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Straw
Straw
is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw
Straw
makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale, which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used.

Contents

1 Uses 2 Safety 3 Research 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Uses[edit] Current and historic uses of straw include:

Animal feed

Straw
Straw
may be fed as part of the roughage component of the diet to cattle or horses that are on a near maintenance level of energy requirement. It has a low digestible energy and nutrient content (as opposed to hay, which is much more nutritious). The heat generated when microorganisms in a herbivore's gut digest straw can be useful in maintaining body temperature in cold climates. Due to the risk of impaction and its poor nutrient profile, it should always be restricted to part of the diet. It may be fed as it is, or chopped into short lengths, known as chaff.

Basketry

Bee skeps and linen baskets are made from coiled and bound together continuous lengths of straw. The technique is known as lip work.

Bedding: humans or livestock

The straw-filled mattress, also known as a palliasse, is still used in many parts of the world. It is commonly used as bedding for ruminants and horses. It may be used as bedding and food for small animals, but this often leads to injuries to mouth, nose and eyes as straw is quite sharp.

Biofuels

The use of straw as a carbon-neutral energy source is increasing rapidly, especially for biobutanol. Straw
Straw
or hay briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal.

Biogas

Straw, processed first as briquettes, has been fed into a biogas plant in Aarhus University, Denmark, in a test to see if higher gas yields could be attained.[1]

Biomass

The use of straw in large-scale biomass power plants is becoming mainstream in the EU, with several facilities already online. The straw is either used directly in the form of bales, or densified into pellets which allows for the feedstock to be transported over longer distances. Finally, torrefaction of straw with pelletisation is gaining attention, because it increases the energy density of the resource, making it possible to transport it still further. This processing step also makes storage much easier, because torrefied straw pellets are hydrophobic. Torrefied straw in the form of pellets can be directly co-fired with coal or natural gas at very high rates and make use of the processing infrastructures at existing coal and gas plants. Because the torrefied straw pellets have superior structural, chemical and combustion properties to coal, they can replace all coal and turn a coal plant into an entirely biomass-fed power station. First generation pellets are limited to a co-firing rate of 15% in modern IGCC plants.

Construction
Construction
material:

In many parts of the world, straw is used to bind clay and concrete. A mixture of clay and straw, known as cob, can be used as a building material. There are many recipes for making cob. When baled, straw has moderate insulation characteristics (about R-1.5/inch according to Oak Ridge National Lab and Forest Product Lab testing). It can be used, alone or in a post-and-beam construction, to build straw bale houses. When bales are used to build or insulate buildings, the straw bales are commonly finished with earthen plaster. The plastered walls provide some thermal mass, compressive and ductile structural strength, and acceptable fire resistance as well as thermal resistance (insulation), somewhat in excess of North American building code. Straw
Straw
is an abundant agricultural waste product, and requires little energy to bale and transport for construction. For these reasons, straw bale construction is gaining popularity as part of passive solar and other renewable energy projects.[2] Composite lumber
Composite lumber
Wheat
Wheat
straw can be used as a polymer filler combined with polymers to produce composite lumber.[3] Enviroboard can be made from straw. Strawblocks

Crafts

Belarusian Straw
Straw
Dolls

Corn dollies Straw
Straw
marquetry Straw
Straw
painting Straw
Straw
plaiting Scarecrows Japanese Traditional Cat's House

Erosion control

Straw
Straw
bales are sometimes used for sediment control at construction sites.[4] However, bales are often ineffective in protecting water quality and are maintenance-intensive. For these reasons the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and various state agencies recommend use of alternative sediment control practices where possible, such as silt fences, fiber rolls and geotextiles.[5] Burned area emergency response Ground cover In-stream check dams

Hats

There are several styles of straw hats that are made of woven straw. Many thousands of women and children in England (primarily in the Luton
Luton
district of Bedfordshire),[6] and large numbers in the United States (mostly Massachusetts), were employed in plaiting straw for making hats. By the late 19th century, vast quantities of plaits were being imported to England from Canton in China,[6] and in the United States most of the straw plait was imported.[7] A fiber analogous to straw is obtained from the plant Carludovica palmata, and is used to make Panama hats.[7] Traditional Japanese rain protection consisted of a straw hat and a mino cape.[8]

Horticulture

Straw
Straw
is used in cucumber houses and for mushroom growing. In Japan, certain trees are wrapped with straw to protect them from the effects of a hard winter as well as to use them as a trap for parasite insects. It is also used in ponds to reduce algae by changing the nutrient ratios in the water. The soil under strawberries is covered with straw to protect the ripe berries from dirt, and straw is also used to cover the plants during winter to prevent the cold from killing them. Straw
Straw
also makes an excellent mulch.

Packaging

Straw
Straw
is resistant to being crushed and therefore makes a good packing material. A company in France makes a straw mat sealed in thin plastic sheets. Straw
Straw
envelopes for wine bottles have become rarer, but are still to be found at some wine merchants. Wheat
Wheat
straw is also used in compostable food packaging such as compostable plates. Packaging
Packaging
made from wheat straw can be certified compostable and will biodegrade in a commercial composting environment.[9]

Paper

Straw
Straw
can be pulped to make paper.[10]

Belarusian Straw
Straw
Bird

Rope

Rope made from straw was used by thatchers, in the packaging industry and even in iron foundries.

Shoes

Koreans
Koreans
wear Jipsin, sandals made of straw. In some parts of Germany like Black Forest
Black Forest
and Hunsrück
Hunsrück
people wear straw shoes at home or at carnival.

Targets

Heavy gauge straw rope is coiled and sewn tightly together to make archery targets. This is no longer done entirely by hand, but is partially mechanised. Sometimes a paper or plastic target is set up in front of straw bales, which serve to support the target and provide a safe backdrop.

Thatching

Thatching
Thatching
uses straw, reed or similar materials to make a waterproof, lightweight roof with good insulation properties. Straw
Straw
for this purpose (often wheat straw) is grown specially and harvested using a reaper-binder.

Safety[edit] Dried straw presents a fire hazard that can ignite easily if exposed to sparks or an open flame. It can also trigger allergic rhinitis in people who are hypersensitive to airborne allergens such as straw dust. Research[edit] In addition to its current and historic uses, straw is being investigated as a source of fine chemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignins, phenols, and steroids.[11] See also[edit]

Agriculture and Agronomy
Agronomy
portal

Corn stover
Corn stover
(corn straw) Drinking straw Hay Straw
Straw
(colour) Sheaf (agriculture), a bundle of straw Stook, a stack of straw Wood wool Straw
Straw
dog Yule Goat

References[edit]

^ 252507@au.dk (2017-06-30). "show". dca.au.dk. Retrieved 2017-07-02.  ^ *The Straw
Straw
Bale House: Suitability for the Eastern U.S. ^ Adding Value to Wheat
Wheat
Straw
Straw
By Anduin Kirkbride-McElroy. Biomass Magazine, 2007 ^ California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. “California Stormwater BMP Handbook: Straw
Straw
Bale Barrier.” Best Management Practice (BMP) No. SE-9. January 2003. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. "National Menu of Stormwater Best Management Practices: Straw
Straw
or Hay
Hay
Bales." June 1, 2006. ^ a b  Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1887). "Straw Manufactures". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.  ^ a b  Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Straw". The American Cyclopædia.  ^ Henshall, Kenneth. A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Springer. p. 67. ISBN 9780230346628.  ^ Viv Biz Club: Compostable Plates ^ McLaren, Duncan; Bullock, Simon; Yousuf, Nusrat (2013-11-05). Tomorrow's World: Britain's Share in a Sustainable Future. Routledge. ISBN 9781134044825.  ^ Schnitzer M, Monreal CM, Powell EE (2014). " Wheat
Wheat
straw biomass: A resource for high-value chemicals". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B. 49 (1): 51–67. doi:10.1080/03601234.2013.836924. PMID 24138469. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Straw.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Straw
Straw
bales.

 " Straw
Straw
and Straw
Straw
Manufactures". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Bioenergy

Biofuels

Alcohol Algae fuel Bagasse Babassu oil Biobutanol Biodiesel Biogas Biogasoline Corn stover Ethanol

cellulosic mixtures

Methanol Stover

Corn stover

Straw Cooking oil

Vegetable oil

Water hyacinth Wood gas

Energy from foodstock

Barley Cassava Coconut oil Grape Hemp Maize Oat Palm oil Potato Rapeseed Rice Sorghum bicolor Soybean Sugarcane Sugar beet Sunflower Wheat Yam Camelina
Camelina
sativa

Non-food energy crops

Arundo Big bluestem Camelina Chinese tallow Duckweed Jatropha curcas Millettia pinnata Miscanthus giganteus Switchgrass Salicornia Wood fuel

Technology

BECCS Bioconversion Biomass
Biomass
heating systems Biorefinery Fischer–Tropsch process Industrial biotechnology Pellets

mill stove

Thermal depolymerization

Concepts

Cellulosic ethanol
Cellulosic ethanol
commercialization Energy content of biofuel Energy crop Energy forestry EROEI Food vs. fuel Issues Sustainable biofuel

v t e

Barley

History

Domestication Neolithic Revolution Triticeae

Types of barley

Genus: Hordeum Cultivars: Bere

Agronomy

Barley
Barley
diseases

Trade

Australian Barley
Barley
Board Canadian Wheat
Wheat
Board Corn exchange Production by country Wheat
Wheat
pools in Canada

Parts of the plant

Bran Germ Husk Kernel Gluten Straw

Basic preparations

Milling: Flour
Flour
(types) Groats Middlings Parboiling

As an ingredient

Barley
Barley
bread Barley
Barley
honey Barley
Barley
tea Barley
Barley
water Beer Caffè d'orzo Irish whiskey Japanese whisky Máchica Malta Scotch whisky Talbina see also: Category:Barley-based beverages

Associated human diseases

Gluten-related disorders

Coeliac disease Non-celiac gluten sensitivity Wheat
Wheat
allergy Dermatitis herpetiformis Gluten
Gluten
ataxia

Related concepts

Bread
Bread
riot Cattle feeding Plant breeding Refined grains Staple food Whole grain

Further information

v t e

Wheat

Types

Common Durum Einkorn Emmer Khorasan Marquis Norin 10 Red Fife Spelt Winter wheat

Agronomy

Wheat
Wheat
diseases

list

Wheat
Wheat
mildew Hessian fly

Trade

Australian Wheat
Wheat
Board Canadian Wheat
Wheat
Board Corn exchange Exports International Wheat
Wheat
Council Peak wheat Production statistics Protein premium Wheat
Wheat
pools in Canada

Plant parts and their uses

Stalk Straw Seed Bran Germ Chaff
Chaff
(husk) Endosperm

Gluten

Basic preparation

None Berries or groats Milling Farina Flour Middlings Semolina Parboiling Bulgur

As an ingredient

Bread Couscous Cracker Flatbread Pasta Wheat
Wheat
beer Wheat
Wheat
germ oil Wheat
Wheat
gluten

Associated human diseases

Anaphylaxis Gluten-related disorders

coeliac disease non-celiac gluten sensitivity wheat allergy dermatitis herpetiformis ataxia

Related concepts

Bread
Bread
riot Plant breeding Refined grains Staple food Wheatpaste Whole grain Shattering Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Aswad

Category

Authority control

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