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Stiffelio
Stiffelio
is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi, from an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. The origin of this was the novel “Le pasteur d’hommes”, by Émile Souvestre, which was published in 1838. This was adapted into the French play Le pasteur, ou L'évangile et le foyer by Émile Souvestre
Émile Souvestre
and Eugène Bourgeois. That was in turn translated into Italian by Gaetano Vestri as Stifellius; this formed the basis of Piave's libretto.[1] Verdi's experience in Naples for Luisa Miller
Luisa Miller
had not been a good one and he returned home to Busseto to consider the subject for his next opera. The idea for Stiffelio
Stiffelio
came from his librettist and, entering into a contract with his publisher, Ricordi, he agreed to proceed, leaving the decision as to the location of the premiere to Ricordi. This became the Teatro Grande (now the Teatro Comunale Giuseppe Verdi) in Trieste and, in spite of difficulties with the censors which resulted in cuts and changes, the opera – Verdi's 16th – was first performed on 16 November 1850.

Contents

1 Composition history 2 Performance history 3 Roles 4 Synopsis

4.1 Act 1 4.2 Act 2 4.3 Act 3

5 Instrumentation 6 Music 7 Recordings 8 References 9 External links

Composition history[edit]

Soprano
Soprano
Marietta Gazzaniga
Marietta Gazzaniga
sang Lina

Baritone
Baritone
Filippo Colini
Filippo Colini
sang Stankar

Before Luisa Miller
Luisa Miller
was staged in Naples, Verdi had offered the San Carlo company another work for 1850, with the new opera to be based on Victor Hugo's Le roi s'amuse
Le roi s'amuse
from a libretto to be written by Salvadore Cammarano. But his experience with Luisa was such that he decided not to pursue this, and approached his publisher, Giulio Ricordi, with the proposal that he should work with the librettist on the possibility of an opera, Re Lear, which would be based on Shakespeare's King Lear
King Lear
and which had long been on Verdi's mind. However, by June 1850 it became clear that the subject was beyond Cammarano's ability to fashion into a libretto, and so it was abandoned. However, the commitment to Ricordi remained.[2] Verdi had returned to Busseto with many ideas in mind, among them a new opera for Venice, which included a request for a draft scenario from Piave based on Victor Hugo's Le roi s'amuse.[1] plus several others of interest to him. However, it was the librettist who came back with the suggestion of Stifellius, and between March and May 1850 discussions with Piave proceeded until a sketch of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
was received. Verdi responded enthusiastically, proclaiming it "good and exciting" and asking: "Is this Stiffelio
Stiffelio
a historical person? In all the history I've read, I don't remember coming across the name."[3] At the same time, it appears that Verdi continued to be fascinated by Le Roi s'amuse, a play which Budden notes as having been banned at its first performance: "it was, politically speaking, dynamite" but he adds that the Venetian censors had allowed Ernani.[2] Reactions to the choice of subject and how it worked as a libretto and opera have been fairly uniform. Musicologist
Musicologist
Roger Parker in Grove describes it as:

A bold choice, a far cry from the melodramatic plots of Byron and Hugo: modern, 'realistic', subjects were unusual in Italian opera, and the religious subject matter seemed bound to cause problems with the censor. [...] The tendency of its most powerful moments to avoid or radically manipulate traditional structures has been much praised.[4]

Budden basically agrees, stating that "[Verdi] was tired of stock subjects; he wanted something with genuinely human, as distinct from melodramatic, interest. [....] Stiffelio
Stiffelio
had the attraction of being a problem play with a core of moral sensibility; the same attraction, in fact, that led Verdi to La traviata
La traviata
a little later.[2]

Original poster for Stiffelio, 1850

As Stiffelio
Stiffelio
moved towards completion, Ricordi decided that it should be performed in Trieste. As the premiere approached, both librettist and composer were called before the president of the theatre commission on 13 November, given that the organization had received demands for changes from the censor, which included a threat to block the production entirely if these were not met. The original story line of Stiffelio, involving as it does a Protestant minister of the church with an adulterous wife, and a final church scene in which he forgives her with words quoted from the New Testament, was impossible to present on the stage, and this created these censorship demands for various reasons: "In Italy and Austrian Trieste ... a married priest was a contradiction in terms. Therefore there was no question of a church in the final scene...."[5] The changes which were demanded included Stiffelio
Stiffelio
being referred to not as a minister, but as a "sectarian". Furthermore, in act 3, Lina would not be allowed to beg for confession, plus as Budden notes, "the last scene was reduced to the most pointless banality" whereby Stiffelio
Stiffelio
is only permitted to preach in general terms.[2] Both men were reluctantly forced to agree to accept the changes. Performance history[edit] The different versions

Verdi around 1850

In the introduction to the critical edition[6] prepared in 2003 by Kathleen Hansell, she states quite clearly that "The performance history of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
as Verdi envisioned it literally began only in 1993."[7] She might have added "21 October 1993", since this was the occasion when the Metropolitan Opera
Opera
presented the work based on the discoveries which had been found in the composer's autograph manuscript by musicologist Philip Gossett the previous year[8] and which were eventually included in the critical edition prepared by her for the University of Chicago in 2003. In setting the context of the re-creation of the opera, Hansell states:

This opera, composed in tandem with Rigoletto
Rigoletto
and sharing many of its forward-looking characteristics, suffered even more than Rigoletto from the censors' strictures. The story of [the opera...] shocked conservative post-Revolutionary Italian religious and political powers. From its very premiere at Trieste in November 1850, its text was diluted to appease the authorities, making a mockery of the action and thus of Verdi's carefully calibrated music. The libretto was rewritten for subsequent revivals, and even some of Verdi's music was dropped.[7]

Hansell's statement establishes what happened to Verdi's opera in the years between the 1850 premiere and October 1993. To begin with, a revised version of the opera, entitled Guglielmo Wellingrode (with the hero a German minister of state),[2] was presented in 1851, without either Verdi or his librettist Piave being responsible for it.[9] In fact, when asked by impresario Alessandro Linari in 1852 to create a more suitable ending, Verdi was furious and refused.[2] In addition, it is known that some productions were given in the Iberian peninsula in the 1850s and 1860s.[10] Verdi withdraws Stiffelio
Stiffelio
in 1856; the autograph disappears As early as 1851, it became clear to Verdi that given the existing censorship throughout Italy, there was no point in Ricordi, his publisher and owner of the rights to the opera, trying to obtain venues for performances before the composer and librettist together had any opportunity to revise and restructure it more acceptably.[11] However, in her research for the critical edition, Hansell notes that in 1856 Verdi angrily withdrew his opera from circulation, reusing parts of the score for his reworked 1857 version, the libretto also prepared by Piave: it was renamed as Aroldo
Aroldo
and set in 13th century Anglo-Saxon England and Scotland. It contains a totally new fourth act.[7] Throughout the rest of the 19th century and for most of the 20th, the Stiffelio
Stiffelio
autograph was generally presumed to be lost. 20th century performances before October 1993 Hansell is clear on several points regarding any performances between 1856 and October 1993:

All previous modern editions, including the score prepared by Edward Downes and first performed in January 1993 by The Royal Opera
Opera
company at Covent Garden, were based largely or entirely on secondary sources, such as the early printed vocal score and defective 19th-century manuscript copies of the full score. For the Covent Garden performances, with José Carreras
José Carreras
as Stiffelio, Philip Gossett made preliminary corrections of the vocal parts only, based on the newly recovered autograph materials.[7]

Although vocal scores were known, the discovery of a copyist's score at the Naples Conservatory in the 1960s led to a successful revival at the Teatro Regio in Parma in 1968.[9][12] A new performing edition, prepared for Bärenreiter from microfilm of the Naples copyist's score, was obtained in order to restore the composer's intentions as far as possible. This was the basis of performances at Naples and Cologne, but it cut material (especially from the act 1 overture and choruses) and it added in sections from Aroldo, which were not in the original score. This became the source of the UK premiere in an English language production given by University College Opera
Opera
(then the Music Society) in London in 1973.[13] [14] Given that even the original premiere of the work was in a version partly cut by the censors, this production was probably one of the first ever close-to- authentic performances of the work.[13] The American stage premiere was given by Vincent La Selva and the New York Grand Opera
Opera
on 4 June 1976 at the Brooklyn Academy of Music
Brooklyn Academy of Music
with Richard Taylor as Stiffelio
Stiffelio
and Norma French as Lina.[15][16] The opera was also given by Sarah Caldwell and the Opera
Opera
Company of Boston on 17 February 1978.[14][17][18]

The Stiffelio
Stiffelio
autograph found; The Met presents the "new" Stiffelio; the critical edition prepared

Scene from act 2 of Stiffelio: the confrontation with Raffaele.

In his book, Divas and Scholars, Philip Gossett, the General Editor of the critical editions of the Verdi operas published by the University of Chicago, tells the story of how "to [his] immense joy" the original Verdi materials came to be seen by him in February 1992 when the Carrara Verdi family allowed access to the autograph and to copies of about 60 pages of supplementary sketches.[19] Some aspects of the original Verdi edition were able to be shared with Edward Downes
Edward Downes
for his 1993 staging in London, but these included only the vocal elements and none of the orchestral fabric, for which Downes' edition relied entirely on a 19th-century copy.[7] The first complete performance of the new score was given on 21 October 1993 at the Metropolitan Opera
Opera
house in New York.[20][21] The production was repeated 16 more times between October 1993 and 1998, at which time a DVD with Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo
in the title role was released.[22] In 1985–1986 the Teatro La Fenice
Teatro La Fenice
in Venice mounted back-to-back productions of Aroldo
Aroldo
and Stiffelio
Stiffelio
(the latter in a version similar to that described above) in conjunction with an international scholarly conference which was held in that city in December 1985.[9][23] The 1993 Met production was revived in 2010 with José Cura
José Cura
in the title role and conducted by Domingo.[24][25] The new critical edition has also been performed at La Scala
La Scala
and in Los Angeles.[7] The Sarasota Opera
Opera
presented Stiffelio
Stiffelio
in 2005 as part of its "Verdi Cycle" of all of the composer's operas.[26][27] The opera was given in a concert version in London by the Chelsea Opera
Opera
Group on 8 June 2014 with the role of Lina being sung by Nelly Miricioiu.[28] The Berlin premiere of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
was conducted by Felix Krieger with Berliner Operngruppe on February 1st 2017 at Konzerthaus Berlin. New productions of the opera were presented by Frankfurt Opera
Opera
and La Fenice, Venice in 2016 and by Teatro Regio di Parma
Teatro Regio di Parma
in 2017.[29] Roles[edit]

Gaetano Fraschini, the first Stiffelio

Role Voice type Premiere Cast, 16 November 1850[30] (Conductor: -)

Stiffelio, a Protestant minister tenor Gaetano Fraschini

Lina, his wife soprano Marietta Gazzaniga

Count Stankar, her father, an elderly colonel baritone Filippo Colini

Raffaele, Lina's lover tenor Ranieri Dei

Jorg, an elderly minister bass Francesco Reduzzi

Dorotea, Lina's cousin mezzo-soprano Viezzoli De Silvestrini

Federico, Dorotea's lover tenor Giovanni Petrovich

Synopsis[edit]

Place: Count Stankar's castle by the River Salzbach, Germany Time: Early 19th Century

Act 1[edit] Scene 1: A hall in Count Stankar's castle Stiffelio, a Protestant priest or minister, is expected to return from a mission. His wife Lina, her father Stankar, and her cousins Dorotea and Federico are waiting for him. In addition, there is Raffaele who, unknown to all, is Lina's lover. Stiffelio
Stiffelio
arrives and recounts how the castle's boatman has told him the strange story of having seen a man and a woman escaping from a castle window and, as they did so, dropping a packet of letters, which Stiffelio
Stiffelio
now holds. Refusing to learn by opening the package who was involved, he throws the letters into the fire, much to the relief of Lina and Raffaele. Secretly, Raffaele communicates to Lina that he will leave instructions as where they may next meet inside a locked volume in the library. After he has been greeted by friends, Lina and Stiffelio
Stiffelio
are left alone (Non ha per me un accento – "She has no word for me, not a glance"). He tells her of the sin he has witnessed (Vidi dovunque gemere – "Everywhere I saw virtue groan beneath the oppressor's yoke") and then notices that her wedding ring is not on her finger. Angrily, he demands to know why (Ah v'appare in fronte scritto – "Ah, clearly written on your brow is the shame that wages war in your heart"), but Stankar arrives to escort him to the celebrations being arranged by his friends. Alone, Lina is filled with remorse (A te ascenda, O Dio clemente – "Let my sighs and tears ascend to thee, O merciful God"). Scene 2: The same, later Deciding to write a confession to Stiffelio, Lina begins to write, but her father enters and grabs the letter, which he reads aloud. Stankar rebukes her (Dite che il fallo a tergere – "Tell him that your heart lacks the strength to wash away your sins", but is determined to preserve family honor and cover up his daughter's behavior (Ed io pure in faccia agli uomini – "So before the face of mankind I must stifle my anger"). In their duet, father and daughter come to some resolve (O meco venite – "Come now with me; tears are of no consequence") and they leave. Now Raffaele enters to place the note in the volume, which has been agreed to. Jorg, the elderly preacher, observes this just as Federico arrives to take the volume away. Jorg's suspicions fall upon Federico and he shares what he knows with Stiffelio. Seeing the volume and realizing that it is locked, he is told that Lina has a key. She is summoned, but when she refuses to unlock it, Stiffelio
Stiffelio
grabs it and breaks it open. The incriminating letter falls out, but it is quickly taken up by Stankar and torn into many pieces, much to the fury of Stiffelio. Act 2[edit] A graveyard near the castle

Francesco Maria Piave,librettist of the opera

Lina has gone to her mother's grave at the cemetery to pray (Ah dagli scanni eterei – "Ah, from among the ethereal thrones, where, blessed, you take your seat"), but Raffaele joins her. She immediately asks him to leave. He laments her rejection (Lina, Lina! Perder dunque voi volete – "Lina, then you wish to destroy this unhappy, betrayed wretch") and refuses to go (Io resto – "I stay"). Stankar arrives, demands that his daughter leave, and then challenges Raffaele to a duel. Stiffelio
Stiffelio
arrives, and announces that no fighting can take place in a cemetery. There is an attempt at conciliation whereby the priest takes Stankar's hand and then Raffaele's, joining them together. However, Stankar reveals that Stiffelio
Stiffelio
has touched the hand of the man who betrayed him! Not quite understanding at first, Stiffelio demands that the mystery be solved. As Lina returns demanding her husband's forgiveness, Stiffelio
Stiffelio
begins to comprehend the situation (Ah, no! E impossibile – "It cannot be! Tell me at least that it is a lie"). Demanding an explanation, he challenges Raffaele to fight but, as he is about to strike the younger man, Jorg arrives to summon the priest to the church from which the sound of the waiting congregation can be heard. Filled with conflicting emotions, Stiffelio drops his sword, asks God to inspire his speech to his parishioners, but, at the same time, curses his wife. Act 3[edit] Scene 1: A room in Count Stankar's Castle Alone in his room, Stankar reads a letter which tells him that Raffaele has fled and that he seeks to have Lina join him. He is in despair over his daughter's behaviour (Lina pensai che un angelo in te mi desse il cielo – "Lina, I thought that in you an angel brought me heavenly bliss"). For a moment, he resolves to commit suicide and begins to write a letter to Stiffelio. But Jorg enters to give him the news that he has tracked down Raffaele who will be returning to the castle. Stankar rejoices (O gioia inesprimibile, che questo core inondi! – "Oh, the inexpressible joy that floods this heart of mine!"), as he sees revenge being within reach. He leaves. Stiffelio
Stiffelio
confronts Raffaele and asks him what he would do if Lina were free, offering him a choice between "a guilty freedom" and "the future of the woman you have destroyed". The younger man does not respond, and the priest tells him to listen to his encounter with Lina from the other room. Stiffelio
Stiffelio
lays out the reason that their marriage can be annulled (Opposto è il calle che in avvenire – "Opposite are the paths that in future our lives will follow"). Lina's reaction, when presented with the divorce decree, is to swear an ongoing love for her husband ("I will die for love of you"). Appealing to Stiffelio more as a priest than as a husband, Lina confesses that she has always loved him and she still does. Stankar enters to announce that he has killed Raffaele. Jorg tries to convince Stiffelio
Stiffelio
to come to the church service (Ah sì, voliamo al tempio – "Ah, yes, let us flee to the church"). Scene 2: A church In the church, Stiffelio
Stiffelio
mounts the pulpit and opens the Bible
Bible
to the story of the adulterous woman (John 7:53–8:11). As he reads the words of forgiveness (perdonata) he looks at Lina and it is clear that she too is forgiven. Instrumentation[edit] Stiffelio
Stiffelio
is scored for the following instruments:[7]

1 flute (doubling on piccolo), 2 oboes (one doubling on English horn), 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, cimbasso, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, organ, strings (violin I and II, viola, cello, double bass)

Music[edit] Reviews following the premiere were rather mixed, although Budden seems to suggest that there were more unfavorable ones than the reverse.[31] However, one contemporary critic, writing in the Gazzetta Musicale states:

This is a work at once religious and philosophical, in which sweet and tender melodies follow one another in the most attractive manner, and which achieves...the most moving dramatic effects without having recourse to bands on the stage, choruses or superhuman demands on vocal cords or lungs.[32]

When addressing the music of this opera, several writers refer to its unusual features and the ways by which it suggests directions in which the composer is moving and as seen in later operas. For example, when comparing both versions, Osborne states that act 1, scene 2 of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
"is almost Otello-like in its force and intensity, while Kimball states directly that "Verdi's music, in keeping with the dramatic theme, is as boldly unconventional as anything he had composed"[33] and he continues, in referring to the Bible
Bible
reading scene in the finale, that it:

marks the most radical break with the stylistic conventions of the day: its single lyrical phrase, the climactic 'Perdonata! Iddio lo pronunziò', stands out electricfyingly from an austere context of recitative intonation and quietly reiterated instrumental ostinati.[33]

Osborne agrees when he describes the narrative and musical action moving in tandem in the last act:

Stiffelio
Stiffelio
preaches the gospel story of the woman taken in adultery, which he narrates in recitative. When he is suddenly moved to forgive Lina, his voice rises from the narrative chant to his top A on "Perdonata". The congregation echoes him, Lina ecstatically thanks God with her top C, and the curtain falls".[34]

Gabriele Baldini's The Story of Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
deals with Stiffelio and Aroldo
Aroldo
together, so the former gets rather limited mention. But in regard to the music, he makes a point about how:

the act 1 soprano and baritone duet [O meco venite / "Come now with me; tears are of no consequence"] for example, contains the germ of several ideas which later expand the Rigoletto
Rigoletto
quartet. The dark instrumental introduction and broad, passionate arioso which opens act 2, finding the woman alone in an 'ancient cemetery', constitute a sort of dress rehearsal for the beginning of Un ballo in maschera's second act and the final scene of La forza del destino: it is no accident that, musically speaking, these are the best sections of both operas.[35]

Recordings[edit]

Year Cast (Stiffelio, Lina, Stankar, Jorg) Conductor, Opera
Opera
House and Orchestra Label[36]

1968 Gastone Limarilli, Angeles Gulin, Walter Alberti, Beniamino Prior Peter Maag, Teatro Regio di Parma
Teatro Regio di Parma
orchestra and chorus Audio CD: Melodram Milano Cat: CDM 27033

1979 José Carreras, Sylvia Sass, Matteo Manuguerra, Wladimiro Ganzarolli Lamberto Gardelli, ORF Symphony orchestra and chorus Audio CD: Decca Cat: 475 6775

1993 José Carreras, Catherine Malfitano, Gregory Yurisich, Gwynne Howell Edward Downes, Royal Opera
Opera
House orchestra and chorus DVD: Kultur Cat: D1497

1993 Plácido Domingo, Sharon Sweet, Vladimir Chernov, Paul Plishka James Levine, Metropolitan Opera
Opera
orchestra and chorus DVD: Deutsche Grammophon Cat: 00440 073 4288

2001 Mario Malagnini, Dimitra Theodossiou, Marco Vratogna, Enzo Capuano Nicola Luisotti, Orchestra and Chorus of Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, Trieste Audio CD: Dynamic Cat: CDS362

2012 Roberto Aronica, Yu Guanqun, Roberto Frontali, George Andguladze Andrea Battistoni, Teatro Regio di Parma
Teatro Regio di Parma
orchestra and chorus DVD:C Major Cat:723104[37]

References[edit] Notes

^ a b Philips-Matz, p. 256 ^ a b c d e f Budden, pp. 449 – 453 ^ Verdi to Piave, 8 May 1850, in Budden, p. 450 – 451 ^ Parker, pp. 542 – 543 ^ Budden, "Aroldo: an opera remade", in the booklet accompanying the audio CD recording ^ Gossett, pp. 134 – 135: He defines a critical edition as a work which "looks at the best texts that modern scholarship, musicianship, and editorial technique can produce" [.....] but "they do not return blindly to one 'original' source, [they] reconstruct the circumstances under which an opera was written, the interaction of the composer and librettist, the effect of imposed censorship, the elements that entered into the performance, the steps that led to publication, and the role the composer played in the subsequent history of the work." ^ a b c d e f g Hansell, "Introduction" to the Critical Edition, University of Chicago ^ In Gossett: He describes it as "the manuscript of an opera primarily or entirely in the hand of the composer", p. 606 ^ a b c Lawton, David, " Stiffelio
Stiffelio
and Aroldo", Opera
Opera
Quarterly 5 (23): 193, 1987. ^ Gossett, Philip (2008). "New sources for Stiffelio: A preliminary report", Cambridge Opera
Opera
Journal, 5:3, pp. 199–222. ^ Verdi to Ricordi, 5 January 1851, in Budden, p. 453 ^ "Metropolitan Opera
Opera
Broadcast: Stiffelio
Stiffelio
Broadcast of January 30" in Opera
Opera
News, 74:8 (February 2010). Accessed 7 February 2010. ^ a b Performance programme, 14 February 1973, University College, London. ^ a b David Kimball, in Holden, p. 990 ^ Ericson, Raymond, "Music: Verdi's 'Stiffelio'. La Selva leads New York Grand Opera
Opera
in intimate revival in Brooklyn" The New York Times, 6 June 1976. (Registration and purchase required) Accessed 28 January 2010. ^ NYGO's web site. Archived December 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kessler, p. 236 ^ Caldwell & Matlock, pp. 5, 226 ^ Gossett, pp. 162 – 163 ^ Rothestein, Edward (October 23, 1993). "Review/Opera; New to the Met: Verdi's 'Stiffelio,' From 1850". The New York Times.  ^ Performance of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
on 21 October 1993 at the Met Opera Archive. Accessed 28 January 2010. ^ Performances of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
conducted by James Levine
James Levine
on the Met Opera Archive. Accessed 28 January 2010. ^ The proceedings of the international congress have been published in Italy, edited by Giovanni Morelli under the title Tornando a Stiffelio: popolarita, rifadimenti, messinscena e altre, 'cure' nella drammaturgia del Verdi romantico, (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1987). ^ Metropolitan Opera
Opera
Playbill, 23 January 2010 ^ Tommasini, Anthony "Music Review. 'Stiffelio': A Wife’s Betrayal, a Husband’s Internal Seething", The New York Times, 12 January 2010. Accessed 28 January 2010. ^ A video clip from the production can be seen on You-Tube ^ "Verdi Cycle – Sarasota Opera" at sarasotaopera.org ^ Colin Clarke, "Chelsea Opera
Opera
Group’s Excellent Revival of Rare Verdi", 14 June 2014, on seenandheard-international.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014 ^ "Stiffelio". Operabase. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ List of singers taken from Budden, p. 448. ^ Budden, p. 453 ^ Gazzetta Musicale, 4 December 1850, in Osborne, p. 214 ^ a b Kimbell, in Holden, p. 990 ^ Osborne, p. 222 ^ Baldini, pp. 242 – 243 ^ Recordings on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk ^ "Stifellio". Naxos.com. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 

Cited sources

Baldini, Gabriele (1970), (trans. Roger Parker, 1980), The Story of Giuseppe Verdi: Oberto to Un Ballo in Maschera. Cambridge, et al: Cambridge University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-521-29712-5 Budden, Julian (1984), The Operas of Verdi, Volume 1: From Oberto to Rigoletto. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-31058-1. Caldwell, Sarah & Rebecca Matlock (2008), Challenges: A Memoir of My Life in Opera, Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6885-4. Gossett, Philip (2006), Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera, Chicago: University of Chicago. ISBN 978-0-226-30482-3 ISBN 0-226-30482-5 Hansell, Kathleen Kuzmick (2003), "Introduction to the Critical Edition of Stiffelio, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press and Milan: Casa Ricordi. Kessler, Daniel (2008). Sarah Caldwell; The First Woman of Opera, p. 236. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-6110-0 Kimbell, David, in Holden, Amanda (Ed.) (2001), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029312-4 Osborne, Charles (1969), The Complete Opera
Opera
of Verdi, New York: Da Capo Press, Inc. ISBN 0-306-80072-1 Parker, Roger, "'Stiffelio" in Stanley Sadie, (Ed.) (2008), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Vol. Four. London: MacMillan Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 ISBN 1-56159-228-5

Other sources

Chusid, Martin, (Ed.) (1997), Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849 to 1859, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-10658-6 ISBN 0-226-10659-4 De Van, Gilles (trans. Gilda Roberts) (1998), Verdi’s Theater: Creating Drama Through Music. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14369-4 (hardback), ISBN 0-226-14370-8 Martin, George, Verdi: His Music, Life and Times (1983), New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. ISBN 0-396-08196-7 Parker, Roger (2007), The New Grove Guide to Verdi and His Operas, Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531314-7 Pistone, Danièle (1995), Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera: From Rossini to Puccini, Portland, OR: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-82-9 Phillips-Matz, Mary Jane (1993), Verdi: A Biography, London & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-313204-4 Toye, Francis (1931), Giuseppe Verdi: His Life and Works, New York: Knopf Walker, Frank, The Man Verdi (1982), New York: Knopf, 1962, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-87132-0 Warrack, John; West, Ewan (1992), The Oxford Dictionary of Opera
Opera
New York: OUP. ISBN 0-19-869164-5 Werfel, Franz and Stefan, Paul (1973), Verdi: The Man and His Letters, New York, Vienna House. ISBN 0-8443-0088-8

External links[edit] Media related to Stiffelio
Stiffelio
at Wikimedia Commons

List of performances of Stiffelio
Stiffelio
on Operabase. Verdi: "The story" and "History" on giuseppeverdi.it (in English) Italian libretto from giuseppeverdi.it

v t e

Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Opera
Opera
Production

1993-2000

Stiffelio
Stiffelio
- Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(1993) La damnation de Faust
La damnation de Faust
- Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(1994) Khovanshchina
Khovanshchina
- English National Opera
Opera
(1995) Billy Budd - Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(1996) Tristan und Isolde
Tristan und Isolde
- English National Opera
Opera
(1997) Paul Bunyan - Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(1998) La clemenza di Tito
La clemenza di Tito
- Welsh National Opera
Opera
(1999) Hansel and Gretel - Welsh National Opera
Opera
(2000)

2001-present

The Greek Passion - Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2001) Boulevard Solitude
Boulevard Solitude
- Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2002) Wozzeck
Wozzeck
- Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2003) The Trojans: Parts I and II - English National Opera
Opera
(2004) Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District - Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2005) Madama Butterfly
Madama Butterfly
- English National Opera
Opera
(2006) Jenufa - English National Opera
Opera
(2007) Pelléas and Mélisande - Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2008) Partenope
Partenope
- English National Opera
Opera
(2009) Tristan und Isolde
Tristan und Isolde
- Royal Opera, London
Royal Opera, London
(2010) Bohème - Soho Theatre
Soho Theatre
(2011) Castor and Pollux - Coliseum Theatre (2012) Einstein on the Beach
Einstein on the Beach
- Barbican Theatre (2013) Les vêpres siciliennes
Les vêpres siciliennes
- The Royal Opera
Opera
(2014) The Mastersingers of Nuremberg - English National Opera
Opera
(2015) Cavalleria rusticana
Cavalleria rusticana
/ Pagliacci
Pagliacci
- The Royal Opera
Opera
(2016) Akhnaten - English National Opera
Opera
(2017)

v t e

Giuseppe Verdi

Operas

Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio (1839) Un giorno di regno
Un giorno di regno
(1840) Nabucco
Nabucco
(1842) I Lombardi alla prima crociata
I Lombardi alla prima crociata
(1843) Ernani
Ernani
(1844) I due Foscari
I due Foscari
(1844) Giovanna d'Arco
Giovanna d'Arco
(1845) Alzira (1845) Attila (1846) Macbeth (1847/65) I masnadieri
I masnadieri
(1847) Jérusalem
Jérusalem
(1847) Il corsaro
Il corsaro
(1848) La battaglia di Legnano
La battaglia di Legnano
(1849) Luisa Miller
Luisa Miller
(1849) Stiffelio
Stiffelio
(1850) Rigoletto
Rigoletto
(1851) Il trovatore
Il trovatore
(1853) La traviata
La traviata
(1853) Les vêpres siciliennes
Les vêpres siciliennes
(June 1855) I vespri siciliani
I vespri siciliani
(December 1855) Simon Boccanegra
Simon Boccanegra
(1857/81) Aroldo
Aroldo
(1857) Un ballo in maschera
Un ballo in maschera
(1859) La forza del destino
La forza del destino
(1862/69) Don Carlos
Don Carlos
(1867/84) Aida
Aida
(1871) Otello
Otello
(1887) Falstaff (1893)

Opera
Opera
excerpts

"Anvil Chorus" "Bella figlia dell’amore" "Celeste Aida" "Di quella pira" "La donna è mobile" "Libiamo ne' lieti calici" "Un dì, felice, eterea" "Va, pensiero"

Opera
Opera
discographies

Aida Don Carlos Falstaff La forza del destino Macbeth Otello Rigoletto Il trovatore La traviata Un ballo in maschera

Other compositions

Suona la tromba
Suona la tromba
(1848) Inno delle nazioni
Inno delle nazioni
(1862) String Quartet in E minor (1873) Messa da Requiem (1874) Quattro pezzi sacri
Quattro pezzi sacri
(1889–1897)

Recognitions

Memorials to Giuseppe Verdi Theatres named after Verdi (Brindisi - Busseto - Florence - Trieste) Milan Conservatory Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
Monument Orchestra Sinfonica di Milano Giuseppe Verdi Verdi (crater) Verdi Inlet Verdi Range 3975 Verdi Verdi, California Verdi, Kansas Verdi, Nevada

Cultural depictions

Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
(1938 film) Verdi, the King of Melody
Verdi, the King of Melody
(1953 film) The Life of Verdi (1982 miniseries) After Aida
Aida
(1985 play) Risorgimento! (2011 opera)

Film adaptations

Otello
Otello
(1906) Aida
Aida
(1953) La Traviata (1983) Otello
Otello
(1986) Macbeth (1987) Aida
Aida
(1987) Giuseppe Verdi's Rigoletto
Rigoletto
Story (2005)

Related articles

Casa di Riposo per Musicisti Verdi Transcriptions (Finnissy) Villa Verdi

List of compositions by Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
Category:Giuseppe Verdi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 179384820 LCCN: n80159164 GND: 300211333 SELIBR: 215845 BNF:

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