 47/2007. ^ IPN Warsawa ^ "SS- Rottenführer
Rottenführer
Emil Strehlau (or Strelau) • Axis History Forum". Axis History Forum.  ^ Lista osob Straconych w wiezieniach Polskich w latach 1944 – 1956 , IPN, 1990

Several authors, Monografia KL Stutthof (KL Stutthof monograph) (Internet Archive). Organization, Prisoners, Subcamps, Extermination, Responsibility. Contributing writers: Bogdan Chrzanowski, Konrad Ciechanowski, Danuta Drywa, Ewa Ferenc, Andrzej Gąsiorowski, Mirosław Gliński, Janina Grabowska, Elżbieta Grot, Marek Orski, and Krzysztof Steyer. (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Media related to Execution of concentration camp guards at Biskupia Gorka at

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