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The Stroop Report
Stroop Report
is an official report prepared by General Jürgen Stroop for the SS chief Heinrich Himmler, recounting the German suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
and the liquidation of the ghetto in the spring of 1943. Originally titled The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is No More! (Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!), it is commonly referred to as "The Stroop Report".

Contents

1 History 2 Content 3 Text 4 Photographs from the Stroop Report

4.1 Gallery

5 Stroop Collection 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The Report was commissioned by Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger, chief of the SS and police in Kraków
Kraków
and was intended as a souvenir album for Heinrich Himmler. It was prepared in three distinct leather-bound copies for Himmler, Friedrich Krueger and Jürgen Stroop, with one unbound "file" copy of the report (das Konzept) remaining in Warsaw, in the care of Chief of Staff Max Jesuiter.[1] According to a statement given in 1945 by Stroop's adjutant Karl Kaleshke to US authorities in Wiesbaden, he ordered Stroop's copy of the report burnt with other secret documents in Burg Kranzberg.[2] After the war only two of the four copies were discovered, those belonging to Himmler and Jesuiter.[3] Himmler's copy went to Seventh Army Intelligence Center (SAIC) and Jesuiter's to Military Intelligence Research Section (MIRS) in London.[2] Several sources stated that the German Bundesarchiv also had a copy in Koblenz.[3][4][5] However, in reply to inquiries by Richard Raskin, the Bundesarchiv stated that the third copy of report was never in their possession.[1][2] Both copies were introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, sharing the document number 1061-PS, and used in the trial as "US Exhibit 275".[1] It was first displayed by the chief U.S. prosecutor Robert H. Jackson
Robert H. Jackson
for the judges during his opening address.[6] The assistant prosecutor dealing with the persecution of the Jews referred to it as "the finest example of ornate German craftsmanship, leather bound, profusely illustrated, typed on heavy bond paper ... the almost unbelievable recital of the proud accomplishment by Major General of Police Stroop".[7] Both copies were also used in Nuremberg in the 1947 trial of Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
as exhibit 503. On June 10, 1948, the Himmler/SAIC copy of the Stroop report and Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
were handed over by Fred Niebergal, head of Office of Chief of Counsel for War Crimes – OCCWC, to Bernard Acht, head of the Polish Military Mission in Nuremberg.[2] It was used in Stroop's trial at Warsaw Criminal District Court in July 1951,[3] and transferred afterwards to the KC PZPR archive.[2] In 1952 it was transferred to the Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce (Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland) archive and subsequently to its successor the Institute of National Remembrance (Polish: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej or IPN) where it remains.[2] In 1948 the Jesuiter/MIRS copy of the report went to the National Archives (NARA) in Washington, D.C., where it remains.[1] Content[edit]

First book edition of the Stroop Report
Stroop Report
from 1948 by Stanisław Piotrowski

The Report was a 125-page typed document, bound in black pebble leather, with 53 photographs. It consisted of the following sections:

Summary, with

title page list of soldiers killed and wounded the list of combat units involved, and introduction, signed by Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
in case of IPN copy

Collection of 31 daily reports (German: Tägliche Meldungen), sent from Stroop's Chief of Staff Max Jesuiter to SS Police Leader East Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger. The reports cover the period of 20 April to 16 May 1943, plus a report from 24 May 1943, and were all signed by Jesuiter. Series of 53 photographs accompanied by hand-written captions in German Sütterlin
Sütterlin
script The NARA report also has a fourth section with statistics about human losses, types of recovered weapons and amounts of money and valuables taken from Jews.[2]

There are slight discrepancies in textual and graphical layout, and in the photographs they contain. Text[edit] Main article: Polish resistance movement in World War II The Stroop Report
Stroop Report
alludes repeatedly to the participation of the Polish Resistance in the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Stroop referred to Polish underground fighters as Polnische Banditen - "Polish Bandits", and noted:

"When we invaded the Ghetto for the first time, the Jews and the Polish bandits succeeded in repelling the participating units, including tanks and armored cars, by a well-prepared concentration of fire. ... The main Jewish battle group, mixed with Polish bandits, had already retired during the first and second day to the so-called Muranowski Square. There, it was reinforced by a considerable number of Polish bandits. Its plan was to hold the Ghetto by every means in order to prevent us from invading it. ... Time and again Polish bandits found refuge in the Ghetto and remained there undisturbed, since we had no forces at our disposal to comb out this maze. ... One such battle group succeeded in mounting a truck by ascending from a sewer in the so-called Prosta [Street], and in escaping with it (about 30 to 35 bandits). ... The bandits and Jews – there were Polish bandits among these gangs armed with carbines, small arms, and in one case a light machine gun – mounted the truck and drove away in an unknown direction." — Jürgen Stroop, 1943[8]

Page 5 of Stroop Report
Stroop Report
describing German fight against Juden mit Polnischen Banditen - "Jews with Polish bandits"[9]

Page describing military actions on 27 April 1943[10]

Continuation 27 April 1943 describing fight against a jüdisch-polnische Wehrformation - "Jewish-Polish combat formation"[10]

Photographs from the Stroop Report[edit] The IPN copy of the report has 53 photographs on 49 pages, while the NARA copy has the same number of photographs on 52 pages. 37 photographs appear in both copies, although not always with the same size, crop or order and occasionally with different captions. Sixteen shots in each copy are different, although often very similar as they depict the same events. Altogether, in both versions of the report there are 69 unique photographs.[2][3] The identity of the photographers who accompanied Stroop’s headquarters during the operation is unknown. Franz Konrad confessed to taking some of the photographs; the rest were probably taken by photographers from Propaganda Kompanie nr 689.[2][3] In addition to the photographs found in the reports there were about 45 additional photographs that were not included which according to Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
were found in Stroop’s possession when he was captured by the Americans after the war.[11] Some of those photographs were closely related to those used in the report as they depicted the same events. Many of those additional photographs are described in reputable sources as coming from the Stroop Report, even if they do not appear in either of the surviving copies. The high-quality photographs taken for Stroop constitute a unique documentation of the final stage of liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto. The photographer was permitted access to Stroop's inner circle, to accompany the forces that participated in liquidating the ghetto, and to get close to the combat areas. Apart from a dozen candid photographs taken by Polish firefighter Leszek Grzywaczewski, those are the only photographs of the Ghetto Uprising taken inside the ghetto.[2] Some of them became highly recognized images of World War II and the Shoah. Photographic captions in the Report are often highly racist and contain few facts about their content, but are a good reflection of the mindset of the report's authors. They are written in the German Sütterlin
Sütterlin
script, and in some cases do not match the images. Many of the places, people and events depicted were identified in the years after the report's publication. Gallery[edit] Photographs included in one of the two copies of the Stroop Report. Image captions include a reference and translation of the original German caption (in red) followed by current photo caption. Click on images for more information.

NARA copy #1, IPN copy #1 The building of the former Jewish Council Judenrat
Judenrat
(Jewish Community Council) at Zamenhofa 19

NARA copy #2, IPN copy #2 Vacate the factory! Umschlagplatz, gate by the bathhouse

NARA copy #3, IPN copy #3 Discussing the evacuation of the factory Guard on the left is Josef Blösche.Herman Brauer helm repair shop at Nalewki 28-38. 24 April 1943

NARA copy #4, IPN copy #4 The Jewish department heads of the armament firm Brauer Herman Brauer helm repair shop at Nalewki 28-38

NARA copy #5, IPN copy #5 The Brauer Company Herman Brauer helm repair shop at Nalewki 28-38

NARA copy #17, IPN copy #14 Forcibly pulled out of bunkers Many people in the photograph were recognized, however identity of the boy and the place where the photo was taken are uncertain.

IPN copy #15 These bandits offered armed resistance Nowolipie 64 near intersection with Smocza

NARA copy #18 These bandits offered armed resistance Nowolipie 64 near intersection with Smocza

NARA copy #13, IPN copy #16 Jews pulled from a bunker Nowolipie 64 / Smocza 1 intersection

NARA copy #43, IPN copy #43 The leader of the grand operation second from left Stroop; background either Karl Kaleske (Stroop's adjutant) or Erich Steidtmann]];2nd from right Heinrich Klaustermeyer; far right Josef Blösche
Josef Blösche
and others at Nowolipie 64 / Smocza 1 intersection

NARA copy #23 Smoking out the Jews and Bandits Possibly Wałowa 4

NARA copy #16, IPN copy #34 Before the search Possibly near Wałowa 4, looking North

NARA copy #8, IPN copy #9 Search and interrogation Possibly Muranowski Square with Muranowski 10 / Sierakowska 3 in the back

NARA copy #9, IPN copy #10 Jewish Rabbis Rabbi Heschel Rappaport and others questioned by Heinrich Klaustermeyer and Josef Blösche
Josef Blösche
in front of Nowolipie 32.

NARA copy #10, IPN copy #11 Jewish Rabbis Rabbi Lipa Kaplan, Eliyahu Levin, Mendel Alter, Yankel Levin and Rabbi Heschel Rappaport in front of Nowolipie 32.

NARA copy #12, IPN copy #12 Dregs of humanity All the prisoners were stripped during the search.

NARA copy #19, IPN copy #18 Bandits destroyed in battle Executed Jews, possibly near Nalewki 41.

NARA copy #21, IPN copy #20 Jewish traitors Stroop and Maximilian von Herff (likely) at Muranowski Square near Naleweki and Miła intersection with Nalewki 42 in the back. taken May 14, 1943(?)

IPN copy #26 Hehalutz women captured with weapons. Małka Zdrojewicz Horenstein on the right survived Majdanek
Majdanek
and Bluma Wyszogrodzka in the center died in Auschwitz.

IPN copy #36 They were also found in the underground bunkers Captured Jews in front of Miła 31 and 33 viewed from Zamenhofa Street.

IPN copy #7 Forcibly pulled out of bunkers Captured Jews are led by Waffen SS soldiers to Umschlagplatz. In the back Nowolipie 62 & 63. See file page for possible identity of depicted people.

NARA copy #7 To the transhipping place Captured Jews are led by Waffen SS soldiers to Umschlagplatz. In the back Nowolipie 62 & 63. See file page for possible identity of depicted people.

NARA copy #22 Bandits Gęsia and Smocza intersection

NARA copy #6, IPN copy #6 March to the rail station Column heading North to Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
on Zamenhofa Street near Kupiecka. In the back buildings of Zamenhofa 30-40 block.

NARA copy #31 To the transhipping place Column heading North to Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
on Zamenhofa Street near Kupiecka. In the back buildings of Zamenhofa 30-40 block.

NARA copy #30, IPN copy #8 To the transhipping place Column heading North to Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
on Zamenhofa Street near Wołyńska. On the left 25, 27, 29.

NARA copy #44, IPN copy #44 This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Column heading North to Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
on Zamenhofa Street, with burning Zamenhofa 25 / Wołyńska 2 on the left.

NARA copy #29, IPN copy #28 Transporting of Jews onward Column heading North to Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
on Zamenhofa Street, with burning Zamenhofa 25 / Wołyńska 2 on the left.

NARA copy #27, IPN copy #23 Destruction of a housing block Zamenhofa Street looking North, with burning Zamenhofa 25 / Wołyńska 2 on the left.

NARA copy #28 A housing block being destroyed Zamenhofa Street looking North, with burning Zamenhofa 25 / Wołyńska 2 on the left.

IPN copy #27 A housing block being destroyed Zamenhofa Street looking North, with burning Zamenhofa 25 / Wołyńska 2 on the left.

IPN copy #48 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Zamenhofa Street between Wołyńska and Miła looking North, with burning Zamenhofa 29, 31 and 33 on the left.

IPN copy #24 (no caption) Zamenhofa Street between Wołyńska and Miła looking North, with burning Zamenhofa 29, 31 and 33 on the left.

IPN copy #25 (no caption) Zamenhofa Street between Wołyńska and Miła looking North

NARA copy #20, IPN copy #19 A bunker being opened Stroop witnesses digging out of a bunker, possibly near the ghetto wall. 8 May 1943

NARA copy #38 They were also found in the underground bunkers Stroop witnesses digging out of a bunker, possibly near the ghetto wall. 8 May 1943

NARA copy #14 Jews pulled from a bunker

NARA copy #15, IPN copy #17 Bandits

NARA copy #35, IPN copy #29 Photos showing parts of so called dwelling dugouts

NARA copy #34, IPN copy #30 Photos showing parts of so called dwelling dugouts

NARA copy #33, IPN copy #31 Photos showing parts of so called dwelling dugouts

NARA copy #36, IPN copy #32 Photos showing parts of so called dwelling dugouts

NARA copy #32, IPN copy #33 Photos showing parts of so called dwelling dugouts

NARA copy #37, IPN copy #35 Securing a street MG08
MG08
at the gate on Nowolipie Street intersection with Smocza Street, looking East. In the back Nowolipie 56.

NARA copy #45 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Nowolipie 56 in the center.

IPN copy #45 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Nowolipie Street looking West towards the gate at Nowolipie / Smocza intersection.

NARA copy #11, IPN copy #13 An assault squad Waffen SS troops at Nowolipie Street with Nowolipie 50 A, 52, 54 and 56 in the back.

IPN copy #21 Smoking out the Jews and Bandits Waffen SS troops at Nowolipie Street, between Smocza and Karmelicka Streets, with Nowolipie 34 on the right.

IPN copy #37 Fight against a resistance pocket Cannon on Zamenhofa Street shooting North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building

IPN copy #38 Fight against a resistance pocket Cannon on Zamenhofa Street shooting North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building

NARA copy #25 Destruction of a housing block Cannon on Zamenhofa Street shooting North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building

NARA copy #26 Destruction of a housing block Cannon on Zamenhofa Street shooting North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building

Stroop Collection, not in the report. Cannon on Zamenhofa Street shooting North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building

Stroop Collection, not in the report. Zamenhofa Street looking North at resistance in Gęsia 20 building.

NARA copy #39 Bandits jump to escape capture Men preparing to commit suicide by jumping off the upper floors of 23 and 25 Niska Street. 22 April 1943

NARA copy #53, IPN copy #39 Bandits jump to escape capture Man committing suicide by jumping off the upper floors of 23 and 25 Niska Street. 22 April 1943

IPN copy #40 Bandits who jumped People who committed suicide by jumping off the upper floors of 23 and 25 Niska Street. 22 April 1943

NARA copy #40 Bandits who jumped People preparing to commit suicide by jumping off the upper floors of 23 and 25 Niska Street. 22 April 1943

Stroop Collection, not in the report. 25 Niska Street 22 April 1943

Stroop Collection-not in the report-taken at Niska Steet[?]

IPN copy #41 The radio car of the command post Stroop near command car, probably at Zamenhofa 48 near intersection with Miła.

NARA copy #41 The radio car of the command post

IPN copy #42 Askaris assigned to the operation Stroop and foreign fighters at the Umschlagplatz, with Stawki 5/7 in the back.

NARA copy #42 Askaris assigned to the operation Foreign fighters and executed Jews at Zamenhofa 42 / Kupiecka 18.

NARA copy #46, IPN copy #46 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Ulica Kupiecka Street viewed from Zamenhofa, with Zamenhofa 42 / Kupiecka 18 on the left.

IPN copy #49 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Possibly Dzielna 5

NARA copy #49, IPN copy #51 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Probably court yard of Franciszkańską 26

NARA copy #48 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Probably court yard of Franciszkańską 30

NARA copy #47, IPN copy #50 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Nalewki Street, looking South from the gate at Nalewki/Gęsia/Franciszkańska intersection.

IPN copy #53 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Nalewki Street, looking South at the gate at Nalewki/Gęsia/Franciszkańska intersection. Beyond the wall on the right Posner house at Nalewkach 29.

NARA copy #50, IPN copy #47 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed On the right Nalewki 31/Gęsia 2, and on the left a view South at Nalewki Street towards ghetto gate at Nalewki/Gęsia/Franciszkańska intersection.

NARA copy #24, IPN copy #22 A place which has been prepared for escape and jumping down On the left Nalewki 31/Gęsia 2, and on the right view North at Nalewki Street.

NARA copy #52, IPN copy #52 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Nalewki Street, viewed from Gęsia Street looking North, with Nalewki 31/Gęsia 2 on the left

NARA copy #51 no image caption, in section This is how the former Ghetto looks after having been destroyed Possibly Nowolipki / Smocza intersection looking West on Nowolipki Street.

Stroop Collection[edit] Stroop Collection of related Ghetto Uprising photographs:

Stroop at Zamenhofa 15; Zamenhofa 13

Stroop at Zamenhofa 24; Zamenhofa 22

Stroop and officers

Stroop and officers

SS and police officers look on as SS Major General Juergen Stroop discusses razing the houses on Niska and Muranowska Streets with Kaleschke, his police adjutant, during Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Stroop and officers-taken 20 April 1943-second day of the Uprising

SS soldiers

Jews deported

Ditto caption

Factory burning during the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Stroop and other officers at the Umschlagplatz

Stroop and Josef Bloesche questioning a Jewish prisoner-possibly taken same time as NARA 21 and IPN 20 above? 2nd from right is possibly Karl Kaleske or Erich Steidtmann

This and the following 6 photographs show Jews being captured by the Germans-possilbly related to NARA 20 and NARA 38 pictures above?

Jurgen Stroop

Jürgen Stroop. Click on photograph for possible ids of other SS officers

According to USHMM this picture was taken 9 May 1943-20th day of the uprising

Taken same place as preceding photograph

Jews taken out of a basement by Germans

See also[edit]

Dachau Trials Nuremberg Trials

References[edit]

^ a b c d Richard Raskin (2004). A Child at Gunpoint: A Case Study in the Life of a Photo. Aarhus University Press. ISBN 978-8779340992.  (Segments of the book were quoted online here) ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tomasz Stempowski (March 17, 2013). "Zdjęcia z powstania w getcie". fototekst.pl. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ a b c d e Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
(2009). Andrzej Żbikowski, ed. Żydowska dzielnica mieszkaniowa w Warszawie już nie istnieje! / Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr! (PDF). Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Żydowski Instytut Historyczny. pp. 10–18. ISBN 978-83-7629-455-1.  ^ Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Photo Archive ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ International Military Tribunal "Blue Series," Vol. 2, p. 126 ^ Conot, Justice at Nuremberg, 1983, pp. 269-70. ^ From the Stroop Report
Stroop Report
by SS Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Jürgen Stroop, May 1943. ^ Jürgen Stroop, "Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!", Warschau 1943, p.5. ^ a b Jürgen Stroop, "Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!", Warschau 1943. ^ "The Stroop Collection". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stroop Report.

Juergen Stroop
Juergen Stroop
(1979). The Stroop Report: "The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is No More!". Sybil Milton, transl. New York: Pantheon.  (English translation) Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
(2009). Andrzej Żbikowski, ed. Żydowska dzielnica mieszkaniowa w Warszawie już nie istnieje! / Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr! (PDF). Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Żydowski Instytut Historyczny. ISBN 978-83-7629-455-1. Retrieved April 11, 2016.  (IPN copy; Polish translation: pages 23–112 and German original: pages 113-238; photographs) Jürgen Stroop. "The Jewish residential quarter in Warsaw has ceased to exist". www.holocaust-history.org. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010.  (IPN copy; German original and English translation) Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
(May 1943). "Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!". National Archives website.  (NARA copy; German original: text, photographs)

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